nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒02‒11
27 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Increasing access by waiving tuition : evidence from Haiti By Adelman, Melissa A.; Holland, Peter A.
  3. The Long Run Human Capital and Economic Consequences of High-Stakes Examinations By Ebenstein, Avraham; Lavy, Victor; Roth, Sefi
  4. Does the Teacher Beat the Test? The Additional Value of Teacher Assessment in Predicting Student Ability By Feron, Eva; Schils, Trudie; ter Weel, Bas
  5. The Effectiveness Of Vocational Versus General Secondary Education: Evidence From Pisa 2012 For Countries With Early Trackin By Julia Kuzmina; Martin Carnoy
  6. Ready for boarding? The effects of a boarding school for disadvantaged students By Behaghel, Luc; de Chaisemartin, Clement; Gurgand, Marc
  7. Education and health knowledge: evidence from UK compulsory schooling reforms By David W. Johnston; Grace Lordan; Michael A. Shields; Agne Suziedelyte
  8. Can we redress the immigrant-native educational gap in Italy? Empirical evidence and policy suggestions By Davide Azzolini
  9. Early, late or never? When does parental education impact child outcomes? By Matt Dickson; Paul Gregg; Harriet Robinson
  10. Risk and Time Preference on Schooling:Experimental Evidence from a Low-Income Country By Yuki Tanaka; Takashi Yamano
  11. Motivation and Incentives in Education: Evidence from a Summer Reading Experiment By Jonathan Guryan; James S. Kim; Kyung Park
  12. Money for nothing: estimating the impact of student aid on participation in higher education By Lorraine Dearden; Emla Fitzsimons; Gill Wyness
  13. Student satisfaction, league tables and University applications By Stephen Gibbons; Eric Neumayer; Richard Perkins
  14. Schooling, Marriage and Age of First Birth in Madagascar By Glick, Peter; Handy, Christopher; Sahn, David E.
  15. Assessing the effect of school days and absences on test score performance By Esteban Aucejo; Teresa Romano
  16. Pass/Fail, A-F, or 0-100? - Optimal Grading of Eager Students By Lilo Wagner
  17. Student debt and higher education financing: a public finance perspective By McAndrews, James J.
  18. Performance-Based Typology Of Universities: Evidence From Russia By Irina V. Abankina; Fuad T. Aleskerov; Veronika Yu. Belousova; Leonid M. Gokhberg; Kirill V. Zinkovsky; Sofya G. Kiselgof; Vsevolod Petrushchenko; Sergey V. Shvydun
  19. The Effects of Compulsory Military Service Exemption on Education and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment By Torun, Huzeyfe; Tumen, Semih
  20. Life Expectancy and Education: Evidence from the Cardiovascular Revolution By Casper Worm Hansen; Holger Strulik
  21. Impact Evaluation of the RWJF Summer Medical and Dental Education Program (SMDEP) By Clemencia Cosentino; Cecilia Speroni; Margaret Sullivan; Raúl Torres
  22. Education and specialized training - ways to increase performance in agriculture By Marin, Ancuta
  23. The role of information in the application for merit-based scholarships: Evidence from a randomized field experiment By Herber, Stefanie P.
  24. Integrating Human Capital and Human Capabilities in Understanding the Value of Education By Chiappero-Martinetti, Enrica; Sabadash, Anna
  25. It's not all about parents' education, it also matters what they do: Parents' employment and children's school success in Germany By Boll, Christina; Hoffmann, Malte
  26. What have economists been doing for the last 50 years? A text analysis of published academic research from 1960-2010 By Kosnik, Lea-Rachel
  27. Government spending in education and economic growth in Cameroon. A Vector error Correction Model approach By Douanla Tayo, Lionel; AbomoFouda, Marcel Olivier

  1. By: Adelman, Melissa A.; Holland, Peter A.
    Abstract: Despite impressive gains in increasing access to school over the past 20 years, an estimated 57 million children worldwide do not go to school. Abolishing school fees has increased enrollment rates in several countries where enrollments were low and school fees were high. However, such policies may be less effective, or even have negative consequences, when supply-side responses are weak. This paper evaluates the school-level impacts of a tuition waiver program in Haiti, which provided public financing to nonpublic schools conditional on these schools not charging tuition. The paper concludes that a school's participation in the program results in having more students enrolled, more staff, and slightly higher student-teacher ratios. The program also reduces grade repetition and the share of students who are over-age. Although the increase in students at participating schools does not directly equate to a reduction in the number of children out of school, it does demonstrate strong demand from families for the program, and a correspondingly strong supply response from the nonpublic sector.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Education For All,Primary Education,Teaching and Learning,Secondary Education
    Date: 2015–01–01
  2. By: Laura Hospido (Banco de España); Ernesto Villanueva (Banco de España); Gema Zamarro (University of Arkansas)
    Abstract: We estimate the impact on objective measures of financial literacy of a 10-hour financial education program among 15-year-old students in compulsory secondary schooling. We use a matched sample of students and teachers in Madrid and two different estimation strategies. Firstly, we use reweighting estimators to compare the performance in a test of financial knowledge of students in treatment and control schools. In another specification, we use school fixed-effect estimates of the effect of the course on changes in scores in tests of financial knowledge. The program increased treated students’ financial knowledge by between one-fourth and one-third of a standard deviation. We uncover heterogeneous effects, as students in private schools did not increase their knowledge much, possibly owing to a less intensive implementation of the program. Secondly, we analyze the bias that arises because the set of schools that participate in financial literacy programs is not random. Such selection bias is estimated as the pre-program performance in financial PISA of students in applicant schools relative to a nationally representative sample of schools. We then study whether estimators that condition on school and parental characteristics mitigate selection bias
    Keywords: financial education, impact evaluation, selection bias
    JEL: D14 I22
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Ebenstein, Avraham; Lavy, Victor; Roth, Sefi
    Abstract: Cognitive performance during high-stakes exams can be affected by random disturbances that, even if transitory, may have permanent consequences for long-term schooling attainment and labor market outcomes. We evaluate this hypothesis among Israeli high school students who took a series of high stakes matriculation exams between 2000 and 2002. As a source of random (transitory) shocks to high-stakes matriculation test scores, we use exposure to ambient air pollution during the day of the exam. First, we document a significant and negative relationship between average PM2.5 exposure during exams and student composite scores, post-secondary educational attainment, and earnings during adulthood. Second, using PM2.5 as an instrument, we estimate a large economic return to each point on the exam and each additional year of post-secondary education. Third, we examine the return to exam scores and schooling across sub-populations, and find the largest effects among boys, better students, and children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. The results suggest that random disturbances during high-stakes examinations can have long-term consequences for schooling and labor market outcomes, while also highlighting the drawbacks of using highstakes examinations in university admissions.
    Date: 2014–12
  4. By: Feron, Eva (Maastricht University); Schils, Trudie (Maastricht University); ter Weel, Bas (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: This research investigates to what extent subjective teacher assessment of children's ability adds to the use of test scores in the explanation of children's outcomes in the transition from elementary to secondary school in terms of initial track allocation, track switching in the first three years of secondary education and subsequent test scores. We apply micro-data from the Netherlands about cognitive test scores and teacher assessment in elementary schools and about track placement, track switching and test scores in secondary schools. Our estimates suggest that subjective teacher assessment is about twice as important as the elementary school cognitive test scores for initial track placement in secondary school. In addition, teacher assessment is more predictive of track allocation in 9th grade compared to cognitive test scores. Next, children who switch tracks are more likely to be placed in tracks based on test scores. Also, test scores in 9th grade are predicted by subjective teacher assessment, not by test scores in 6th grade. Finally, a back-of-the-envelope calculation shows that switching could be reduced by at least ten percent if children would have been allocated according to the teacher's assessment.
    Keywords: test scores, teacher assessment, school careers
    JEL: I21 I28 J24
    Date: 2015–01
  5. By: Julia Kuzmina (National Research University Higher School of Economics.); Martin Carnoy (National Research University Higher School of Economics.)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the relative academic effectiveness of vocational education in three countries with early tracking systems: Austria, Croatia and Hungary. Our measures of academic effectiveness are the results of an international test, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD’s) Program of International Student Assessment (PISA). Our results show few, if any, differences between students attending the vocational track in secondary school and those in the academic track. Specifically, the results show that attending the vocational or academic track results in similar achievement gains in the 10th grade
    Keywords: academic effectiveness, tracking, vocational education, PISA
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Behaghel, Luc (Paris School of Economics - INRA); de Chaisemartin, Clement (Department of Economics, University of Warwick); Gurgand, Marc (Paris School of Economics - CNRS)
    Abstract: Boarding schools substitute school to home, but little is known on the effects this substitution produces on students. We present results of an experiment in which seats in a boarding school for disadvantaged students were randomly allocated. Boarders enjoy better studying conditions than control students. However, they start outperforming control students in mathematics only two years after admission, and this effect mostly comes from strong students. After one year, levels of well-being are lower among boarders, but in their second year, students adjust: well-being catches-up. This suggests that substituting school to home is disruptive: only strong students benefit from the boarding school, once they have managed to adapt to their new environment. JEL classification: I21 ; I28 ; J24 ; H52
    Keywords: boarding school ; cognitive skills ; non-cognitive skills ; randomized controlled trial ; heterogeneous effects
    Date: 2015
  7. By: David W. Johnston; Grace Lordan; Michael A. Shields; Agne Suziedelyte
    Abstract: We investigate if there is a causal link between education and health knowledge using data from the 1984/85 and 1991/92 waves of the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS). Uniquely, the survey asks respondents what they think are the main causes of ten common health conditions, and we compare these answers to those given by medical professionals to form an index of health knowledge. For causal identification we use increases in the UK minimum school leaving age in 1947 (from 14 to 15) and 1972 (from 15 to 16) to provide exogenous variation in education. These reforms predominantly induced adolescents who would have left school to stay for one additionally mandated year. Naïve ordinary least squares estimates suggest that education significantly increases health knowledge, with a one-year increase in schooling increasing the health knowledge index by 15% of a standard deviation. In contrast, estimates from instrumental-variable models show that increased schooling due to the education reforms did not significantly affect health knowledge: a one-year increase in schooling is estimated to decrease the health knowledge index by 0.1% of a standard deviation. This main result is robust to numerous specification tests and alternative formulations of the health knowledge index. Further research is required to determine whether there is also no causal link between higher levels of education – such as post-school qualifications – and health knowledge.
    Keywords: Education; health; knowledge; compulsory schooling; causality
    JEL: I10 I12 I20
    Date: 2014–09
  8. By: Davide Azzolini
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the immigrant-native educational gaps in Italy with the aim of identifying policy implications that may be considered in order to improve equity of educational opportunity in the country. (1) The empirical findings indicate that a large part of the observed gaps is accounted for by social disparities existing between native and immigrant families rather than by migration-specific factors. Hence, targeted actions aimed at promoting children of immigrants' education should be integrated in a more general and comprehensive policy framework that addresses social inequality in education. (2) Education policies targeted on children of immigrants should prioritize interventions aimed at enhancing their learning achievements starting from the early educational stages, as the levels of ability achieved in these years have consequences on future skill formation as well as on educational choices and careers. (3) Italian language acquisition programs should be introduced in order to improve the learning achievements of first-generation children. These programs should replace the actual practice of enrolling newcomers in one class behind that corresponding to their age as they enter the Italian school system. (4) Considering the relevance of family environment in the schooling of children, initiatives to boost an active involvement of immigrant parents in schools and to provide immigrant children with personalized tutoring should be promoted. (5) Finally, despite the increasing number of descriptive studies, there is still scarce knowledge on which interventions really work to improve the learning outcomes of children of immigrants in Italy. Educational research based on randomized controlled trials should become common practice in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the causes of the immigrant-native gaps and better inform policy.
    Keywords: Immigrant-native gaps; Education; Education Policy
    Date: 2015–01
  9. By: Matt Dickson; Paul Gregg; Harriet Robinson
    Abstract: We study the intergenerational effects of parents’ education on their children’s educational outcomes. The endogeneity of parental education is addressed by exploiting the exogenous shift in education levels induced by the 1972 Raising of the School Leaving Age (RoSLA) from age 15 to 16 in England and Wales. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children – a rich cohort dataset of children born in the early 1990s in Avon, England – allows us to examine the timing of impacts throughout the child’s life, from pre-school assessments through the school years to the final exams at the end of the compulsory schooling period. We also determine whether there are differential effects for literacy and numeracy. We find that increasing parental education has a positive causal effect on children’s outcomes that is evident at age 4 and continues to be visible up to and including the high stakes exams taken at age 16. Children of parents affected by the reform gain results just under 0.1 standard deviations higher than those whose parents were not impacted. The effect is focused on the lower educated parents where we would expect there to be more of an impact: children of these parents gaining results approximately 0.2 standard deviations higher. The effects appear to be broadly equal across numeracy and literacy test scores.
    Keywords: Intergenerational mobility; schooling; child development; ALSPAC
    JEL: I20 J24 J62
    Date: 2014–09
  10. By: Yuki Tanaka (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Takashi Yamano (International Rice Research Institute)
    Abstract: Educational investment involves risks and long-term commitment, and the degree of risk aversion or patience of parents could play a vital role in the schooling decision. Yet, there are few studies analyzing the impact of such preferences on educational investment. This paper utilizes a unique dataset with a large-scale field experiment of preferences and estimates the impacts of the patience and risk aversion of the parents on school attendance, delayed enrollment, and the education expenditure of their children in Uganda. Our results show that the risk aversion of the parent delays enrollment of young children, especially boys. This could be explained by parents’ security concerns for their young children. Girls of impatient parents have high attendance rates when they are young (6 – 9 years old) but have low attendance rates when they are older (10 – 13 years old). Boys aged 10 to 13 have low attendance rates if their parents have a high present bias. Finally, the patience of the parents increases the education expenditure.
  11. By: Jonathan Guryan; James S. Kim; Kyung Park
    Abstract: For whom and under what conditions do incentives work in education? In the context of a summer reading program called Project READS, we test whether responsiveness to incentives is positively or negatively related to the student’s baseline level of motivation to read. Elementary school students were mailed books weekly during the summer, mailed books and also offered an incentive to read, or assigned to a control group. We find that students who were more motivated to read at baseline were more responsive to incentives, suggesting that incentives may not effectively target the students whose behavior they are intended to change.
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2015–01
  12. By: Lorraine Dearden; Emla Fitzsimons; Gill Wyness
    Abstract: Understanding how higher education (HE) finance policy can affect HE decisions is important for understanding how governments can promote human capital accumulation. Yet there is a severe lack of evidence on the effectiveness of student aid in encouraging HE participation outside of the US, and none at all for the UK. This paper exploits a reform that took place in the UK in 2004, when maintenance grants were introduced for students from low income families, having been abolished since 1999. This reform occurred in isolation of any other policy changes, and did not affect students from relatively better off families, making them a potential control group. We use a difference-in-difference framework to estimate the effect of the reform on HE undergraduate participation. We find a positive impact of maintenance grants, with a £1000 increase in grants leading to a 3.95 percentage point increase in participation.
    Keywords: higher education participation; higher education funding policies; maintenance grants; difference in differences
    JEL: I21 I22 I28
    Date: 2014–12
  13. By: Stephen Gibbons; Eric Neumayer; Richard Perkins
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of information about student satisfaction on university choice, using data from the UK’s National Student Survey (NSS) and on applications to undergraduate degree courses. We show that the NSS has a small, statistically significant effect on applications at the university-subject level. This effect operates primarily through the influence of the NSS scores on a university’s position in separately published, subject-specific, league tables, implying greater salience of league table rankings. The impact of rankings is greater amongst the most able students, for universities with entry standards in the upper-middle tier, and for subject-departments facing more competition.
    Keywords: student satisfaction; higher education; information; university choice
    JEL: D8 I2
    Date: 2013–09
  14. By: Glick, Peter (RAND); Handy, Christopher (Cornell University); Sahn, David E. (Cornell University)
    Abstract: Low female schooling attainment, early marriage and low age at first birth are major policy concerns in developing countries. This paper jointly estimated the determinants of educational attainment, marriage age and age of first birth among females 12 to 25 years of age in Madagascar, explicitly accounting for the endogeneities that arose from modeling these related outcomes simultaneously. An additional year of schooling resulted in a delay of marriage by 1.5 years. Marrying one year later delayed the age of first birth by 0.5 years. Parental education and wealth also had important effects on schooling, marriage and age at first birth: among other findings, a woman's first birth was delayed by 0.75 years for four additional years of schooling of her mother. Overall, the results provided rigorous evidence for the critical role of education – both own education and that of parents – in delaying marriage and fertility of young women.
    Keywords: education, marriage, fertility, joint estimation, Madagascar
    JEL: J12 J13 I20 C3
    Date: 2015–01
  15. By: Esteban Aucejo; Teresa Romano
    Abstract: While instructional time is viewed as crucial to learning, little is known about the effectiveness of reducing absences relative to increasing the number of school days. In this regard, this paper jointly estimates the effect of absences and length of the school calendar on test score performance. Using administrative data from North Carolina public schools, we exploit a state policy that provides variation in the number of days prior to standardized testing and find substantial differences between these effects. Extending the school calendar by ten days increases math and reading test scores by only 0.8% and 0.2% of a standard deviation, respectively; a similar reduction in absences would lead to gains of 5.8% and 3% in math and reading. We perform a number of robustness checks including utilizing u data to instrument for absences, family-year fixed effects, separating excused and unexcused absences, and controlling for a contemporaneous measure of student disengagement. Our results are robust to these alternative specifications. In addition, our findings indicate considerable heterogeneity across student ability, suggesting that targeting absenteeism among low performing students could aid in narrowing current gaps in performance.
    Keywords: Economic growth; business cycles; subjective well-being; loss aversion
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2014–09
  16. By: Lilo Wagner
    Abstract: This paper analyzes optimal grading in a world that focuses on top grades. Students choose an effort level, their performance is graded, and their grade correlates with their future income. Ex-ante, the policy maker chooses the optimal coarseness of the grading scale to maximize student welfare. When choosing their effort, students overweight outstanding { or salient { grades. I show that this behavior leads to excessive effort levels when grading is fully informative, and that coarse grading can be used to counterbalance incentives. Thus, salience can help explain why grading ranges from Pass/Fail scales (tenure decisions) via A-F-scales (school) to fully disclosing scores (e.g. SAT).
    Keywords: Optimal grading, effort incentives, salience theory, education
    JEL: D83 D81 I21
    Date: 2015
  17. By: McAndrews, James J. (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: Remarks at the National Association of College and University Business Officers, at the Waldorf Astoria, New York City.
    Keywords: tuition; student debt; delinquency; default rate
    JEL: D14 I22
    Date: 2015–02–05
  18. By: Irina V. Abankina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Fuad T. Aleskerov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Veronika Yu. Belousova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Leonid M. Gokhberg (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Kirill V. Zinkovsky (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Sofya G. Kiselgof (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Vsevolod Petrushchenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Sergey V. Shvydun (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In recent decades increased economic pressure and growing expectations of the society have led to a shift to performance-based funding modes of public research, namely universities, introduced by the government. In this respect universities started to use various strategies to adapt and develop their activities under the new framework conditions. National governments currently attempt to design and apply various taxonomies for structuring the university infrastructure in all different shapes in order to facilitate the development of efficient programmes for the advancement of higher education. The paper provides a review of different approaches to university typologies, discusses the choice of indicators and mathematical tools for grouping universities using common criteria and evaluating their performance based on classical and modified DEA approaches. The authors developed a typology which was tested in the Russian context, taking into account indicators of research and educational activities implemented by domestic universities and their efficiency score. The typology is based on clustering universities by availability of resources and research and educational performance and the combination of these results with efficiency score. It does not only group universities by type but includes a decision tree for classifying them as members of a specific group keeping into account their heterogeneity. It may serve as a basis for content analysis of the wide range of universities, and for shaping targeted policies aimed at their particular groups.
    Keywords: higher education institutions (HEIs), typology, research and educational activities of HEIs, hierarchical clustering, data envelopment analysis, efficiency, performance
    JEL: C14 C38 D83 O32
    Date: 2015
  19. By: Torun, Huzeyfe; Tumen, Semih
    Abstract: Based on a law enacted in November 1999, males born on or before December 31st 1972 are given the option to benefit from a paid exemption from the compulsory military service in Turkey. Exploiting this natural experiment, we devise an empirical strategy to estimate the intention-to-treat effect of this paid exemption on the education and labor market outcomes of the individuals in the target group. We find that the paid exemption reform reduces the years of schooling among males who are eligible to benefit from the reform relative to the ineligible ones. In particular, the probability of receiving a college degree or above falls among the eligible males. The result is robust to alternative estimation strategies. We find no reduction in education when we implement the same exercises with (i) data on females and (ii) placebo reform dates. The interpretation is that the reform has reduced the incentives to continue education for the purpose of deferring military service. We also find suggestive evidence that the paid exemption reform reduces the labor income for males in the target group. The reduction in earnings is likely due to the reduction in education.
    Keywords: Compulsory military service; draft avoidance; intention to treat; education; earnings.
    JEL: C21 I21 J21 J31
    Date: 2015–01–29
  20. By: Casper Worm Hansen (Department of Economics, Copenhagen University); Holger Strulik (University of Goettingen, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this study we investigate the causal impact of increasing adult longevity on higher education. We exploit the fourth stage of the epidemiological transition, i.e. the unexpected decline of deaths from heart attack and stroke in the 1970s as a large positive health shock that affected predominantly old age mortality. Using a differences-in-differences estimation strategy we find across U.S. states that the cardiovascular revolution led to an increase in adult life expectancy by about 2 years, which caused higher education enrollment to increase by 7 percentage points, i.e. 30 percent of the observed increase from 1970 to 2000. Our findings are robust to the inclusion of state-specific health trends and a host of confounding variables. They suggest large effects of improving longevity on higher education enrollment.
    Keywords: adult life expectancy, higher education, cardiovascular diseases, 2SLS strategy, dierences-in-differences first-stage.
    JEL: I15 J24 N30 O10 O40
    Date: 2015–01–20
  21. By: Clemencia Cosentino; Cecilia Speroni; Margaret Sullivan; Raúl Torres
    Abstract: This is the final report of the impact evaluation of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Summer Medical and Dental Education Program (SMDEP). SMDEP provides science enrichment opportunities to minority and disadvantaged college students interested in attending medical or dental school. The goal of the program is to increase the number of students from underrepresented groups in the medical and dental labor force applying to and eventually completing medical or dental school.
    Keywords: Minority, disadvantaged, diversity, pipeline programs, health, medicine, dentistry, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, RWJF, Summer Medical and Dental Education Program, SMDEP
    JEL: I
    Date: 2015–01–28
  22. By: Marin, Ancuta
    Abstract: This paper makes a brief analysis of education in general and of agricultural profile in particular, and highlights existing problems, and the ways to improve them, in order to increase performances in agriculture. The economic development of a country requires transformations qualitative, quantitative and structural, both in economy and how people think. Therefore, there can be no economic development without fulfilling social conditions without changing the institutional framework, without research and education, without technical progress. On Measure the economic development, educational institutions suffer changes of functions, adapting to specific needs of the moment. In traditional societies, education refers to the transmission and reception of knowledge, to the formation of a public opinion, to maintain a broad social consensus. In modern society, the educational institution acquires a special importance, which can be regarded as recruitment agent and the distribution of individuals or group of individuals to different economic roles or positions within the social structure. Because of this, both in developed countries as well as in emerging the education became a variable of profound influence on progress of human society by facilitating economic development.
    Keywords: education, performance, economic development, professional training
    JEL: I25 O15 Q00
    Date: 2014–11–20
  23. By: Herber, Stefanie P.
    Abstract: If information asymmetries prevent talented students of non-academic backgrounds from applying for merit-based aid, the full potential of qualified youth will not be unfolded and social selectivity is likely to corroborate. This paper analyzes whether information asymmetries exist and decrease students' likelihood to apply for merit-based scholarships. In a randomized field experiment, I expose more than 5,000 German students either to general information on federally funded scholarships or additionally to tailored information on details of the application process, conveyed by a similar role model. Both treatments reduced information asymmetries significantly. The role model treatment did significantly increase non-academic and male students' application probabilities for federally funded merit-based scholarships. Providing only general information on the scholarship system triggered participants' own information search for alternative funding sources and increased application rates for other, not federally funded scholarships.
    Keywords: information asymmetries,student financial aid,merit scholarships,role model,field experiment
    JEL: I22 I24 D83
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Chiappero-Martinetti, Enrica; Sabadash, Anna
    Abstract: The aim of this chapter is to investigate the possibility of combining human capital theory and the capability approach in order to better understand and measure both the instrumental and the intrinsic values of education for individuals, and to trace its relative spillover effects on societies. This chapter discusses a combined human capital - capability approach as a possibility for working with a broader information space in assessing the value of education. It presents three integrated sections discussing the role and value of education for human well-being. The first section reviews the most significant attempts to define and measure education from a human capital (HC) perspective. The second is focussed on education and human capabilities and considers those aspects and empirical facts that are not fully encompassed within or justified by the HC perspective. The third section argues that human capital and the capabilities paradigms can complement each other in measuring the value of education, and discusses some methodological challenges and empirical features associated with this combined view.
    Keywords: education; human capital; capabilties
    JEL: C81 D60 O15
    Date: 2014–07
  25. By: Boll, Christina; Hoffmann, Malte
    Abstract: In this paper, we use GSOEP data to explore whether parents' employment has an extra effect on the school achievement of their children, beyond the well-established effects of education, income and demography. First, we test whether the source of income or parents' unemployment determine children's school achievements. Second, we analyze the effect of job prestige and factors of societal engagement on children's performance. Our results indicate no clear income associations but the existence of an employment channel as well as a social channel from mothers to their kids. A negative role model for girls is found for maternal housework. Moreover, the fathers' job prestige is substantial.
    Date: 2015
  26. By: Kosnik, Lea-Rachel
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of a text based exploratory study of over 20,000 academic articles published in seven top research journals from 1960-2010. The goal is to investigate the general research foci of economists over the last fifty years, how (if at all) they have changed over time, and what trends (if any) can be discerned from a broad body of the top academic research in the field. Of the 19 JEL-code based fields studied in the literature, most have retained a constant level of attention over the time period of this study, however, a notable exception is that of macroeconomics which has undergone a significantly diminishing level of research attention in the last couple of decades, across all the journals under study; at the same time, the "microfoundations" of macroeconomic papers appears to be increasing. Other results are also presented.
    Keywords: text analysis,economics research,research diversity,topic analysis
    JEL: A11 B4
    Date: 2015
  27. By: Douanla Tayo, Lionel; AbomoFouda, Marcel Olivier
    Abstract: This study aims at assessing the effect of government spending in education on economic growth in Cameroon over the period 1980-2012 using a vector error correction model. The estimated results show that these expenditures had a significant and positive impact on economic growth both in short and long run. The estimated error correction model shows that an increase of 1% of the growth rate of private gross fixed capital formation and government education spending led to increases of 5.03% and 10.145 % respectively in the long-run on economic growth . Education spending thus appears as one of the main driving force of the economic growth process in Cameroon.
    Keywords: Economic growth, VECM.
    JEL: H5
    Date: 2016–02–04

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