nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2014‒09‒29
eleven papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Disruptive School Peers and Student Outcomes By Jannie H.G. Kristoffersen; Author-Name: Morten Visby Krægpøth; Helena Skyt Nielsen; Jannie Marianne Simonsen
  2. Enrollment and degree completion in higher education without ex ante admission standards By Koen DECLERCQ; Frank VERBOVEN
  3. Inequality of Educational Opportunities in Egypt By Lire Ersado; Jérémie Gignoux
  4. State Mandated Financial Education and the Credit Behavior of Young Adults By Brown, Alexandra; Collins, J. Michael; Schmeiser, Maximilian D.; Urban, Carly
  5. The Effects of Home Computers on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from a Field Experiment with Community College Students By Fairlie, Robert
  6. An Annotated Bibliography of Agricultural Education and Training Impact Evaluations By Turner, Eleanor; Mughisha, Johnny; Haggblade, Steven; Hendriks, Sheryl; Terblanche, Fanie; Yaye, Aissetou
  7. Learning from Local Practices : Improving Student Performance in West Bank and Gaza By Noah Yarrow; Husein Abdul-Hamid; Manal Quota; Ernesto Cuadra
  8. Age at Immigration and High School Dropouts By Sarit Cohen Goldner; Gil S. Epstein
  9. Emotional and Social Intelligence and Leadership Development in the Higher Education. An exploratory study By Fabrizio Gerli; Sara Bonesso; Anna Comacchio; Claudio Pizzi
  10. Cultural capital in an early modern elite school: The Noble Cadet Corps in St Petersburg, 1732-1762 By Igor Fedyukin; Salavat Gabdrakhmanov
  11. Comparable estimates of returns to schooling around the world By Montenegro, Claudio E.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

  1. By: Jannie H.G. Kristoffersen (Copenhagen Business School); Author-Name: Morten Visby Krægpøth (Department of Economics and Business, Aarhus University, Denmark); Helena Skyt Nielsen (Department of Economics and Business, Aarhus University, Denmark); Jannie Marianne Simonsen (Department of Economics and Business, Aarhus University, Denmark)
    Abstract: This paper estimates how peers’ achievement gains are affected by the presence of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children in the school-cohort. We exploit that some children move between schools and thus generate variation in peer composition in the receiving school- cohort. We identify three groups of potentially disruptive and emotionally sensitive children from detailed Danish register data: children with divorced parents, children with parents convicted of crime, and children with a psychiatric diagnosis. We find that adding potentially disruptive children lowers the academic achievement of peers by about 1.5-2 percent of a standard deviation.
    Keywords: Student Mobility, Crime, Special Educational Needs, Education, Value Added Model
    JEL: I21 J12
    Date: 2014–09–10
  2. By: Koen DECLERCQ; Frank VERBOVEN
    Abstract: Many countries organize their higher education system with limited or no ex ante admission standards. They instead rely more heavily on an ex post selection mechanism, based on the students’ performance during higher education. We analyze how a system with ex post selection affects initial enrollment and final degree completion, using a rich dataset for Belgium (region of Flanders). We develop a dynamic discrete choice model of college/university and major choice, where the outcome of the enrollment decision is uncertain. Upon observing past performance, students may decide to continue, reorient to another major, or drop out. We find that ex post student selection is very strong: less than half of the students successfully complete their course work in the first year. Unsuccessful students mainly switch from university to college majors, or from college majors to drop-out. We use the estimates of our model to evaluate the effects of alternative, ex ante admission policies. We find that a suitably designed ex ante screening system (with moderate admission thresholds) can considerably increase degree completion in higher education. A discriminatory screening system for universities only, can raise total degree completion even more, though it implies a shift from university to college degrees.
    Date: 2014–06
  3. By: Lire Ersado (The World Bank - The World Bank); Jérémie Gignoux (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - École normale supérieure [ENS] - Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)
    Abstract: This paper documents inequalities in access to education and educational achievements at basic and secondary education levels in Egypt. Examination of three cohorts suggests that, although basic education has democratized, some inequities in access to general secondary and college education have persisted over the past two decades. The analysis of test-scores from TIMSS and national examinations over time shows that more than a quarter of learning outcome inequality is attributable to circumstances beyond the control of a student, such as socioeconomic background and birthplace. The high level of overall achievement inequality observed makes inequities in learning opportunities between Egyptian youth high compared to other countries in absolute levels. Moreover learning gaps among pupils from different backgrounds appear at early grades. High and unequal levels of expenditures in private tutoring and tracking into vocational and general secondary schools that depends on a high stakes examination substantially contribute to unequal learning outcomes.
    Keywords: Educational inequality ; Educational achievement ; Inequality of opportunity ; Tracking ; Private tutoring ; Egypt
    Date: 2014–09
  4. By: Brown, Alexandra (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)); Collins, J. Michael (School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin-Madison); Schmeiser, Maximilian D. (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.)); Urban, Carly (Montana State University)
    Abstract: In the U.S., a number of states have mandated personal finance classes in public school curricula to address perceived deficiencies in financial decision-making competency. Despite the growth of financial and economic education provided in public schools, little is known about the effect of these programs on the credit behaviors of young adults. Using a panel of credit report data, we examine young adults in three states where personal financial education mandates were implemented in 2007: Georgia, Idaho, and Texas. We compare the credit scores and delinquency rates of young adults in each of these states pre- and post-implementation of the education to those of students in a synthetic control state and then bordering states without financial education. We find that young people who are in school after the implementation of a financial education requirement have higher relative credit scores and lower relative delinquency rates than those in control states.
    Keywords: Financial literacy; financial education; credit score; delinquency
    Date: 2014–09–03
  5. By: Fairlie, Robert
    Abstract: There is no clear theoretical prediction regarding whether home computers are an important input in the educational production function. To investigate the hypothesis that access to a home computer affects educational outcomes, we conduct the first-ever field experiment involving the provision of free computers to students for home use. Financial aid students attending a large community college in Northern California were randomly selected to receive free computers and were followed for two years. Although estimates for a few measures are imprecise and cannot rule out zero effects, we find some evidence that the treatment group achieved better educational outcomes than the control group. The estimated effects, however, are not large. We also provide some evidence that students initially living farther from campus benefit more from the free computers than students living closer to campus. Home computers appear to improve students’ computer skills and may increase the use of computers at non-traditional times. The estimated effects of home computers on educational outcomes from the experiment are smaller than the positive estimates reported in previous studies. Using matched CPS data, we find estimates of educational effects that are considerably larger than the experimental estimates.
    Keywords: Education, Social and Behavioral Sciences, computers, technology, education, ICT, community college
    Date: 2014–09–11
  6. By: Turner, Eleanor; Mughisha, Johnny; Haggblade, Steven; Hendriks, Sheryl; Terblanche, Fanie; Yaye, Aissetou
    Keywords: This article argues that current agricultural education systems are in need of fundamental reform to support improvements in global food security and environmental sustainability. Constraints and opportunities are presented relative to improving the quality of higher education in agriculture globally. Challenges discussed are the lack of global cooperation, the limited frame of reference associated with educational nationalism, underutilized sources of knowledge, the need for globalization of educational content, gender imbalances among students and faculty members, narrow disciplinary approaches used in organizing learning, and the narrow definition of scholarship and its impact on recognition systems at institutions engaged in higher education in agriculture. Advances in communication technology coupled with a rebirth of global cooperation make it possible to achieve significant advances in higher education in agriculture., Agricultural and Food Policy, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2013–03
  7. By: Noah Yarrow; Husein Abdul-Hamid; Manal Quota; Ernesto Cuadra
    Keywords: Secondary Education Teaching and Learning Education - Primary Education Education - Education For All Tertiary Education
    Date: 2014–06
  8. By: Sarit Cohen Goldner (Bar-Ilan University); Gil S. Epstein (Bar-Ilan University)
    Abstract: We focus on high school dropout rate among male and female immigrant children. We consider the relationship between the dropout rate and age of arrival of the immigrants. Using repeated cross sectional data from the Israeli Labor Force Surveys of 1996-2011 we show that the share of high school dropouts among immigrant children who arrived from the Former Soviet Union during 1989-1994 is at least as double than among natives in the same age group. Further, we show that among immigrant youth there is a monotonic negative relation between age at arrival and the share of high school dropouts. To understand our results we present a theoretical framework that links between age at arrival in the host country, language proficiency, quality of education and wages.
    Keywords: Immigrants,age at arrival, high-school dropouts.
    JEL: I21 J24 J61
    Date: 2014–07
  9. By: Fabrizio Gerli; Sara Bonesso; Anna Comacchio; Claudio Pizzi
    Abstract: Our study aims to contribute to the literature on leadership development through the lifespan, by providing an empirical evidence of the dynamic processes related to leadership development in early stages. This research advances the understanding on how higher education institutions can introduce a systematic approach to support leadership identity formation and self-regulation as primary outcome of leadership development process, by taking into account that individuals may undertake different developmental trajectories. We suggest that the implementation of the Intentional Change Theory in the academic context, which aims to help students to attain their desired professional future and to increase their self-awareness, could support leadership identity formation. Through the case study of the CaÕ Foscari Competency Centre (CFCC) of University of Venice (Italy), we discuss how the process of early identity formation and regulation of two groups of students, who have expressed a different intent about their job, may differ. Findings show some differences in the values and in the competency portfolio between the two groups of students. These differences suggest two different developmental trajectories of students aiming at an entrepreneurial career and students who expressed a different intent.
    Keywords: Emotional and social intelligence competencies; Intentional change theory; Higher education; Leadership identity formation and self-regulation.
    JEL: I23 J24 M12 M51 M53
    Date: 2014–08
  10. By: Igor Fedyukin (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Salavat Gabdrakhmanov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This study employs a unique database covering 2,293 cadets who graduated from the Noble Land Cadet Corps in St Petersburg from 1732 – 1762 to investigate the role of cultural capital in early modern Russia. Our analysis suggests that within this sample cultural capital was negatively correlated with wealth, but positively with father’s rank within the state service. At the corps itself, wealth and social status of families did not directly affect the success of their sons. The only significant factor of success at this school (promotion to a particular rank at graduation) was the family’s access to “Western” education and cultural skills. The results indicate the state was able to create an institutional framework where the possession of new “imported” knowledge and social skills gave the holder a measurable advantage over his peers. This could be considered one of the mechanisms which contributed to the sustainability of the cultural and social regime created by Peter I.
    Keywords: cultural capital, nobility, education, early modern state, Peter I, Noble Cadet Corps, Russia
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Montenegro, Claudio E.; Patrinos, Harry Anthony
    Abstract: Rates of return to investments in schooling have been estimated since the late 1950s. In the 60-plus year history of such estimates, there have been several attempts to synthesize the empirical results to ascertain patterns. This paper presents comparable estimates, as well as a database, that use the same specification, estimation procedure, and similar data for 139 economies and 819 harmonized household surveys. This effort to compile comparable estimates holds constant the definition of the dependent variable, the set of control variables, the sample definition, and the estimation method for all surveys in the sample. The results of this study show that (1) the returns to schooling are more concentrated around their respective means than previously thought; (2) the basic Mincerian model used is more stable than may have been expected; (3) the returns to schooling are higher for women than for men; (4) returns to schooling and labor market experience are strongly and positively associated; (5) there is a decreasing pattern over time; and (6) the returns to tertiary education are highest.
    Keywords: Primary Education,Education For All,Teaching and Learning,Debt Markets,Education Reform and Management
    Date: 2014–09–01

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