nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2015‒01‒26
29 papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Broken gears : the value added of higher education on teachers'academic achievement By Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Nopo, Hugo
  3. Educational efficiency: value for money in public spending on schools By Peter Dolton; Oscar Marcenaro Gutierrez; Adam Still
  4. Liquidity Constraints and University Participation in Times of Recession. Evidence from a Small-scale Programme By Loris Vergolini; Nadir Zanini; Nicola Bazoli
  5. Directing Remittances to Education with Soft and Hard Commitments: Evidence from a Lab-in-the-field Experiment and New Product Take-up Among Filipino Migrants in Rome By Giuseppe De Arcangelis; Majlinda Joxhe; David McKenzie; Erwin Tiongson; Dean Yang
  6. Born with a silver spoon : inequality in educational achievement across the world By Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Narayan, Ambar; Tiwari, Sailesh
  7. Educational Credentialism and Elite Formation in Japan: A Long-term Perspective By Daiji Kawaguchi; Hiroshi Ono
  8. The state of the Eastern Cape schools in a period almost the second decade of democracy By Thobeka Ncanywa
  9. Adapting the Supply of Education to the Needs of Girls: Evidence from a Policy Experiment in Rural India By Marian Meller; Stephan Litschig
  10. Employment Enhancing Integrative Graduate Education Model By Genc, Ismail H.; Copoglu, Mustafa
  11. Are There Nutrient-based Poverty Traps? Evidence on Iron Deficiency and Schooling Attainment in Peru By Chong, Alberto; Cohen, Isabelle; Field, Erica; Nakasone, Eduardo; Torero, Maximo
  12. Leveling Up: Early Results from a Randomized Evaluation of Post-Secondary Aid By Joshua Angrist; David Autor; Sally Hudson; Amanda Pallais
  13. Income Instability and Fiscal Progression By B. Cecilia Garcia-Medina; Jean-Francois Wen
  14. The Implications of Differential Trends in Mortality for Social Security Policy By John Bound; Arline Geronimus; Javier Rodriguez; Timothy Waidmann
  15. Municipal Housekeeping: The Impact of Women's Suffrage on Public Education By Celeste K. Carruthers; Marianne H. Wanamaker
  16. How Aid Helps Achieving MDGs in Africa: the Case of Primary Education By Douzounet MALLAYE; Urbain Thierry YOGO
  17. Borrowing Trouble? Student Loans, the Cost of Borrowing, and Implications for the Effectiveness of Need-Based Grant Aid By Benjamin M. Marx; Lesley J. Turner
  18. Welfare and Higher Education in EU Member States – Comparative Analysis By Gabriela Wronowska
  19. The Returns to the Federal Tax Credits for Higher Education By George B. Bulman; Caroline M. Hoxby
  20. The Economic Value of the University of Northern Iowa By Swenson, David A.
  21. "School’s out for summer, school’s out forever": the long-term health consequences of leaving school during a bad economy By Godard, Mathilde; Garrouste, Clémentine
  22. A Research about Emotional Intelligence on Generations By Akduman, Gülbeniz; Hatipoğlu, Zeynep; Yüksekbilgili, Zeki
  23. Quality Ratings and Premiums in the Medicare Advantage Market By Ian M. McCarthy; Michael Dardeny
  24. Perception and Attitude of Agricultural Students towards E-learning By Ghadei, Kalyan; Rudd, Rick
  25. The Effect of Parents Approach on Children Academic Achievement By Akıncı, Zafer
  26. Evaluating How Operator’s Identity Affects Managerial Efficiency of Dairy Farms Conducting Educational Tourism By Ohe, Yasuo
  27. Enhancing University Impact Studies Credibility of Analysis, Alternative Measures of University Worth By Swenson, David A.
  28. Even Education and Experience has its Limits: Closing the Wage Gap By Gil S. Epstein; Dalit Gafni; Erez Siniver
  29. Assessing the "Rothstein Falsification Test": Does It Really Show Teacher Value-Added Models Are Biased? By Dan Goldhaber Duncan Dunbar Chaplin

  1. By: Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Nopo, Hugo
    Abstract: Good teachers are essential for high-quality educational systems. However, little is known about teachers'skills formation during college. By combining two standardized tests for Colombian students, one taken at the end of senior year in high school and the other when students are near graduation from college, this paper documents the extent to which education majors relatively improve or deteriorate their skills in quantitative reasoning, native language, and foreign language, in comparison to students in other programs. Teachers'skills vis-a-vis those in other majors deteriorate in quantitative reasoning and foreign language, although they deteriorate less for those in math-oriented and foreign language-oriented programs. For native language, there is no evidence of robust differences in relative learning mobility.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Teaching and Learning,Education For All,Primary Education,Secondary Education
    Date: 2015–01–01
  2. By: Roberto Zotti (University of Salerno)
    Abstract: A strong incentive for studying the dropout phenomenon in the context of Italian tertiary education, both from the positive standpoint and from the regulatory one, is because higher education institutions are evaluated and then financially supported also on the base of parameters such as the dropout rate, especially between the first and the second year. An econometric analysis of factors that affect the decision to drop out has been made, using administrative data on students enrolled in post-reform courses at University of Salerno in the academic year 2003/2004. Focusing on very detailed individual information, the database allows to take into account changes in university attendance decisions year by year and to provide a precise identification of the students who drop out. Moreover a non-selective entrance test score has also been taken into account in order to understand weather it could successfully predict and reduce dropout rates. Evidence that the pre-enrollment characteristics and performances play an important role on the students’ decision to drop out has been found out. Moreover, the students’ non-selective entrance test scores seem to be a good signal of the students’ ability. They could well predict the student’s future performances suggesting their use to improve the matching between students and their individual specific curricula.
    Keywords: Probit estimation; Student drop-out (non-completition) probabilities; University performance; Selective entry test
    JEL: I20 I21 I23
    Date: 2015–01
  3. By: Peter Dolton; Oscar Marcenaro Gutierrez; Adam Still
    Abstract: Which national education systems deliver the best value for money? Peter Dolton and colleagues rank 30 of the world's richest countries based on their expenditure on teacher costs (which account for 80% of education budgets) and the pupil outcomes they achieve. Finland, South Korea and the Czech Republic come out top of the list.
    Keywords: Education, policy, funding, quality measures, educational efficiency
    Date: 2015–01
  4. By: Loris Vergolini; Nadir Zanini; Nicola Bazoli
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the relationship between liquidity constraints and university participation. We assess an educational programme introduced in the Province of Trento (North-East of Italy) in 2009 in order to enhance university participation and to reduce social inequalities in access to higher education. The programme, known as Grant 5B, consists in generous financial aids targeted to students from low-income families with outstanding secondary school achievement. We exploit a unique dataset resulting from the linkage of administrative data with an ad hoc survey carried out on a sample of upper secondary graduates from 2009 to 2012. We use a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the intervention on the transition from secondary to tertiary education and on other choices connected to university attendance in each year considered and on strata of the population of interest. We find that the programme has no significant effect on enrolment rates, but it exerts a positive and remarkable effect on redirecting students already bound for university to enrol away from their place of residence. However, that effect changes over time and, as the economic recession persists, it disappears. Our findings suggest that students who attended successfully a secondary academic track have higher probability to benefit from the Grant 5B. Moreover, given the fact there is no effect on the enrolment probability, we specify a set of regression models to account for the interplay between income and merit, in order to simulate what would happen if a change in the eligibility rules will take place. Evidence shows that a relaxation of the eligibility rules based on secondary school achievement might be more effective in fostering access to university.
    Keywords: Financial Aid, University Enrolment, Regression Discontinuity, Programme Evaluation
    Date: 2014–12
  5. By: Giuseppe De Arcangelis; Majlinda Joxhe; David McKenzie; Erwin Tiongson; Dean Yang
    Abstract: This paper tests how migrants’ willingness to remit changes when given the ability to direct remittances to educational purposes using different forms of commitment. Variants of a dictator game in a lab-in-the-field experiment with Filipino migrants in Rome are used to examine remitting behavior under varying degrees of commitment. These range from the soft commitment of simply labeling remittances as being for education, to the hard commitment of having funds directly paid to a school and the student’s educational performance monitored. We find that the introduction of simple labeling for education raises remittances by more than 15 percent. Adding the ability to directly send this funding to the school adds only a further 2.2 percent. We randomly vary the information asymmetry between migrants and their most closely connected household, but find no significant change in the remittance response to these forms of commitment as information varies. Behavior in these games is then shown to be predictive of take-up of a new financial product called EduPay, designed to allow migrants to directly pay remittances to schools in the Philippines. We find this take-up is largely driven by a response to the ability to label remittances for education, rather than to the hard commitment feature of directly paying schools.
    JEL: C9 D19 F24 O15
    Date: 2015–01
  6. By: Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Narayan, Ambar; Tiwari, Sailesh
    Abstract: This paper assesses inequality of opportunity in educational achievement using the Human Opportunity Index methodology on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment. The findings suggest that there are large inequalities in learning outcomes as measured by demonstrated proficiency in Programme for International Student Assessment test scores in math, reading, and science. Differences in wealth, parental education, and area of residence explain a bulk of this inequality in most of the countries in the sample. Consistent with what has been documented previously in the literature, the paper also finds a strong and stable correlation between inequality of opportunity and public spending on school education. An exploration of the changes in inequality of opportunity between the 2009 and 2012 rounds of the Programme for International Student Assessment, using parametric and nonparametric techniques, suggests that there has been little progress.
    Keywords: Teaching and Learning,Primary Education,Tertiary Education,Education For All,Inequality
    Date: 2015–01–01
  7. By: Daiji Kawaguchi; Hiroshi Ono
    Abstract: In spite of the significant restructuring of the university system in the postwar period, national universities continue to occupy the top end of the prestige hierarchy of universities in Japan. In this paper, we examine long-term trends in the educational credentials of Japanese corporate executives. We use high-quality data from the directory of corporate executives to assess whether the mechanisms of elite production has changed over time. We find that the fraction of corporate executives graduating from private universities increased significantly, in accordance with the massive expansion of private universities in the postwar period. At the same time, our cohort-based analysis finds that private university graduates are being recruited into executive positions at a pace that exceeds its natural growth rate. Our findings weaken the view that certain prestigious universities are stable institutions to reproduce the nation's elites. The improved access to university education results in greater educational diversity and heterogeneity among the nation's elites. Length: 27 pages
  8. By: Thobeka Ncanywa
    Abstract: This paper explore the state of the Eastern Cape schools by employing an education production function approach using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and quantile regression techniques in 2013, a period almost twenty years into democracy in South Africa. The study benefited from the availability of Annual National Assessment (ANA) results from the examination directorate as a measure of schooling outcomes. In the education production function, scores from ANA were estimated against educator characteristics, school characteristics and community characteristics. The results of this study indicated that in the Eastern Cape learner performance is strongly influenced by educator quality, school and community characteristics.
    Keywords: education production function, Quantile regressions, annual national assessments
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Marian Meller; Stephan Litschig
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a large-scale government initiative (NPEGEL/KGBV) that provided earmarked funds for addressing girls' special needs to public schools in rural India. Our empirical strategy exploits local variation in program eligibility around a threshold based on the female literacy rate at the community level. The main result is that the program led to an enrollment gain of about 6-7 percentage points for girls in upper primary school. Evidence of an enrollment gain for boys is tentative. Available evidence on mechanisms suggests that the program improved girl-friendly school infrastructure and services, as well as gender-neutral school resources.
    Keywords: school enrollment, gender gap, school resources, regression discontinuity
    JEL: H75 I21 I28 J16 O15 O22
    Date: 2014–12
  10. By: Genc, Ismail H.; Copoglu, Mustafa
    Abstract: There is a strong call to look for approaches to integrate business and engineering education across disciplines to provide a more coherent system for students with the job market. As graduates fail to find satisfying employment, the value of college education is questioned. The unemployment of the highly educated has economic, social and political ramifications. Worst is when the highly educated unemployed takes up lower status jobs, ever reducing the quality of the job market with future consequences. In this study, we concentrate on ways to enhance students’ competitiveness in the post-graduate environment by proposing a curriculum to yield viable business proposals. Our model is for business or engineering students willing to pursue a master’s degree without PhD. We go beyond the compartmentalization of the current educational system to increase employability, particularly self-employment. Rise in productivity is a side benefit since there is a strong correlation between productivity and welfare.
    Keywords: Integrated business education, Graduate business-engineering curriculum, Team teaching, Course design
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2014–05
  11. By: Chong, Alberto; Cohen, Isabelle; Field, Erica; Nakasone, Eduardo; Torero, Maximo
    Abstract: A key question in development economics is whether nutritional deficiencies generate intergenerational poverty traps by reducing the earnings potential of children born into poverty. To assess the causal influence on human capital of one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies, supplemental iron pills were made available at a local health center in rural Peru and adolescents were encouraged to take them up via classroom media messages. Results from school administrative records provide novel evidence that reducing iron deficiency results almost immediately in a large and significant improvement in school performance. For anemic students, an average of 10 100mg iron pills over three months improves average test scores by 0.4 standard deviations and increases the likelihood of grade progression by 11%. Supplementation also raises anemic students’ aspirations for the future. Both results indicate that cognitive deficits from iron-deficiency anemia contribute to a nutrition-based poverty trap. Our findings also demonstrate that, with low-cost outreach efforts in schools, supplementation programs offered through a public clinic can be both affordable and effective in reducing rates of adolescent IDA.
    Keywords: Poverty traps, iron deficiency, RCTs, education attainement
    JEL: I12 I21 J16 O15
    Date: 2014–10
  12. By: Joshua Angrist; David Autor; Sally Hudson; Amanda Pallais
    Abstract: Does financial aid increase college attendance and completion? Selection bias and the high implicit tax rates imposed by overlapping aid programs make this question difficult to answer. This paper reports initial findings from a randomized evaluation of a large privately-funded scholarship program for applicants to Nebraska's public colleges and universities. Our research design answers the challenges of aid evaluation with random assignment of aid offers and a strong first stage for aid received: randomly assigned aid offers increased aid received markedly. This in turn appears to have boosted enrollment and persistence, while also shifting many applicants from two- to four-year schools. Awards offered to nonwhite applicants, to those with relatively low academic achievement, and to applicants who targeted less-selective four-year programs (as measured by admissions rates) generated the largest gains in enrollment and persistence, while effects were much smaller for applicants predicted to have stronger post-secondary outcomes in the absence of treatment. Thus, awards enabled groups with historically-low college attendance to ʽlevel up,ʼ largely equalizing enrollment and persistence rates with traditionally college-bound peers, particularly at four-year programs. Awards offered to prospective community college students had little effect on college enrollment or the type of college attended.
    JEL: H52 I21 I22 I23 I28 J24
    Date: 2014–12
  13. By: B. Cecilia Garcia-Medina; Jean-Francois Wen (University of Calgary)
    Abstract: We construct the ratio of the post-fisc transitory income variance to the pre-fisc transitory income variance of family incomes as a measure of fiscal progressivity in Canada between 1993 and 2008. This ratio can be interpreted as measuring the extent to which the fiscal system attenuates personal income instability. We find that the tax and transfer system has been less effective in stabilizing market incomes after 1998 compared to the previous years. This is attributable to the provincial and federal tax reforms from 1999-2001, which particularly affected families headed by individuals with less than high school education. While the reforms reduced the effective marginal tax rates faced across all educational groups, the reduction is relatively larger among families with highly educated main earners. Moreover, the group with less than high school education is distinct in that the average effective tax burden in this group increased. Changes to Social Assistance also appear to have played a role.
    Date: 2015–01–12
  14. By: John Bound (University of Michigan); Arline Geronimus (University of Michigan); Javier Rodriguez (University of Michigan); Timothy Waidmann (Urban Institute)
    Abstract: While increased life expectancy in the U.S. has been used as justification for raising the Social Security retirement ages, independent researchers have reported that life expectancy declined in recent decades for white women with less than a high school education. However, there has been a dramatic rise in educational attainment in the U.S. over the 20th century suggesting a more adversely selected population with low levels of education. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the U.S. Census from 1990-2010, we examine the robustness of earlier findings to several modifications in the assumptions and methodology employed. We categorize education in terms of relative rank in the overall distribution, rather than by credentials or years of education, and estimate trends in mortality for the bottom quartile. We also consider race and gender specific changes in the distribution of life expectancy. We found no evidence that survival probabilities declined for the bottom quartile of educational attainment. Nor did distributional analyses find any subgroup experienced absolute declines in survival probabilities. We conclude that recent dramatic and highly publicized estimates of worsening mortality rates among non-Hispanic whites who did not graduate from high school are highly sensitive to alternative approaches to asking the fundamental questions implied. However, it does appear that low SES groups are not sharing equally in improving mortality conditions, which raises concerns about the differential impacts of policies that would raise retirement ages uniformly in response to average increases in life expectancy.
    Date: 2014–10
  15. By: Celeste K. Carruthers; Marianne H. Wanamaker
    Abstract: Gains in 20th century real wages and reductions in the black-white wage gap have been linked to the mid-century ascent of school quality. With a new dataset uniquely appropriate to identifying the impact of female voter enfranchisement on education spending, we attribute up to one-third of the 1920-1940 rise in public school expenditures to the Nineteenth Amendment. Yet the continued disenfranchisement of black southerners meant white school gains far outpaced those for blacks. As a result, women’s suffrage exacerbated racial inequality in education expenditures and substantially delayed relative gains in black human capital observed later in the century.
    JEL: H75 I24 N32
    Date: 2015–01
  16. By: Douzounet MALLAYE; Urbain Thierry YOGO
    Abstract: Since 2000, Official Development Assistance has played a crucial role in efforts related to the achievement of MDGs. This is especially the case in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) which is the world’s largest recipient of foreign aid. This paper assesses the effectiveness of aid and its efficient use in achieving universal primary education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The impact of aid is assessed for a sample of 35 SSA countries over the decade 2000-2010. The results suggest that higher aid to education significantly increases primary completion rate. This result is robust to the use of various methods of estimation, the inclusion of instrument to account for the endogeneity of aid and the set of control variables included in regressions. In addition, this paper shows that there is strong heterogeneity in the efficient use of aid across countries in SSA.
    Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, Primary Education
    JEL: I22 H55 O11 F35
    Date: 2015–01
  17. By: Benjamin M. Marx; Lesley J. Turner
    Abstract: We use regression discontinuity and regression kink designs to estimate the impact of need-based grant aid on the borrowing and educational attainment of students enrolled in a large public university system. Pell Grant aid substantially reduces borrowing: among students who would borrow in the absence of a Pell Grant, every dollar of Pell Grant aid crowds-out over $1.80 of loans. A simple model illustrates that our findings are consistent with students facing a fixed cost of incurring debt. The presence of such a fixed cost may lead to the unintended consequence of additional grant aid decreasing some students' attainment. Empirically, we rule out all but modest average impacts of Pell Grant aid on attainment, and we provide suggestive evidence of heterogeneous effects consistent with our fixed-borrowing-cost model. We estimate an augmented Tobit model with random censoring thresholds to allow for heterogeneous fixed borrowing costs, and find that eliminating the fixed cost would increase borrowing by over 250 percent.
    JEL: D14 H52 I22
    Date: 2015–01
  18. By: Gabriela Wronowska (Cracow University of Economics, Poland)
    Abstract: This paper addresses issues related to higher education in selected EU Member States and its contribution to the creation of wealth. Special emphasis was placed on the shape of education policy in selected countries through an analysis of the main indicators characterizing the same. The paper raises a number of questions which are important from the point of view of social policy: these questions relate to the policy of higher education funding and attempts to isolate and identify the relationships between higher education funding and the situation of people with higher education on the labour market. In the first part of this paper, the author presents the phenomenon of welfare by taking into account its measurement, especially those measures that relate to education related elements. Then the author indicates the relationship between education, especially its availability, and the process of wealth creation in the economy. In the empirical part of the paper an analysis is carried out on the basis of available and comparable indicators for selected EU Member States and conclusions are drawn based on the indicators.
    Keywords: welfare; higher education; social policy
    JEL: A11 H52 I25 I32
    Date: 2014–12
  19. By: George B. Bulman; Caroline M. Hoxby
    Abstract: Three tax credits benefit households who pay tuition and fees for higher education. The credits have been justified as an investment: generating more educated people and thus more earnings and externalities associated with education. The credits have also been justified purely as tax cuts to benefit the middle class. In 2009, the generosity of and eligibility for the tax credits expanded enormously so that their 2011 cost was $25 billion. Using selected, de-identified data from the population of potential filers, we show how the credits are distributed across households with different incomes. We estimate the causal effects of the federal tax credits using two empirical strategies (regression kink and simulated instruments) which we show to be strong and very credibly valid for this application. The latter strategy exploits the massive expansion of the credits in 2009. We present causal estimates of the credits' effects on postsecondary attendance, the type of college attended, the resources experienced in college, tuition paid, and financial aid received. We discuss the implications of our findings for society's return on investment and for the tax credits' budget neutrality over the long term (whether higher lifetime earnings generate sufficient taxes to recoup the tax expenditures). We assess several explanations why the credits appear to have negligible causal effects.
    JEL: H2 H24 I22 I23 I28
    Date: 2015–01
  20. By: Swenson, David A.
    Abstract: This analysis measures the regional economic value of the University of Northern Iowa.  There are two dimensions evaluated: the overall worth of operating the university and the value of student spending in the area economy.  This analysis incorporates a number of best practices for measuring the worth of universities to regional economies.
    Keywords: university; input-output; economic impacts
    Date: 2015–01–05
  21. By: Godard, Mathilde; Garrouste, Clémentine
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether leaving school in a bad economy deteriorates health in the longrun. We focus on individuals in England and Wales who left full-time education in their last year of compulsory schooling immediately after the 1973 oil crisis. Our identification strategy builds on two sources. First, it relies on the comparison of very similar individuals – born the same year – whose school-leaving behaviour in different economic conditions was exogeneously induced by compulsory schooling laws. More specifically, within a same birth cohort, pupils born at the end of the calendar year (September to December) were forced to leave school almost a year later than pupils born earlier in the year (January to August). Second, we exploit the sharp increase in unemployment rates generated by the 1973 oil crisis. Between 1974 and 1976, each school cohort indeed faced worse economic conditions at labour-market entry than the previous one. Unlike school-leavers who did postpone their entry on the labour market during the 1980s and 1990s recessions, we provide evidence that pupils’ decisions to leave school at compulsory age between 1974 and 1976 were not endogeneous to the contemporaneous economic conditions at labour market entry. We use a repeated cross section of individuals over 1983-2001 from the General Household Survey (GHS) and take a life-course perspective, from 7 to 26 years after school-leaving. Our results show that men who left school in a bad economy have a higher probability of smoking over the whole period (1983-2001) and of having ever smoked. Women who left school in a bad economy are more likely to report poorer health over the whole period under study. They also have a higher probability to restrict their activity due to illness or injury and to consult the General Practitioner. We do not find any significant effects of poor economic conditions at labour-market entry on subsequent labour-market, marriage and fertility outcomes.
    Keywords: General Household Survey; Labour market; School-leavers; Economic crisis; Education; England; Wales;
    JEL: J17 N34 I29
    Date: 2014–12
  22. By: Akduman, Gülbeniz; Hatipoğlu, Zeynep; Yüksekbilgili, Zeki
    Abstract: Success in the workplace takes a lot more than education, book knowledge or experience. Organizations and the conscious, achievement-oriented managers needs a high rate of "emotional intelligence" to be successful. Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify and manage personal emotions and the emotions of others. Emotional intelligence (EQ) matters just as much as intellectual ability (IQ). In the research Chan’s (2006) EI12 scale was used for the measure of emotional intelligence. The main question of the study is to analyze the emotional intelligence according to generations. In this study, it is proved that there is a no significant difference about emotional intelligence in different generations.
    Keywords: Emotional intelligence, EI, generations
    JEL: M50 M59
    Date: 2014–09
  23. By: Ian M. McCarthy; Michael Dardeny
    Abstract: We examine the response of Medicare Advantage contracts to published quality ratings. We identify the effect of star ratings on premiums using a regression discontinuity design that exploits plausibly random variation around rating thresholds. We find that 3, 3.5, and 4-star contracts in 2009 significantly increased their 2010 monthly premiums by $20 or more relative to contracts just below the respective threshold values. High quality contracts also disproportionately dropped $0 premium plans or expanded their offering of positive premium plans. Welfare results suggest that the estimated premium increases reduced consumer welfare by over $250 million among the affected beneficiaries.
    Date: 2014–08
  24. By: Ghadei, Kalyan; Rudd, Rick
    Abstract: International net work of E learning should be initiated to reach the world wide students of Agriculture.
    Keywords: Students, Agriculture, Access, Awareness, perception, attitude, E-learning, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Akıncı, Zafer
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that affect academic achievement. The concept of family, attachment styles, different parent attitudes and reflection on children academic lifes of these attitudes are examined.
    Keywords: Academic achievement, parental approach, moderateness.
    JEL: Z1 Z19
    Date: 2015–01
  26. By: Ohe, Yasuo
    Abstract: Based on an analytical framework, this paper classified farmer’s identity into two types: traditional identity that is oriented toward simple farm production and enlarged identity that is oriented toward viability of a new service activity. Second, by data envelopment analysis, the result of managerial efficiency simulation of a two-sector model, that is, the main milk production and the educational activity, revealed that those with the enlarged identity could realize higher managerial efficiency than those with the conventional identity. Thus, it was revealed that a farmer’s identity makes a difference in managerial efficiency. The efficiency level, however, was not high, which means that there is much room for improvement in farm resource management. Consequently, when policymakers try to design support measures to develop tourism-related farm diversification, the perspective of the support measures for capacity building should be widened to include identity issues, which helps farmers widen their identity that enable them to be more efficiently acceptable for tourism activity.
    Keywords: educational tourism in agriculture, identity, data envelopment analysis, technical efficiency, Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Farm Management, Labor and Human Capital, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2014–10
  27. By: Swenson, David A.
    Abstract: This is part of a reform effort published by the Association of Public Land Grant Universities, entitled Economic Engagement: Economic Impact Guidelines. Chapter 2 of this workshop compendium focuses on problems and solutions associated with measuring universities' contributions to regional economic activity. Economic Impact GuidelinesDECEMBER 2014  
    Keywords: input-output; impact analysis; University economic impacts
    Date: 2014–12–15
  28. By: Gil S. Epstein (Bar-Ilan University); Dalit Gafni (The College of Management, Israel); Erez Siniver (The College of Management, Israel)
    Abstract: Economic outcomes are compared for university graduates in Israel belonging to four different ethnic groups. A unique dataset is used that includes all individuals who graduated with a first degree from universities and colleges in Israel between the years 1995 and 2008 and which tracks them for up to 10 years from the year they graduated. The main finding is that education and experience appear to have a strong effect on earnings in the long run and that an ethnic group can improve its position relative to specific groups while it has no effects relative to other groups.
    Keywords: wage differences, immigrants, discrimination
    JEL: J15 J24 J31
    Date: 2015–01
  29. By: Dan Goldhaber Duncan Dunbar Chaplin
    Abstract: In an influential paper, Jesse Rothstein (2010) shows that standard value-added models (VAMs) suggest implausible and large future teacher effects on past student achievement. This is the basis of a falsification test that appears to indicate bias in typical VAM estimates of teacher contributions to student learning on standardized tests.
    Keywords: Value added , falsification tests , teacher evaluation
    JEL: I
    Date: 2015–01–12

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