nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2014‒10‒22
nine papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Key Trends in Russia’s Educational System in 2013 By Tatiana Klyachko
  2. Out of sight, not out of mind. Education networks and international trade By Marina Murat
  3. The Impact of High-Stakes School-Admission Exams on Study Effort and Achievements: Quasi-experimental Evidence from Slovakia By Miroslava Federicova
  4. Universities, Funding Systems, and the Renewal of the Industrial Knowledge Base: UNI Project Findings By Luukkonen, Terttu
  5. Analyzing educational achievement differences between second-generation immigrants: Comparing Germany and German-speaking Switzerland By Johannes S. Kunz
  6. Eficiência Técnica dos Municípios Brasileiros na Educação Pública: Escores Robustos e Fatores Determinantes By Bernardo P. Schettini
  7. The Postgraduate Wage Premium: Estimating the Age-Wage Profiles Using 2007 Employment Status Survey(in Japanese) By KAKIZAWA Hisanobu; HIRAO Tomotaka; MATSUSHIGE Hisakazu; YAMASAKI Izumi; INUI Tomohiko
  8. Incentives and Children's Dietary Choices: A Field Experiment in Primary Schools By Michele Below; Jonathan James; Patrick Nolen
  9. Education ties and investments abroad. Empirical evidence from the US and UK By Marina Murat

  1. By: Tatiana Klyachko (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This paper deals with a wide range of educational system in Russia. ?
    Keywords: Russian educational institutions, educational reform
    JEL: I21 I22 I23 I24 I25 I28
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Marina Murat
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of international students on the UK bilateral trade with 167 partner economies during 1999-2009. The base hypothesis is that transnational social networks lower the invisible trade barriers existing between countries. University students typically develop ties of friendship and trust that can last for decades after graduation and may evolve into economic and business ties. I find robust evidence that education networks boost the bilateral trade between the UK and the home countries of graduates and students. At a more disaggregated level, the strongest effects on exports and imports derive from the networks linked to the Middle East and to the new member countries of the European Union;
    Keywords: International students; higher education; networks; bilateral trade;
    JEL: I23 J24 F14 F20
    Date: 2012–11
  3. By: Miroslava Federicova
    Abstract: High-stakes admission exams to selective schools create incentives for more intensive study effort possibly increasing study achievements of students. Exploiting the exogenous change of a schooling system and using two waves of TIMSS survey data we find that high-stakes exams increase math test scores of ten-year-old students by 0.2 standard deviations. This effect additionally accrues by around 0.05 standard deviations for students in the top decile, i.e. students who apply for selective schools with the highest probability. Although the effects are similar for both genders, there are indications that girls exert higher study efforts than boys in a more competitive environment. The most perceptive to incentives are test items referring to the cognitive domain of reasoning requiring a deeper understanding of math problems.
    Keywords: high-stakes exams; students’motivation; achievement;
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2014–09
  4. By: Luukkonen, Terttu
    Abstract: An important prerequisite for the renewal of Finland’s industrial and economic base is the ability of the universities to promote the renewal of the knowledge base. The UNI project studied ways in which changes in external funding mechanisms and recent governance changes in Finnish universities have changed the framework conditions influencing innovativeness and innovation in university research. Innovation here refers to novel approaches and potentially, breakthrough research, requiring risk-taking. The UK provided a comparative perspective for the study. This report reprints four separate policy briefs and reports that the UNI project has produced and provides an overall concluding chapter for them. A major conclusion of the study is that, so far, there has not been much impact from the recent policy changes on intellectual innovation in research in Finland. University governance influences research content very indirectly and is mediated by multiple other factors, meaning that policy changes are not, at least in the short run, translated into changed research content. As far as research funding organisations are concerned, Finland has not had a funding organisation that encourages risk-taking and intellectual innovation in research. Recent policy changes have not fundamentally altered this situation. In the UK, the established practice of performance measurement of universities seems to narrow notions of appropriate research content and standards of performance and is becoming an ominous factor in reducing variety and risk-taking in university research. This phenomenon is further developed in the UK, but Finland seems now to be ‘catching up’. In industry-university collaboration short-term commissions and most of Tekes’ industrial collaboration support draw on existing knowledge and know-how and are not intended to promote highly innovative and high-risk activities. More flexible and longer-term contracts can in principle promote such research activities provided that the knowledge they produce will be in the public arena since scientific breakthroughs, to bear fruit, require a great deal of further development and wide adoption of the novel concepts, methods etc. by the scientific community.
    Keywords: university research, research funding, intellectual innovation in research, university governance
    JEL: O38 O39
    Date: 2014–09–25
  5. By: Johannes S. Kunz
    Abstract: In this study, I provide evidence that the educational achievement of second-generation immigrants in German-speaking Switzerland is greater than in Germany. The impact of the first-generation immigrants' destination decision on their offspring's educational achievement seems to be much more important than has been recognized by the existing literature. I identify the test score gap between these students that cannot be explained by differences in individual and family characteristics. Moreover, I show how this gap evolves over the test score distribution and how the least favorably-endowed students fare. My results suggest that the educational system of Switzerland, relative to the German system, enhances the performance of immigrants' children substantially. This disparity is largest when conditioning on the language spoken at home, and prevails even when comparing only students whose parents migrated from the same country of origin.
    Keywords: Immigrant comparison, educational achievement decomposition, Germany and Switzerland
    JEL: I21 I24 J15
    Date: 2014–09
  6. By: Bernardo P. Schettini
    Abstract: Este artigo estima a eficiência técnica relativa dos municípios brasileiros na educação pública por meio da técnica DEA, aliada a regressões tobit e com o auxílio de métodos de reamostragem. O método jackstrap possibilitou chegar a escores de eficiência robustos, enquanto o bootstrap viabilizou estimar o viés destes índices. Com efeito, estimativas kernel das densidades evidenciaram alterações notáveis na distribuição da eficiência. A análise econométrica contou com o algoritmo que corrige a correlação serial dos escores. Conforme esperado, os fatores ambientais alteram de maneira relevante a dispersão da eficiência no Brasil. Em um passo final, foram implementados testes de comparação de grupos baseados em informações referentes a certas práticas de gestão na área da educação pública. This paper estimates the relative technical efficiency of Brazilian municipalities in the public education using the DEA model along with tobit regressions with the aid of resampling methods. The jackstrap method enabled the estimation of robust efficiency scores, while the bootstrap allowed the estimation of the bias in those indexes. In effect, kernel density estimates portray remarkable changes in the distribution of efficiency. The econometric analysis relied upon the algorithm which corrects the serial correlation in the scores. It is noteworthy how accounting for environmental factors alters the dispersion of efficiency in Brazil. In a final step, we implement group comparisons tests based on information relative to certain management practices in the area of public education.
    Date: 2014–08
  7. By: KAKIZAWA Hisanobu; HIRAO Tomotaka; MATSUSHIGE Hisakazu; YAMASAKI Izumi; INUI Tomohiko
    Abstract: Many people have been skeptical about the economic value of going to graduate school in Japan. However, there are few empirical studies to analyze this issue. This paper estimates the private internal rate of return to postgraduate education and assesses the postgraduate wage premium in Japan. In particular, the study illustrates how much the payroll systems of companies and institutions favor postgraduate graduates over college graduates by analyzing the age-wage profiles of workers who continuously work for the same employers after they graduate. The comparison of the age-wage profiles of college degree holders and postgraduate degree holders reveals that the lifetime wage income is higher among those with postgraduate degrees than among those who have college degrees both for males and females. The wages of postgraduate graduates continue to rise as they get older, which widens the wage gap with college graduates. The internal rates of return to master’s degrees are 11.4% for males and 10.1% for females, while the ones to Ph.Ds are 5.9% for males and 5.7% for females. The paper therefore shows the significant postgraduate wage premium over college graduates.
    Date: 2014–06
  8. By: Michele Below; Jonathan James; Patrick Nolen
    Abstract: We conduct a field experiment in 31 primary schools in England to test the effectiveness of different temporary incentive schemes, a standard individual based incentive scheme and a competitive scheme, on increasing the choice and consumption of healthy items at lunchtime. The individual scheme has a weak positive effect that masks significantly differential effects by age whereas all students respond positively to the competitive scheme.For our sample of interest, the competivie scheme increases choice of healthy items by 33% and consumption of healthy items by 48%, twice and three times as much as ain the individual incentive scheme, respectively. The positive effects generally carry over to the week immediately following the treatment but we find little evidence of any effects six months later. Our results show that incentives can work, at least temporarily, to increase healthy eating but that there are large differences in effectiveness between schemes. Furthermore it is important to analyse things at the individual level as average effects appear to be masking significant heterogeneous effects that are predicted by the health literature.
    Date: 2014–09–05
  9. By: Marina Murat
    Abstract: Abstract. This paper analyses the impact of university student ties on the FDI of the US and UK into 167 countries during the period 1999-2010. University ties are measured by international students flows and alumni associations worldwide. Studies on transnational social networks suggest that effects should be higher on the FDI directed to the developing economies. The paper’s main findings are that international student flows and alumni associations abroad exert a positive influence on the FDI from the US and UK into the students’ home countries. More specifically, their influence is strong and significant in the group of developing countries. Results, similar for the US and UK, are robust to different regressors and econometric specifications.
    Keywords: International students, alumni, bilateral FDI, education networks.
    JEL: F14 F20 I23 J24
    Date: 2013–06

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