nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2014‒11‒01
seventeen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Private Schools and "Latino Flight" from Black Schoolchildren By Fairlie, Robert
  2. Online Posting of Teaching Evaluations and Grade Inflation By Talia Bar; Vrinda Kadiyali; Asaf Zussman
  3. Competition, Selectivity and Innovation in the Higher Educational Market By Lynne Pepall; Dan Richard
  4. Out of sight, out of mind? Educational outcomes of children with parents working abroad. By Joanna Clifton-Sprigg (The University of Edinburgh)
  6. Modern secondary education and economic performance: the introduction of the Gewerbeschule and Realschule in nineteenth-century Bavaria By Semrad, Alexandra
  7. Disabled children's cognitive development in the early years By Samantha Parsons; Lucinda Platt
  8. Innovation in education and re-industrialisation in Europe By Paola Mengoli; Margherita russo
  9. Family Structure and the Education Gender Gap: Evidence from Italian Provinces By Graziella Bertocchi; Monica Bozzano
  10. Overeducation in the Japanese Labor Market:Evidence from the 2007 Employment Status Survey(in Japanese) By HIRAO Tomotaka
  11. Does Public Education Expansion Lead to Trickle-Down Growth? By Böhm, Sebastian; Grossmann, Volker; Steger, Thomas M.
  12. Youth Employability and Employment from the Perspective of Active Labour Market Policies By Asplund, Rita; Koistinen, Pertti
  13. Getting a First Job: Quality of the Labor Matching in French Cities By Brahim Boualam
  14. The role of conferences on the pathway to academic impact: Evidence from a natural experiment By Fernanda L. L. de Leon; Ben McQuillin
  15. The Role of Institutional Characteristics in Knowledge Transfer: A Comparative Analysis of Two Italian Universities. By Rossi, Federica; Fassio,Claudio; Geuna, Aldo
  16. Overeducation in the Japanese Youth Labor Market: Effects of Educational Mismatch on Wages(in Japanese) By INUI Tomohiko; KWON Hyeog Ug; SENOH Wataru; NAKAMURO Makiko; HIRAO Tomotaka; MATSUSHIGE Hisakazu
  17. Education and Human Capital Development to Strengthen R & D Capacity in ASEAN By Tereso S. Tullao, Jr.; Christopher James Cabuay

  1. By: Fairlie, Robert
    Abstract: Several recent studies provide evidence that the choice between private and public school among white students is influenced by the racial composition of the local student population.  None of these studies, however, examines whether Latinos are also fleeing to private schools in response to black schoolchildren.  I explore the "Latino flight" hypothesis using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) and a recently released confidential dataset from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES).  In probit regressions for the probability of attending private school among Latinos, I find a large, positive and statistically significant coefficient on the black share of the school-age population.  The coefficient estimates imply that a 10 percentage point increase in the black share increases the probability of private school attendance by 25.7 to 33.2 percent among Latino 8th graders and 35.2 to 52.2 percent among Latino 10th graders.  I interpret these results as providing evidence of "Latino flight" from public schools into private schools.  I do not find evidence that Latinos respond differently to black schoolchildren than do whites.
    Keywords: Education, Social and Behavioral Sciences, education, private school, latino, minority, flight
    Date: 2014–09–23
  2. By: Talia Bar (University of Connecticut); Vrinda Kadiyali (Cornell University); Asaf Zussman (Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
    Abstract: In 2008 the faculty senate of Cornell University’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) decided to publish mean student evaluations of teaching online. The stated goal of the policy was to “provide useful information to students as they design their program of study.” Using 2003-2011 data from CALS we study the effects of this policy change on teaching evaluations, grading outcomes and students’ course choices. Identification relies on the differential response of initially-low and initially-high rated instructors. While student evaluations of teaching increased, the policy change contributed to grade inflation and had little effect on course enrollment and composition.
    Keywords: student evaluations of teaching, grade inflation, higher education
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2014–09
  3. By: Lynne Pepall; Dan Richard
    Abstract: Recent innovations in digital learning and web-based technologies have enable scalability in educational services that has previously not been feasible presenting a potential disruption of traditional higher education markets. This paper explores the impact of these innovations in vertically differentiated market with network externalities. Students differ in their ability to benefit from educational services. We describe how selective and non-selective institutions compete for students through tuition price and admission criteria and consider how free non-credentialed educational services (MOOCs) affect the market equilibrium. Our model also helps explain why selective institutions are frequently also the proprietors of MOOCs.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Vertical Differentiation, Network Effects
    JEL: D43 I23
  4. By: Joanna Clifton-Sprigg (The University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: Impact of parental emigration on educational outcomes of children is theoretically ambiguous. Using novel data I collected on migration experience and its timing, family background and school performance of lower secondary pupils in Poland, I analyse the question empirically. Migration is mostly temporary in nature, with one parent engaging in employment abroad. As many as 63% of migrant parents have vocational qualifications, 29% graduated from high school, 4% have no qualifications and the remaining 4% graduated from university. Almost 18% of children are affected by parental migration. Perhaps surprisingly, estimates suggest that parental employment abroad has a positive immediate impact on a pupil's grade. Parental education appears pivotal; children of high school graduates benefit most. Longer term effects appear more negative, however, suggesting that a prolonged migration significantly lowers a child's grade. Interestingly, siblings' foreign experiences exert a large, positive impact on pupils' grades.
    Keywords: education of adolescents, migration
    JEL: F22 I29 J13
    Date: 2014–10–16
  5. By: Olivian STANICA (General Staff – M.O.D)
    Abstract: The Bologna Process should be regarded as means to an end: its main goal is to provide the educational component necessary for the construction of a Europe of knowledge within a broad humanistic vision and in the context of massified higher education systems; with lifelong access to learning that supports the professional and personal objectives of a diversity of learners. The different elements of the Bologna reforms have evolved through time, and have sometimes led to a fragmented and instrumental view of education that has not always facilitated understanding in institutions of the important links between the various elements. This can be improved if the tools are seen as being interconnected, and as a means of moving towards student-centred learning.
    Keywords: student, teacher curriculum reform, quality assurance, mobility, supplement diploma, credit transfer system
    Date: 2013–11
  6. By: Semrad, Alexandra
    Abstract: Do new school types focusing on practical and business-related knowledge lead to increased economic performance? To analyze this question, this paper examines the introduction of two types of modern secondary education, the Gewerbeschule and its successor, the Realschule, in nineteenth-century Bavaria. Since opening of these schools is arguably endogenous – as it were mainly the prosperous, big cities that opened one – the estimated treatment effect capturing the economic influence of the Gewerbeschule/Realschule will lead to biased results. To alleviate this bias, I adopt propensity score matching to compare relatively alike counties with and without these schools. Using historical county-level data on business formations, tax revenues, employment structure, and patent holdings, OLS regression analysis shows that the opening of a modern secondary school is in general positively associated with economic performance several years later.
    Keywords: human capital; secondary education; economic history; economic development; Bavaria
    JEL: I25 N33
    Date: 2014–08
  7. By: Samantha Parsons (Department of Quantitative Social Science, Institute of Education); Lucinda Platt (Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science)
    Abstract: Disabled children are known to fare worse in terms of educational attainment during their school years, with subsequent consequences for their later transitions and adult outcomes. But despite the acknowledged importance of the early years in children's later outcomes, we know relatively little about when disabled children's educational problems emerge or how they develop in young childhood. In this paper, we use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of UK children to address the following questions: do disabled children in England have lower cognitive skills prior to school entry? How do educational attainment and cognitive skills develop over the early school years relative to their non-disabled peer group? What role do background and environmental factors play in accounting for patterns of disabled children's progress? Using multiple measures of educational and cognitive attainment, and controlling for a number of key child, family and environmental factors, we investigate educational progress across two measures of disability. We find that disabled children have poorer cognitive skills at age 3, and that this is not accounted for by differences in home context. We also find that they make less progress over the early years than their non-disabled peers with similar levels of cognitive skills. Our findings are robust to a series of alternative specifications. Implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Disability, children, educational progress, Millennium Cohort Study, Special Educational Needs, Longstanding Limiting Illness, school, Key Stage 1, England
    JEL: I21 I24 J13 J14
    Date: 2014–10–07
  8. By: Paola Mengoli; Margherita russo
    Abstract: In this paper we discuss innovations in education, with a focus on those oriented towards knowledge-driven re-industrialisation in Europe. We first introduce the specific education needs for re- industrialisation with regard (a) to young peo-ple’s knowledge and skills in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and (b) to specific training needs of mid-level technicians. Then we pro- pose the adoption of a context-based approach to place science and technology with- in young people’s daily lives and to promote links between science, technology and society. In particular, we propose the use of robotics labs to improve context-based approach to technology education. We suggest action-research as a feasible practice to boost bottom-up changes in teaching and learning activities, and we focus on the university initiative Officina Emilia as an exemplar of such actions, as the initiative involves university researchers, manufacturing and services companies, education agencies, civil society. The paper offers some concluding remarks on two main in-gredients that can support a more appropriate set of education and training activities to enhance knowledge-driven re-industrialisation: first, the need to allow the emer-gence of hybrid places fostering innovation, with the involvement of different agents; second, the robotics labs, among others, as a means to foster a multidiscipli-nary perspective, crucial for the new challenges that education faces in supporting re- industrialization.
    Keywords: innovation in education; knowledge driven reindustrialization in Europe; technology context-based education; robotics and innovation in education
    JEL: I21 J24 I28 R1
    Date: 2014–07
  9. By: Graziella Bertocchi; Monica Bozzano
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of the education gender gap in Italy in historical perspective with a focus on the influence of family structure. We capture the latter with two indicators: residential habits (nuclear vs. complex families) and inheritance rules (partition vs. primogeniture). After controlling for economic, institutional, religious, and cultural factors, we find that over the 1861-1901 period family structure is a driver of the education gender gap, with a higher female to male enrollment rate ratio in upper primary schools being associated with nuclear residential habits and equal partition of inheritance. We also find that only the effect of inheritance rules persists over the 1971-2001 period.
    Keywords: Education gender gap, Italian Unification, family types, inheritance, institutions, religion, convergence
    JEL: E02 H75 I25 J16 N33 O15
    Date: 2014–07
  10. By: HIRAO Tomotaka
    Abstract: It is generally found that overeducated (undereducated) workers earn less (more) than their correctly placed colleagues and reported that the return to year of overeducation, though positive, is smaller than the return to year of required education. Overeducation (undereducation) refers to the mismatch wherein an individual has higher (lower) qualifications than that required for his/her current jobs. In sharp contrast to the lively debate on the economic effects of overeducation in the United States and other western countries, evidence from Japan on this issue is relatively scarce. In this paper, we analyze the effects of overeducation and undereducation on wages in the Japanese labor market. Our study uses the micro data of the 2007 Employment Status Survey gathered from a national sample of workers on educational attainments and present job; the survey was conducted in October 2007 by the Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs in Japan. This study found substantial overeducation penalties and undereducation bonuses, in line with previous researches. This suggests that the occupational structure of the Japanese labor market lacks the capacity to absorb the rising number of educated workers into traditional occupations. Thus, the empirical results of this study raise a number of important issues for Japanese educational and labor policy.
    Date: 2013–10
  11. By: Böhm, Sebastian; Grossmann, Volker; Steger, Thomas M.
    Abstract: The paper revisits the debate on trickle-down growth in view of the widely discussed evolution of the earnings and income distribution that followed a massive expansion of higher education. We propose a dynamic general equilibrium model to dynamically evaluate whether economic growth triggered by an increase in public education expenditure on behalf of those with high learning ability eventually trickles down to low-ability workers and serves them better than redistributive transfers. Our results suggest that, in the shorter run, low-skilled workers lose. They are better off from promoting equally sized redistributive transfers. In the longer run, however, low-skilled workers eventually benefit more from the education policy. Interestingly, although the expansion of education leads to sustained increases in the skill premium, income inequality follows an inverted U-shaped evolution.
    Keywords: Directed Technological Change; Publicly Financed Education; Redistributive Transfers; Transitional Dynamics; Trickle-Down Growth
    JEL: H20 J31 O30
    Date: 2014–10–21
  12. By: Asplund, Rita; Koistinen, Pertti
    Abstract: This literature review starts with a general discussion of young people and their various activities with special emphasis on youth unemployment and the outcome of alternative ways of measuring the prevalence of unemployment among young people. Thereafter the focus turns to measures targeted at young people based on the knowledge provided in relevant national as well as international literature. A distinction is thereby made between the role and impact of the education system, on the one hand, and active labour market policies (ALMP), on the other. The main reason for making this distinction is that early-year education and ALMP measures are typically targeted at differently aged young people. Apart from young people in general, attention is also paid to two special groups of young people: disabled young people and young immigrants. The review concludes with a discussion of main findings and their policy implications.
    Keywords: young people, education, dropouts, ALMP, evaluation, impact
    JEL: I20 I38 J08 J70
    Date: 2014–09–18
  13. By: Brahim Boualam
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the influence of urban density on the quality of the match between workers' field of education and their first occupation. Using survey data on young individuals that entered the French labor market in 2004, I propose an original measure of skill matching and find that the quality of the match increases with urban density. I also show that a better skill match is associated with higher wages and that this matching premium comes in addition to the urban wage premium.
    Keywords: agglomeration, skills, labor matching, urban wage premium.
    Date: 2014–09
  14. By: Fernanda L. L. de Leon (University of Kent); Ben McQuillin (University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence for the role of conferences in generating visibility for academic work, using a ‘natural experiment’: the last-minute cancellation – due to ‘Hurricane Isaac’ – of the 2012 American Political Science Association (APSA) Annual Meeting. We assembled a dataset containing outcomes of 15,624 articles scheduled to be presented between 2009 and 2012 at the APSA meetings or at a comparator annual conference (that of the Midwest Political Science Association). Our estimates are quantified in difference-in-difference analyses: first using the comparator meetings as a control, then exploiting heterogeneity in a measure of session attendance, within the APSA meetings. We observe significant ‘conference effects’: on average, articles gain 17-26 downloads in the 15 months after being presented in a conference. The effects are larger for papers authored by scholars affiliated to lower tier universities and scholars in the early stages of their career. Our findings are robust to several tests.
    Keywords: effects of conferences, diffusion of scientific knowledge
    JEL: O39 I23 L38
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Rossi, Federica; Fassio,Claudio; Geuna, Aldo (University of Turin)
    Date: 2014–09
  16. By: INUI Tomohiko; KWON Hyeog Ug; SENOH Wataru; NAKAMURO Makiko; HIRAO Tomotaka; MATSUSHIGE Hisakazu
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the negative impacts of overeducation on wages in the Japanese youth labor market. In addition, this study assesses empirically the validity of the Human Capital Theory and Job Competition Model within the context of overeducation and undereducation. Our study uses the data set of a web monitoring survey targeting Japanese youth aged 17 to 27; the survey was conducted in January 2012 by the Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office. The increasing trend of youth to enroll for longer educational courses and the relative scarcity of suitable job opportunities later results in overeducation. Overeducation is the mismatch that an individual have higher qualifications than required for their current jobs. This phenomenon leads to various negative outcomes. As expected, there is a negative relationship between overeducation and wages. Overeducated workers earn significantly lesser than their correctly placed colleagues, after controlling for ability and other potential bias. The occupational structure of the Japanese youth labor market lacks the capacity to absorb the rising number of educated workers into traditional occupations. Conversely, undereducated employees earn more than youth in jobs exactly matched to their qualifications. In terms of a theoretical framework, our findings imply that the Human Capital Theory is not valid within the context of overeducation and undereducation in the Japanese youth labor market.
    Date: 2012–12
  17. By: Tereso S. Tullao, Jr. (De La Salle University); Christopher James Cabuay (De La Salle University)
    Abstract: This Policy Brief raises some policy issues regarding the capacity of the ASEAN region’s education system in producing knowledge capital as it looks into the opportunities and challenges faced by the sector. This is critical for ASEAN to enable it to attain its quest to be a base for innovation. Among the issues that ASEAN has to confront in achieving this goal relate to the development of financing schemes for various types of education, improvement in the level of investments in research and development, and revisit of the way teaching is conducted in the 21st century, especially in certain disciplines crucial to engendering innovation for growth and development.
    Date: 2014–01

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