nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒04‒02
35 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Quality of higher education and earnings: Regression discontinuity evidence from the French Baccalaureate By Canaan, Serena; Mouganie, Pierre
  2. The Returns to Schooling in Rural China: Evidence from the Cultural Revolution Education Expansion By Terry Sicular; Juan Yang
  3. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, Disruptions to Education, and the Returns to Schooling in Urban China By Giles, John T.; Park, Albert; Wang, Meiyan
  4. Flourish or Fail? The Risky Reward of Elite High School Admission in Mexico City By Andrew Dustan; Alain De janvry; Elisabeth Sadoulet
  5. The Welfare Effects of Coordinated Assignment: Evidence from the NYC HS Match By Atila Abdulkadiroğlu; Nikhil Agarwal; Parag A. Pathak
  6. Measuring Teaching Quality in Higher Education : Assessing the Problem of Selection Bias in Course Evaluations By Anna Salomons; Maarten Goos
  7. The Effect of Community Traumatic Events on Student Achievement: Evidence from the Beltway Sniper Attacks By Seth Gershenson; Erdal Tekin
  8. Satisfaction Versus Motivation in EFL Teaching Environment: a case private university By Lokman Coskun
  9. Evaluation of the Quality, Efficiency Problems and Prospects of Online Education in Russia and Abroad By Malinin, Nikolay
  10. The Impact of Different Types of External Lecturers in Higher Education on Student Learning Outcomes By Jure Erjavec
  11. Co-Teaching in the Age of Accountability: Secondary Student Teachers' and Mentor Teachers' Co-Teaching Experience By Jane Wilburne; Denise Meister
  12. Analyzing educational achievement differences between second-generation immigrants: Comparing Germany and German-speaking Switzerland By Johannes S. Kunz
  13. Academic Achievements: Grades versus Duration By Brugiavini, Agar; Carraro, Carlo; Kovacic, Matija
  14. Learning to Take Risks? The Effect of Education on Risk-Taking in Financial Markets By Sandra E. Black; Paul J. Devereux; Petter Lundborg; Kaveh Majlesi
  15. Improving the Performance of English Language-Learners: A Teaching Innovation Project at University Level. By Melania Terrazas Gallego; Javier Martín Arista
  16. Smart Applications as Supporting Educational Tool By Ajayeb Abu Daabes
  17. Electrification and Educational Outcomes in Rural Peru By Dasso, Rosamaría; Fernandez, Fernando; Nopo, Hugo
  18. Conscription and the returns to education: Evidence from a regression discontinuity By mouganie, pierre
  19. Forms of implementation of school-family collaboration in pre-university educational institutions By Nazyktere Hasani; Ernesa Hasani
  20. Designing of Middle-Term Prognosis of Pre-School Education Development By Belyakov, Sergey
  21. QUALITY OF EDUCATION, DIGNITY, AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT - PEJA CASE By Sejdi Rexhepi; Argjenita Shatri; Leutrim Rexhepi; Blerina Alimehaj
  22. The financing of education in European Union in the era of economic crisis. The case study of Greek Higher Education By Maria Fragiskou; Epameinondas Paplomatas
  23. Student Loans and Repayment: Theory, Evidence and Policy By Lance Lochner; Alexander Monge-Naranjo
  24. The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education in High School on Long-Term Entrepreneurial Performance By Elert, Niklas; Andersson, Fredrik; Wennberg, Karl
  25. Higher Education and Sustainable Development By Elijah Okpanachi; Israel Akoh; Mercy Ocheni
  26. Students' emotional bargaining in higher education: a case study of staff views By Brendan Bartram
  27. Body Weight and Academic Performance: Gender and Peer Effects By BARONE, Adriana; NESE, Annamaria
  28. Analyzing the dynamics of school dropout in upper secondary education in Latin America : a cohort approach By Bentaouet Kattan,Raja; Székely,Miguel
  29. University Competition and Transnational Education: The Choice of Branch Campus By Joanna Poyago-Theotoky; Alessandro Tampieri
  30. Assesing the Impact of School Subsidies in Bolivia: A Reduced Form Non-Parametric Approach By Werner L. Hernani-Limarino
  31. Educational Attainment and Labor Market Performance: An Analysis of Immigrants in France By Akgüc, Mehtap; Ferrer, Ana
  32. Short Term Health Shocks and School Attendance: The Case of a Dengue Fever Outbreak in Colombia By Kai Barron; Luis Fernando Gamboa; Paul Rodriguez-Lesmes
  33. Development students' communicative competence in teaching Russian as a foreign language in the higher educational establishments of Turkey By Daria Lagutina Sariyildiz
  34. Methodological Approach in Teaching German Language in lower and higher secondary schools in Kosova By Kimete Canaj
  35. Anti-Corruption Policy in Education By Botnev, Vladimir; Gorlanov, Gennadiy; Illarionova, Tatiana; Kirichenko, Alexander; Koroteeva, Oxana; Nasriddinov, Temur

  1. By: Canaan, Serena; Mouganie, Pierre
    Abstract: An emerging body of literature examines the economic returns to quality of postsecondary education. This literature has predominantly focused on the returns to the most selective universities. However, less is known about the extent to which these gains are realized for the academically marginal student who does not necessarily attend the most selective of institutions. In this paper, we address this question by exploiting the presence of the Baccalaur\'{e}at G\'{e}n\'{e}ral (or the General Baccalaureate), a degree that students in France must earn to graduate from secondary school and enroll in postsecondary institutions. The degree is awarded upon passing a series of national exams. Students can retake the exam in the same year but the standards for passing are higher in the first round. Our data links individual-level information on secondary and postsecondary education to labor market outcomes, allowing us to track the complete educational and professional paths of all students in our sample. We use a regression discontinuity design that compares the outcomes of students who marginally pass and fail the first round of the French Baccalaureate exam. Marginally passing increases the likelihood of attending a higher quality university and a STEM major. Threshold crossing also raises earnings by 13.6 percent at the age of 27 to 29. After ruling out other channels that could affect earnings, we conclude that increased access to higher quality postsecondary education leads to a significant earnings premium for academically marginal students.
    Keywords: Quality of education, returns to education, regression discontinuity design
    JEL: H52 I21 I23 J24
    Date: 2014–10–10
  2. By: Terry Sicular (University of Western Ontario); Juan Yang (Beijing Normal University)
    Abstract: During the Cultural Revolution China embarked on a remarkable, albeit temporary, expansion of post-primary education in rural areas. This education expansion affected tens of millions of children who reached secondary school age in the late 1960s and 1970s. Exploiting the education expansion and variation across birth cohorts, we estimate the returns to schooling in rural China using household survey data from the mid-1990s. Our estimated returns of 11 to 20 percent are substantially higher than most previous estimates. We calculate the impact of the education expansion on subsequent labor market outcomes of the affected cohorts and find that they enjoyed significantly higher earnings than pre- and post-expansion cohorts. ;eywords: Education Expansion; Secondary Education; Returns to Schooling; Rural China; Cultural Revolution
    JEL: I21 I28 J24 J31 O15
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Giles, John T. (World Bank); Park, Albert (Hong Kong University of Science & Technology); Wang, Meiyan (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on educational disruptions caused by the Cultural Revolution and identifies the returns to schooling in urban China by exploiting individual-level variation in the effects of city-wide disruptions to education. The return to college is estimated at 49.8% using a conventional Mincer-type specification and averages 37.1% using supply shocks as instruments and controlling for proxies for ability and school quality, suggesting that high-ability students select into higher education. Additional tests show that the results are unlikely to be driven by sample selection bias associated with migration or alternative pathways through which the Cultural Revolution influenced adult productivity.
    Keywords: returns to schooling, wages, education, China
    JEL: I20 J24 J30 O15 O53
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Andrew Dustan (Vanderbilt University); Alain De janvry (University of California at Berkeley); Elisabeth Sadoulet (University of California at Berkeley)
    Abstract: Winning admission to an elite school both promises modest rewards and imposes substantial risks on many students. Using variation in school assignment generated by the allocation mechanism, we find that admission to a system of elite public high schools in Mexico City raises end-of-high school test scores by an average of 0.17 standard deviations for the marginal admittee. On the other hand, for these students admission increases the probability of high school dropout by 9.5 percentage points. Students with weaker middle school grades and whose commute is lengthened by admission experience a larger rise in dropout probability, suggesting that the additional dropout risk is a result of both higher academic rigor and greater opportunity costs of attendance.
    Keywords: Elite schools, Academic achievement, School dropout
    JEL: O1 I2
    Date: 2015–03–22
  5. By: Atila Abdulkadiroğlu; Nikhil Agarwal; Parag A. Pathak
    Abstract: Centralized and coordinated school assignment systems are a growing part of recent education reforms. This paper estimates school demand using rank order lists submitted in New York City's high school assignment system launched in Fall 2003 to study the effects of coordinating admissions in a single-offer mechanism based on the deferred acceptance algorithm. In the previous mechanism, students were allowed to rank five choices and admissions offers were not coordinated across schools. While 18% of students obtained multiple first round offers, the mechanism's uncoordinated offers led more than a third of students to be unassigned after the main round and ultimately administratively assigned. Under the new mechanism, there is a 7.2 percentage point increase in matriculation at assigned school and students are assigned to schools that are on average 0.69 miles further from home. Even though students prefer nearby schools, our estimates suggest substantial heterogeneity in willingness to travel for school. The new mechanism generates higher utility on average and across numerous subgroups of students compared to either a neighborhood school alternative or the previous uncoordinated mechanism. Across a range of estimates, we find that the average student's welfare gain from coordinating assignment is substantially more than the disutility from increased travel. These gains are significantly larger than those from relaxing mechanism design constraints within the coordinated system. Preference heterogeneity implies that choice is far from zero-sum and coordinating admissions offers across schools increases allocative efficiency.
    JEL: C78 D50 D61 I21
    Date: 2015–03
  6. By: Anna Salomons; Maarten Goos
    Abstract: Student evaluations of teaching are widely used to measure teaching quality and compare it across different courses, teachers, departments and institutions: as such, they are of increasing importance for teacher promotion decisions as well as student course selection. However, the response on course evaluations is rarely perfect, rendering such uses unwarranted if students who participate in the evaluation are not randomly selected: this paper is the first to investigate this issue. We quantify the direction and size of selection on both observable and unobservable characteristics for a large European university where course evaluation response rates differ across courses. Our results suggest course evaluations are upward biased, and that this bias mostly derives from selection on characteristics unlikely to be observed by the typical university administrator. Correcting for selection bias has sizable effects on both scores in any given course and the evaluation-based ranking of different courses.
    Keywords: Educational economics, Student evaluations of teaching, Education quality, Sample selection
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Seth Gershenson; Erdal Tekin
    Abstract: Community traumatic events such as mass shootings, terrorist attacks, and natural or man-made disasters have the potential to disrupt student learning in numerous ways. For example, these events can reduce instructional time by causing teacher and student absences, school closures, and disturbances to usual classroom routines. Similarly, they might also disrupt home environments. This paper uses a quasi-experimental research design to identify the effects of the 2002 “Beltway Sniper” attacks on student achievement in Virginia’s public schools. In order to identify the causal impact of these events, the empirical analysis uses a difference-in-differences strategy that exploits geographic variation in schools’ proximity to the attacks. The main results indicate that the attacks significantly reduced school-level proficiency rates in schools within five miles of an attack. Evidence of a causal effect is most robust for third grade reading and third and fifth grade math proficiency, suggesting that the shootings caused a decline in school proficiency rates of about five to nine percentage points. Particularly concerning from an equity standpoint, these effects appear to be entirely driven by achievement declines in schools that serve higher proportions of racial minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Finally, results from supplementary analyses suggest that these deleterious effects faded out in subsequent years.
    JEL: I12 I21 I24 K42
    Date: 2015–03
  8. By: Lokman Coskun (Hëna e Plotë Bedër University)
    Abstract: Student satisfaction is considered an important factor in terms of quality in competitive educational arena and education is taking a vital role in national development. Further, private education is thriving and improving service quality becomes competitive in educational environment, for there is an increasing interest and up to date standard service in respect of universities which are both necessarily required and expected from respective students.This survey attempted to investigate the essential factors on student satisfaction. A combination of qualitative and quantitative approach was employed in this study. In the context of active learning environment, this study can be utilized to assess and measure perceived university satisfaction to acquire and validate an instrument. The objectives of the survey were to identify student expectations from the university for their future success, to clarify the importance of educational environment on student satisfaction, to identify the better environment which fosters success and also to identify which facilities are available to give students the ground to support in their study and which are not available currently. In this study, the questionnaire was done for measuring the student satisfaction on university considering six-factors to acquire students’ responses and identifying their approaches with respect to studying in higher education. The main aim is to identify and evaluate those factors which affect student satisfaction in private university environment. During study, a questionnaire was given to students around 500, A 342 return was received. The questionnaire was done in two sections separately in order to compare student views about university in general and in particular accordingly. This study revealed that satisfaction model of education gives a ground to student-centered learning that causes effective teaching/learning, improves communication skills, and supportive learning environment. Institutional evaluation seems indispensable in the competitive educational environmentThe results demonstrated that students give more importance to academic staff, teaching, and relationships apart from technology, administration, and campus facilities. The results require that private educational institutions should take into consideration these 6 factors while allocating their resources for satisfying student expectation as well as competing with the challenging educational world.
    Keywords: private education, student satisfaction/expectation/motivation, service quality, university administration, competitive, educational environment
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2014–05
  9. By: Malinin, Nikolay (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The paper presents an analysis of the basic models of distance education, types of organizational structures and technologies of online education, identifies key areas relevant to the development of modern distance education. Conceptual bases defined distance education system, current problems and risks. Effective operation of online education in the modern university is seen as the interaction of three subjects of education: students, teachers and university e-learning systems. In this regard, the role of university teachers is defined as the conductor of informatization processes in the modern university, considered factors of readiness of teachers to use ICT in their professional activities and the requirements for their preparation on the basis of the UNESCO Recommendation. The possibilities of implementing federal state educational standards of the new generation, that is competency-based training model and the implementation of key competencies of educational resources online education. On the basis of the federal state standards of higher professional education (HPE GEF) justified approaches to the development of those parts of educational programs that will be required to ensure the formation of information and communication competence of future bachelors and masters in accordance with their profile and characteristics of future professional activity. Investigates the theoretical basis for the organization of the information educational environment of the university, highlighted the basic principles of e-learning environment of the university, in which the process should be organized e-learning in the modern university. A separate chapter is devoted to the existing approaches to assessing the quality of educational services. Based on the study of international systems and evaluation of education quality management system evaluation criteria identified quality online education in the modern university. The result of this study was to offer its own model quality assessment based on the principles of Quality Matters, well-established in international practice of quality management e-learning.
    Keywords: e-learning, Russia, education, Quality Matters
    Date: 2014–07
  10. By: Jure Erjavec (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics)
    Abstract: Universities often need outside assistance when teaching large classes. This is in the form of teaching assistants coming from the senior or graduate students, and professionals working part time at the university. This study addresses the issue of student outcomes in regard to the type and the number of the lecturers. The study includes 1343 students that attended the same course during three consecutive years. Half of the entire course was taught by different lecturers: undergraduate teaching assistants, graduate teaching assistants, professional experts and internal faculty staff. The student outcomes are measured by different criteria. The results of the research show that there is a statistically significant difference between student outcomes in regard to the number and type of lecturers.
    Keywords: lecturer type, number of lecturers, higher education, cost optimization, independent-samples t-test, one-way ANOVA
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2014–12
  11. By: Jane Wilburne (Penn State Harrisburg); Denise Meister (Penn State Harrisburg)
    Abstract: The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 in the United States mandated standardized testing to measure student achievement. Over time, this act began close scrutiny and criticism of curriculum and instruction. As schools struggled with meeting the mandate, Race to the Top, a $4.35 billion United States Department of Education contest, was created in 2009 to spur innovation and reforms in state and local district K-12 education. States were awarded points for satisfying certain educational policies, such as implementing performance-based standards for teachers and principals, complying with Common Core standards, turning around the lowest-performing schools, and building data systems. In order to apply for this competitive grant, school districts had to demonstrate a systematic evaluation of teachers’ performance through their students’ achievement. This initiative has led to mandated teacher evaluation systems that include one component tying student test scores to teacher performance. With teachers’ yearly evaluations now being tied to student test scores, district administrators are weary of supporting student teachers in their schools. A way to allow teachers to continue to have a teaching presence with a student teacher placement is through co-teaching. This method of instruction allows the mentor teacher to collaborate with the student teacher in various instructional strategies.Committed to making co-teaching an integral part of our clinical practice, our faculty members trained in the co-teaching model and, in turn, trained student teachers, mentor teachers, principals, and college supervisors in the model. We will share the principles of co-teaching and their first efforts at co-teaching Spring 2014. We will explain why we adopted this model and how we formed partnerships with school districts. We will share what we learned, what curriculum changes we made, the assessment instruments we used, and our next steps. Finally, we will share the findings of a research study. This study included three in-depth interviews with six mathematics and social studies student teachers and their mentor teachers to study their perceptions of co-teaching
    Keywords: Co-Teaching, Secondary Education, Clinical Experience
    JEL: I29 I23 I20
    Date: 2014–10
  12. By: Johannes S. Kunz (Department of Economics, University of Zurich)
    Abstract: In this study, I provide evidence that the educational achievement of second-generation immigrants in German-speaking Switzerland is greater than in Germany. The impact of the first-generation immigrants' destination decision on their offspring's educational achievement seems to be much more important than has been recognized by the existing literature. I identify the test score gap between these students that cannot be explained by differences in individual and family characteristics. Moreover, I show how this gap evolves over the test score distribution and how the least favorably-endowed students fare. My results suggest that the educational system of Switzerland, relative to the German system, enhances the performance of immigrants' children substantially. This disparity is largest when conditioning on the language spoken at home, and prevails even when comparing only students whose parents migrated from the same country of origin.
    Keywords: Immigrant comparison, Educational achievement decomposition, Germany and Switzerland
    JEL: I21 I24 J15
    Date: 2014–10
  13. By: Brugiavini, Agar; Carraro, Carlo; Kovacic, Matija
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of academic achievements of post-reform undergraduate students of Ca' Foscari University of Venice. Academic achievements are measured with the students' grade point averages and time to graduation. The set of independent variables contains information on students' personal characteristics, prior academic achievements, family background, academic track at university, and several "peer-group" effects. The novelty of this paper is threefold: i) we use a rich data set obtained by matching the University's administrative data records with the data drawn from the AlmaLaurea questionnaires, ii) we pay particular attention to the effects of academic track regularity on students' performance, and iii) we propose a theoretical model of a trade-o between grades and time to graduation, and test empirically its validity by taking into account the problem of reciprocal causation between grades and time to graduation. The model suggests that grades and time to graduation are inversely related. While there is an unambiguous effect of students' ability and financial condition on grades, these effects are less straightforward in the case of time to graduation. The sign and the magnitude of the effects of ability and financial condition on time to graduation depends on students' academic track regularity. Moreover, the relative importance of grades and time to graduation depends, in addition to ability and financial situation, also on the external economic conditions in the labor market. Our empirical exercise confirms the predictions of the model.
    Keywords: academic achievements; academic track regularity; trade-off between grades and time to degree
    JEL: D91 I21 I23
    Date: 2015–03
  14. By: Sandra E. Black; Paul J. Devereux; Petter Lundborg; Kaveh Majlesi
    Abstract: We investigate whether acquiring more education when young has long-term effects on risk-taking behavior in financial markets and whether the effects spill over to spouses and children. There is substantial evidence that more educated people are more likely to invest in the stock market. However, little is known about whether this is a causal effect of education or whether it arises from the correlation of education with unobserved characteristics. Using exogenous variation in education arising from a Swedish compulsory schooling reform in the 1950s and 1960s, and the wealth holdings of the population of Sweden in 2000, we estimate the effect of education on stock market participation and risky asset holdings. We find that an extra year of education increases stock market participation by about 2% for men but there is no evidence of any positive effect for women. More education also leads men to hold a greater proportion of their financial assets in stocks and other risky financial assets. We find no evidence of spillover effects from male schooling to the financial decisions of spouses or children.
    JEL: D14 D31 G11 I24
    Date: 2015–03
  15. By: Melania Terrazas Gallego (University of La Rioja); Javier Martín Arista (University of La Rioja)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to assess the increase in the overall performance of English by University learners of EFL during the first three semesters. Students received instruction in a Spanish institution of Higher Education located in a medium-sized town in north-western Spain. The level of English of these students was A2 (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, CEFR) when they started their University degree; subjects studied included Education, Humanities, Tourism and English Studies. The objective was to reach Level B1 (CEFR) within three semesters. The group comprised around 300 students, the vast majority of whom had recently finished secondary education, and were in their early twenties.Against a background consisting of students with differing training, interests and degrees of motivation, several teaching innovation projects were carried out by the Department of Foreign Languages at the University of La Rioja over the academic years 2009-2013. This report focuses on the project scheduled for 2010-2012 and specifically gauges students’ academic achievement. The basis of the project was exposure to linguistic input, which was developed through autonomous learning rather than by classroom work. Autonomous learning placed more emphasis on oral skills, was guided and self-evaluated in a virtual classroom, and encompassed a wide selection of teaching materials, both written and oral. These were taken from a variety of English courses, grammars, and books engaging specific skills, as well as from online tools and resources.The results show an increase in the overall performance of the students of English enrolled in the subjects comprised by the project. The average overall performance by students in English Studies increased 7.34% between 2010 and 2012. Increases were also observed in other degrees involving English. For example, the average overall performance in Infant Education increased by 6.28%. The highest increase, at 11.87%, occurred in the Primary Education degree. These improvements can be attributed to the teaching innovation project because the other variables involved did not undergo significant changes. In the current academic year, new initiatives have been adopted that, together with the ones discussed in this paper, are witnesses to a culture of constant teaching innovation.
    Keywords: Performance, EFL University students, teaching and innovation.
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2014–07
  16. By: Ajayeb Abu Daabes (Emirates collage of technology)
    Abstract: This paper is an ongoing research that aims to reveal the attitudes and preferences of higher education students toward using smart applications as educational supporting tools. Based on the fact that satisfying customer needs is the focal point for an educational organization to exist in the market and to sustain its completive advantage, this research aims to identify the new trends in educational market and to provide educational organization with valuable suggestions based on their students’ needs. The study designs survey questionnaire responses from students at on of the UAE universities to reveal their preferences and trends towards using specific new technological paradigm in the education system.
    Keywords: Smart Applications, Educational Tool
    Date: 2014–05
  17. By: Dasso, Rosamaría (IFPRI, International Food Policy Research Institute); Fernandez, Fernando (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Nopo, Hugo (Inter-American Development Bank)
    Abstract: We study the effects of electrification on educational outcomes in Peru by taking advantage of a program that rapidly increased electricity coverage in rural areas. Using household survey panel data from 2007-2010, we document that: i) girls living in treated districts are more likely to be enrolled in school, and this effect is larger among younger girls; ii) this positive effect on female enrollment does not translate into higher attendance rates; iii) households in treated areas spend more money on younger girls' education. In addition, we use school-level panel data from 2007-2012 on Math and Reading test scores to show that treatment is associated with a reduction in learning. But, among treated schools, longer treatment exposure increases scores in Reading for boys and girls; and improves performance in Math, only among boys. Finally, our estimates are robust to controlling for other confounding interventions.
    Keywords: education, rural electrification, Peru
    JEL: I25 O13 O15
    Date: 2015–03
  18. By: mouganie, pierre
    Abstract: In 1997, the French government put into effect a law that permanently exempted young French male citizens born after Jan 1, 1979 from mandatory military service while still requiring those born before that cutoff date to serve. This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to identify the effect of peacetime conscription on education and labor market outcomes. Results indicate that conscription eligibility induces a significant increase in years of education, which is consistent with conscription avoidance behavior. However, this increased education does not result in either an increase in graduation rates, or in employment and wages. Additional evidence shows conscription has no direct effect on earnings, suggesting that the returns to education induced by this policy was zero.
    Keywords: Regression Discontinuity Design, Returns to Education, France, Conscription, Signaling
    JEL: I20 J24 J30
    Date: 2014–08–05
  19. By: Nazyktere Hasani (PhD candidate in European University of Tirana); Ernesa Hasani (Student in Faculty of Philology, University of Prishtina)
    Abstract: School cooperation with parents is an important aspect in the field of education, which is of particular interest to students and for the school when we consider the development of personality, education, social life and progress of pupils. Trustworthiness, mutual respect and communication between school and parents, makes common goals that schools ahead and ask parents for an effective quality education of students realize. Based on everyday school life we see a weakening of interest of parents and school for collaboration. Each school should encourage parents to cooperate by providing various forms of cooperation. Therefore, seeing the decline of interest by both pairs for cooperation was necessary to study in this regard, in order to obtain complete data, to analyze and compare the perceptions of parents and teachers, to get different opinions so that we have opportunities for using forms that think it will bring effect in terms of cooperation. The research was focused on two relevant factors parent-teacher where perceptions and opinions regarding the forms of cooperation are treated, which are implemented at the school and forms that will be able to apply and that will bring a qualitative and effective cooperation. The purpose of this study was to identify forms of school- family cooperation, emphasizing the attitudes and opinions of parents and teachers as well as proposals for finding effective possible forms, which will increase the interest for cooperation. This study is of particular importance because the conclusions drawn from this study will lead to the search of better access of influential parents in the school, which will greatly contribute to raising awareness and responsibility of parents and school in improving and progressing cooperation.
    Keywords: Forms of cooperation, attitudes, parent, teachers.
    Date: 2014–05
  20. By: Belyakov, Sergey (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Nowadays in the practice of education authorities there is no prognosis of the economy and finance state, mainly due to the lack of methodology and methods of prognosis that take in account not only different processes in the education system, but also annual changes in its state. As a result of work prognosis connected with a determination of the needs of the education institutions in financial resources for providing training for changing students contingents can be done for no more than 3 years. Existing approaches to prognosis in this sphere is based on strategic documents of the Federal level and can hardly be used for solving problems at the level of subjects of the Russian Federation. Designed in recent years the development Strategies of the Russian regions, mainly, does not reflect the prospects for the development of education systems that are not updated in connection with change of a condition of systems of education, which does not allow to use them as an instrument of prognosis. Current prognosis of development of the education system or poorly take into account economic constraints, or methodologically not fully verified.
    Keywords: education, resourses, prognosis, forecasting, Russia, finance, student
    Date: 2014–06
  21. By: Sejdi Rexhepi (University of Pristina \); Argjenita Shatri (University of Peja \); Leutrim Rexhepi (South Eastern European University,Tetovo); Blerina Alimehaj (University of Peja \)
    Abstract: Economic development in general, is linked primarily with the use and valorization of existing local natural resources and human. Using of comparative advantage offered by local resources with the aim of generating employment and income for the local and national economy is closely related to education. Educated population will not only lead to the growth of national income but in multiplicative way will lead to increased employment, economic development and growth. Countries have applied different systems and reforms in education. However, as a result of various economic, political and also historical factors, these reforms have not always given the desired results.The purpose of this paper is that, through a concrete case, to investigate the impact of the quality of the existing primary and secondary system of education in quality of life and human dignity, primarily through the ability to create human resources able to find job and together with it to generate economic growth and development. Basic hypothesis are related to the assumptions that; the success of the students is dependent with the family and its approach to education and work; the success of reform in education is closely linked with financial resources as well as with created culture for and to education of implementers but also other stakeholders; and, that the basis of the driving motive for learning, is closely linked with the economic situation and in particular the level of employment.Through primary sources, data are collected from selected samples as a source of information for this research, which are students aged 11-19 years, 25-50 years age parents, teachers, officials and managers of educational institutions, as are; preschool, primary, low secondary and higher secondary schools. Through secondary resources, are explained the theoretical concepts that deals with the quality of education. Documents and strategies of education, papers works and research in this field are analyzed; laws and regulations as well as the managing and teaching structure. The methodology used for data processing will be in the function of achieving results which will enable us professional and scientific recommendations.
    Keywords: Quality of education, education system, educational process, educational institutions, development, local economic development.
    JEL: I25
    Date: 2014–05
  22. By: Maria Fragiskou (Agricultural University of Athens); Epameinondas Paplomatas (Agricultural University of Athens)
    Abstract: High quality education and training is the cornerstone to economic growth. Teaching citizens valuable skills in all sectors will spur innovation and ultimately can help improve corporate competitiveness. The European Union concurs, and overtime has instituted a series of education policies for development, notably in the field of higher education. A good example would be the Bologna Process. Yet the economic crisis has put tremendous pressure on all Member States. While governments are implementing policies to reduce their budget deficits and to manage their public debt, they remain committed to establishing a sustainable economy. Despite good intentions to boost national competitiveness, in practice education funding has been negatively affected by austerity measures, especially in Southern Europe. Given that research demonstrates correlation between the level of funding for education and students' learning outcomes, the urgency to review education funding policies becomes a priority.In this article, we will try to outline the trends in expenditure in higher education in Greece in the period 2008-2012 compared with those of the European Union Member States in the same time frame. We will present the effects of the economic and financial crises in education expenditure and how these affect the quality of education. The comparative analysis is set in five parts. The first, describes the financial environment in European Union and Greece during the reporting period. The second and the third review the financing of education in Europe and in Greece. The fourth analyses the allocation of costs and the fifth estimates the per student cost of education in academic departments of Greek universities.
    Keywords: Education funding; financial and economic crisis; higher education; human resource funding; cost per student
    JEL: H52
    Date: 2014–05
  23. By: Lance Lochner (University of Western Ontario); Alexander Monge-Naranjo (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)
    Abstract: Rising costs of and returns to college have led to sizeable increases in the demand for student loans in many countries. In the U.S., student loan default rates have also risen for recent cohorts as labor market uncertainty and debt levels have increased. We discuss these trends as well as recent evidence on the extent to which students are able to obtain enough credit for college and the extent to which they are able to repay their student debts after. We then discuss optimal student credit arrangements that balance three important objectives: (i) providing credit for students to access college and finance consumption while in school, (ii) providing insurance against uncertain adverse schooling or post-school labor market outcomes in the form of income-contingent repayments, and (iii) providing incentives for student borrowers to honor their loan obligations (in expectation) when information and commitment frictions are present. Specifically, we develop a two-period educational investment model with uncertainty and show how student loan contracts can be designed to optimally address incentive problems related to moral hazard, costly income veri cation, and limited commitment by the borrower. We also survey other research related to the optimal design of student loan contracts in imperfect markets. Finally, we provide practical policy guidance for re-designing student loan programs to more efficiently provide insurance while addressing information and commitment frictions in the market.
    Keywords: human capital, borrowing, student loans, default, repayment, income-contingent, credit constraints
    JEL: D14 D82 H21 H52 I22 I24 J24
    Date: 2015–03
  24. By: Elert, Niklas (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Andersson, Fredrik (Statistics Sweden); Wennberg, Karl (Stockholm School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper studies the long-term impact of entrepreneurship education and training in high school on entrepreneurial entry, performance, and survival. Using propensity score matching, we compare three Swedish cohorts from Junior Achievement Company Program (JACP) alumni with a matched sample of similar individuals and follow these for up to 16 years after graduation. We find that while JACP participation increases the long-term probability of starting a firm as well as entrepreneurial incomes, there is no effect on firm survival.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education; Quasi-experiment; Performance
    JEL: D22 L25 L26
    Date: 2015–03–26
    Abstract: This paper sets out to clarify and contribute to the nature and purpose of higher education. It is often argued that Universities exist to provide future society with the skills based it will require. In another view, Universities exist not only to service the economy but to contribute to the intellectual and moral improvement of the human condition.... This paper explores the relationship between Higher Education and sustainable development, examines the fundamental question - that of what higher education is. The proper purpose of Higher Education is outlined, and set out the role of higher education institutions in promoting sustainable development.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Sustainable Development and University
    JEL: A13
    Date: 2014–10
  26. By: Brendan Bartram (University of Wolverhampton)
    Abstract: In a bid to investigate what would appear to be a relatively under-explored aspect of staff-student interactions, this paper offers a critical examination of the ways in which emotion is sometimes utilised as a resource by students in Higher Education (HE). It begins by reviewing a number of psychological and sociological studies of emotion, before moving on to an examination of the role of emotion in the HE context. Devised as a qualitative case study located in a modern English university, the paper in part adopts a discursive psychology approach to explore students’ use of emotion as a bargaining tool in emailed requests for study concessions. It also makes use of interview data collected from 12 university staff members to provide a staff perspective on the issues at hand.
    Keywords: Higher Education; emotional bargaining; emotion; interviews
    JEL: I21 I23 I29
    Date: 2014–07
  27. By: BARONE, Adriana (CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno - Italy); NESE, Annamaria (CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno - Italy)
    Abstract: Taking into account the economic consequences of obesity highlighted in literature (Cawley, 2004), this study investigates the association between overweight and skill attainment at the university of Salerno in Italy, with particular focus on gender differences. Our findings indicate a significant negative relationship between body mass index and academic achievement only for female students thus suggesting that, during late adolescence, physicality plays different roles according to gender. We also investigated gender differences in relation to psychological factors and we find that i)only females consider "being attractive" as an important factor for their well-being and ii) peers' behavior matters on individual eating habits only when female students are considered
    Keywords: Human Capital; Body weight; Educational Economics; Microeconometrics
    JEL: C25 D01 I12 I21 J24
    Date: 2014–12–30
  28. By: Bentaouet Kattan,Raja; Székely,Miguel
    Abstract: This study examines trends in school dropout at the upper secondary education level across Latin America over the past two decades, and attempts to identify factors influencing these rates. The methodology contributes to the existing literature by employing repeated cross sections of data to track the life cycle path of representative groups of individuals belonging to a birth cohort, by constructing and analyzing a synthetic data base of household survey data from 18 countries. A key finding is that while upper secondary enrollment rates increased in the region, the proportion of upper secondary age youth dropping out of school has remained persistently high, despite relatively favorable macroeconomic conditions. Furthermore, the study traces the moment in the life cycle at which the majority of dropout takes place to reveal differences between countries. Finally, to explain the trends in upper secondary dropout rates, the study examines the impact of three groups of factors: (i) shifts in the cohort size and socioeconomic composition of the population eligible for entering upper secondary education; (b) the macroeconomic environment and labor market opportunities; and (c) the returns to schooling. A series of regressions shows that an important factor that may be driving higher dropout levels has been the higher numbers of students from poor socioeconomic backgrounds reaching the upper secondary level. In addition, high returns to education have been a pull factor into the schooling system, while, especially in countries where the majority of youth dropout early (prior to upper secondary education), the data confirm an apparent substitution effect due to the opportunity cost of forgoing employment opportunities. Overall, the findings confirm the importance of policy makers'focus on upper secondary education across Latin America and suggest implications for focusing the policy agenda.
    Keywords: Primary Education,Education For All,Population Policies,Environmental Economics&Policies,Youth and Government
    Date: 2015–03–26
  29. By: Joanna Poyago-Theotoky (Department of Economics and Finance, La Trobe University, Australia; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, Italy); Alessandro Tampieri (Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance, University of Luxembourg)
    Abstract: We present a theoretical framework in which an elitist and a non-elitist university in a developed country compete by choosing their admission standards and deciding whether or not to open a branch campus in a developing country. Students from a developing country attend university if either a branch campus is opened or, they can afford to move to the developed country. We characterise the equilibria by focussing on the relationship between the investment costs of a branch campus and the graduate wage. There are three type of equilibria: (i) no branch campus is opened, (ii) only the elitist university opens a branch campus and (iii) both universities engage in transnational education, opening a branch campus. Very high investment costs discourage investment. A rise in the graduate wage increases the incentive for opening a branch campus, although this incentive is stronger for the elitist than the non-elitist university. Surprisingly, a government subsidy for opening a branch campus may be ineffective in ensuring investment by both universities.
    Date: 2015–03
  30. By: Werner L. Hernani-Limarino (Fundación ARU)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of Bolivia’s school subsidy program, Bono Juancito Pinto (BJP), on school attendance. BJP is a relatively small cash transfer (less than 30 dollars per child per year) given conditional on being enrolled into a public school and on regular school attendance. Since there are no feasible alternatives of a control group, we use simple structural behavioral models to understand the school-work decision and derive counterfactuals of interest. Estimation is conducted using two dimensional kernel regression estimators. Our results suggest that BJP has been successful increasing school attendance only for young children – 6 to 8 years old, and particularly for girls. We conclude that BJP has only encourage households to enroll children to school at the proper age but has not give an additional incentive to attend to those already enrolled for the first time.
    Keywords: impact evaluation, conditional cash transfers, education
    JEL: C14 I2 I3
    Date: 2015–03
  31. By: Akgüc, Mehtap (Center for European Policy Studies (CEPS)); Ferrer, Ana (University of Waterloo)
    Abstract: Using a recent survey of immigrants to France, we provide a detailed analysis of the educational attainment and labor market performance of various sub-population groups in France. Our results indicate that immigrants to France are less educated than the native born and that these differences can be tracked down to differences in socioeconomic background for most groups of immigrants. Similarly, there is a significant wage gap between immigrant and native-born workers, but this is reduced and sometimes disappears after correcting for selection into employment. In most cases the remaining differences in education and labor market outcomes seem related to the area of origin of the immigrant as well as where the education of the immigrant is obtained.
    Keywords: immigration, France, labor market performance of immigrants, educational attainment
    JEL: F22 J15 J61
    Date: 2015–03
  32. By: Kai Barron; Luis Fernando Gamboa; Paul Rodriguez-Lesmes
    Abstract: Abstract This paper makes use of a short, sharp, unexpected health shock in the form of the 2010 Colombian Dengue outbreak to examine the direct and indirect impact of negative health shocks on behaviour of households in affected areas. Our analysis combines data from several sources in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the influence of the outbreak, and furthermore to understand the underlying mechanisms driving the effects. Our initial analysis indicates that the outbreak had a substantial negative effect on the health status of adults and adversely affected their ability to function as usual in their daily lives. In our aggregated school data, in areas with high levels of haemorrhagic Dengue we observe a reduction in national exam attendance (last year of secondary school) and on enrolment rates in primary education. Further analysis aims to exploit detailed individual level data to gain a more in depth understanding of the precise channels through which this disease influenced the behaviour and outcomes of the poor in Colombia.
    Keywords: Education, Dengue, Colombia
    JEL: I12 I20
    Date: 2015–03–19
  33. By: Daria Lagutina Sariyildiz (Hacettepe University, Graduate School of Foreign languages)
    Abstract: The influence of Russia on the worlds' political arena and global economy led to dynamic integration of Russian language into the world community. Russian language holds a particularly important place among the foreign languages taught in the higher educational establishments of Turkey. The main challenge of teaching Russian is developing students' communication competence. In this regard, we believe that the most effective method is interactive teaching, with the following tools: a) maps, slides, multimedia, modern computer and Internet programs as means of implementation of communicative situations in the classroom; b) communicative games.When using modern effective technologies of interactive learning high motivation, focus, verbal activity, personal interest is observed among students at high level of all communication functions. A peculiar feature of interactive learning is teacher’s attitude towards a student not as an object but an equal partner of the learning process. In this respect teacher should master numerous and diverse technologies of communicative education.Modern educational technologies considered in this study promote students’communicative competence, enhance students' motivation and thus, optimize learning process. The use of interactive technologies for teaching Russian makes lesson entertaining and truly modern. Such formation of educational activity plays an important role in the development of the communicative competence of foreign students, promotes development of their speech capabilities, develops an interest in the Russian language and Russian culture.
    Keywords: Russian language, educational technologies, communicative competence, interactive methods.
    JEL: I23 I20
    Date: 2014–07
  34. By: Kimete Canaj (University of Vienna)
    Abstract: Foreignlanguage policy in Kosova is a complex task, which requires involvment of different stakeholders: parents, teachers multidimensional skills, to be involved in the teaching of foreignlanguages, students motivation and school infrastructure. Teachers are responsible for teaching methodology and teaching different aspects oft the german culture and help students to better understand their perspective not only cultural, but also the view of the general german society. It is a fact that the teaching of the german as the foreign language is inseparable element intertwined with culture and learning as much knowledge of german cultures and social boost national awareness.Teaching English in the first grade of elementary school, and second foreign language German or French from the sixth grade in the lower secondary schools is provided with Kosovo Curriculum as a subject binding. Teachers who teach English in the first grade, has different qualifications and training. A large number of Teachers are not trained on the methodological aproach for the first grade or for the sixth grade.The number of the Foreign Language Teachers are qualified but are not trained to methodological approach for working with this age of children and consequently burdening students in different learning situations. These aspects were part of this research.The decission for this action research on methodological approaches with German teachers in lower und higher secondary schools in Kosova was made due to the high needs for professional, qualified and trained teachers and high demandes for the foreign language learning from the students The idea for such an approach was concern about the methods used in teaching German as a second foreign language in lower and higher secondary Schools.Especially based on the request of the New Kosovo Curriculum to be taught a first foreign language – English from the first grade and the second foreign language from the sixth grade in primary schools. Study visits were conducted with German teachers, to which was introduced Action Research methodology, new approaches to teaching foreign language and discussed possibilities for piloting, some schools were selected which conducted research into action with their students in sixth and tenth grade .From this research we got:A clear picture regarding the methodological approach to the teaching of German language in lower and higher secondary schools, sixth and tenth grade.Set up capacities of teachers in the methodological approach to teaching German.3.To promote the philosophy of Action Research in kosovan schools
    Keywords: Foreignlanguagepolicy, German as Foreign Language, German Teaching and Learning, Action Research, Foreignlanguage Teaching Practice,
    JEL: I28 I29
    Date: 2014–10
  35. By: Botnev, Vladimir (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Gorlanov, Gennadiy (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Illarionova, Tatiana (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Kirichenko, Alexander (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Koroteeva, Oxana (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Nasriddinov, Temur (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: One of the main obstacles to the effective development of our country is corruption, which in modern terms is a threat to the very statehood, economic system, the basics of governance, security of the individual, society and the state. That corruption destructive effect on public administration to discredit the power disrupts the economy, making it inefficient, uncompetitive, prevents intensive and innovative development of the country, causes a sharp decline in living standards, creating a massive legal nihilism, cynicism and extreme forms of general apathy, targeted forms negative image of the country. Particular danger this phenomenon has in education. This paper analyzes the causes of corruption in education, methods to counter it, the role of public institutions in the purification of this sphere.
    Keywords: education, Russia, corruption, law
    Date: 2014–07

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