nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2014‒09‒05
thirteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Great Teachers : How to Raise Student Learning in Latin America and the Caribbean--Overview By Barbara Bruns; Javier Luque
  2. Do Colombian students underestimate higher education returns? By Luis Fernando Gamboa; Paul Andrés Rodríguez
  3. Higher Education and Inclusion of Women in Labor Markets and in Business Development in Morocco By Gamar, Alae; Driouchi, Ahmed
  4. Historical Missionary Activity, Schooling, and the Reversal of Fortunes: Evidence from Nigeria By Okoye, Dozie; Pongou, Roland
  5. Affirmative Action and Human Capital Investment: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment By Christopher Cotton; Brent R. Hickman; Joseph P. Price
  6. The happiness of economists: Estimating the causal effect of studying economics on subjective well-being By Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich
  7. Kyrgyz Republic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Education By World Bank
  8. Human capital investment and population growth: An overlapping generations analysis for Malawi By Kristinn Hermannsson; Patrizio Lecca
  9. ADB-Japan Scholarship Program Annual Report 2012 By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  10. Using Stata for Educational Accountability and Compliance Reporting By Billy Buchanan
  11. Exploring Public-Private Partnership in Preschool Education Provision as a Contributor to Socio-Economic Development By Aynur Nabiyeva; Ulviyya Mikayilova; Vitaly Radsky; Aynur Nabiyeva
  12. Can a Summer Make a Difference? The Impact of the American Economic Association Summer Program on Minority Student Outcomes By Charles M. Becker; Cecilia Elena Rouse; Mingyu Chen
  13. The Changing Benefits of Early Work Experience By Charles L. Baum; Christopher J. Ruhm

  1. By: Barbara Bruns; Javier Luque
    Keywords: Secondary Education Teaching and Learning Education - Education For All Education - Primary Education Tertiary Education
    Date: 2014–07
  2. By: Luis Fernando Gamboa; Paul Andrés Rodríguez
    Abstract: We analyze the determinants of subjective returns of higher education in Colombia. The information on expectations has been collected in categories, motivating the use of interval regression and an ordered probit approaches for modeling the relationship between beliefs and measures of ability, conditioning on individual, school and regional covariates. The results suggest that there are considerable differences in the size of the expected returns according to some population groups and a strong dominance of college against technical education. Gender gaps disappear in college education but it is found that girls tend to believe that professional wages are more concentrated into higher income categories than boys. Finally, it seems that Colombian students overestimate the pecuniary returns to education.
    Keywords: Subjective expectations, ex-ante returns, Colombia, schooling choices
    JEL: I25 J24 D84
    Date: 2014–08–21
  3. By: Gamar, Alae; Driouchi, Ahmed
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the inclusion of women in the Moroccan labor markets and businesses through the role of higher education. The paper is based on a descriptive analysis of enrollment in the tertiary education, graduation, business creation, employment and school attainment over the period 1990-2012. This research investigates also the dynamic processes pursued by each variable in relation to gender. It then analyzes the relationships between education and the inclusion of women in the labor markets and businesses. The attained results show that higher education has a statistically significant positive influence on the inclusion of women in the labor market and in business creation. Schooling of women with higher education attainment is an important instrument to be promoted for further inclusion of women in the economy of Morocco.
    Keywords: Keywords: Women, School attainment, Inclusion, Labor Markets, Businesses
    JEL: I25 J2
    Date: 2014–08–22
  4. By: Okoye, Dozie; Pongou, Roland
    Abstract: This paper shows that historical missionary activity has had a persistent effect on schooling outcomes, and contributed to a reversal of fortunes wherein historically richer ethnic groups are poorer today. Combining contemporary individual-level data with a newly constructed dataset on mission stations in Nigeria, we find that individuals whose ancestors were exposed to greater missionary activity have higher levels of schooling. This effect is robust to omitted heterogeneity, ethnicity fixed effects, and reverse causation. We find inter-generational factors and the persistence of early advantages in educational infrastructure to be key channels through which the effect has persisted. Consistent with theory, the effect of missions on current schooling is larger for population subgroups that have historically suffered disadvantages in access to education.
    Keywords: Missions, Africa, Education, Reversal of Fortunes, Nigeria
    JEL: I20 N30 N37 N47 O15 Z12
    Date: 2014–08–20
  5. By: Christopher Cotton; Brent R. Hickman; Joseph P. Price
    Abstract: The empirical literature on Affirmative Action (AA) in college admissions tends to ignore the effects admissions policies have on incentives of students to invest developing pre-college human capital. We explore the incentive effects of AA using a field experiment that creates a microcosm of the college admissions market. Our experimental design is based on the asymmetric, multi-object, all-pay auction framework in Bodoh-Creed and Hickman (2014). We pay 5th through 8th grade students based on their performance on a national mathematics exam relative to other competitor students, and observe the use of a study website as students prepare for the exam. An AA treatment favors "disadvantaged" students by reserving prizes for lower grade students who on average have less mathematics training and practice. We find that the AA policy significantly increases both average time investment and subsequent math achievement scores for disadvantaged students. At the same time, we find no evidence that it weakens average human capital investment incentives for advantaged students. We also find strong evidence that AA can narrow achievement gaps while promoting greater equality of market outcomes.
    JEL: C93 D44 D82 J15 J24
    Date: 2014–08
  6. By: Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich
    Abstract: This is the first paper that studies the causal effect of studying economics on subjective well being. Based on a survey among 918 students of economics and other social sciences, we estimate the effects of studying in the different fields on individual life satisfaction. Controling for personal characteristics we apply innovative instrumental variable methods developed in labor and conflict economics. We find a positive relationship between the study of economics and individual well-being. Additionally, we also find that income and future job chances are the most important drivers of happiness for participants of our survey. --
    Keywords: Happiness,Life Satisfaction,Economists,Students,Economics Education
    JEL: A11 A13 I21 I31
    Date: 2014
  7. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Curriculum and Instruction Teaching and Learning Education - Primary Education Education - Education For All Tertiary Education
    Date: 2014–05
  8. By: Kristinn Hermannsson; Patrizio Lecca
    Abstract: Recent work on human capital accumulation has tended to abstract from population change. This is a reasonable simplification when analysing economies with relatively static populations, such as high income countries. However, many low income countries are undergoing rapid population change, which significantly influences the impact of human capital policies. This is acerbated as the rate of expansions of education systems is limited due to funding constraints and ability to train skilled teaching staff. To analyse this issue we construct an overlapping generations (OLG) numerical simulation model to simulate the simultaneous impact of human capital accumulation and population change. We calibrate this for Malawi, a small sub-Saharan country, which has made significant progress in expanding its education system, but is also projected to experience rapid population growth. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that demographics are not invariant of education policies. We explore how expansion of education (in particular secondary education of women) could influence population growth and how this modifies the impact of human capital policies. In aggregate we expect expanding education to have a positive economic impact. However, ex ante it is more difficult to predict impact of population growth due to influence of fixed factors such as land. On a per capita basis we expect education to have a positive impact, but population growth to dilute the per capita human capital accumulation. We are interested in exploring where the pivotal point lies w.r.t. to the growth of GDP per capita how this compares to current projections for population and education growth in Malawi.
    Keywords: Malawi, General equilibrium modeling, Developing countries
    Date: 2014–07–03
  9. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Office of Cofinancing Operations, ADB); ;
    Abstract: The Japan Scholarship Program (JSP) was established in 1988 to provide well-qualified citizens of developing member countries an opportunity to undertake postgraduate studies in economics, management, science and technology, and other development-related fields at 27 educational institutions in 10 countries in Asia and the Pacific. Between 1988 and 2012, Japan contributed around $135 million to the JSP. A total of 2,966 scholarships have been awarded to recipients from 35 member countries, 1,045 of whom are women. Of the total, 2,627 scholars have already completed their courses. An average of 150 scholarships are being awarded each year.
    Keywords: graduate education, adb scholarships, japan fund, jsp, higher education, skill building, adb funds, universities, social development, scholars, graduate studies, student assistance, scholarship grants, human resource development, adb-jsp, training, scholarship awards, scholarship programs
    Date: 2013–11
  10. By: Billy Buchanan (Mississippi Department of Education)
    Abstract: In 2013 the Mississippi State Legislature passed a law requiring the state to adopt a single combined statewide accountability system for schools and districts; additionally, the law also restricted the State from using some of the methods that were used in the accountability system of the time. Once the State Board of Education voted to adopt the proposed model, the next major task was to program all of the business rules/requirements and calculations. This presentation will focus on what happened from there leading to the current state of the accountability system. Using Stata, I was able to reduce much of the complexity of the previous accountability model (using Some Alternate Software). The current model uses 15 programs written in Stata to import data from an internal server, implement the rules specified in the business rules document, estimate the ratios required by the system, create graphs to illustrate school vs district vs state comparisons, and build school and district reports for public consumption. Using Stata’s capabilities, we are able to automate report generation by writing LaTeX source code and a Bash script used to compile and clean up the output form the LaTeX files and save considerable time in the process.
    Date: 2014–08–02
  11. By: Aynur Nabiyeva; Ulviyya Mikayilova; Vitaly Radsky; Aynur Nabiyeva
    Abstract: Equitable and quality education provision is widely recognized as an integral part of socio-economic development. Current theories propose different approaches for explaining the impact of education, and of early-childhood education in particular, on economic development. Despite opposition to the idea of assigning returns (especially monetary returns) to distinct periods in a child’s development, a substantial body of literature supports the correlation between educational interventions and individual and national productivity. For example, Heckman (2006) uses economic model analysis to link investments on different age groups to skill formation later in life. He demonstrates the relationship between education and economic success at later stages of the life cycle, and shows that the return to investment at earlier stages of development, particularly during preschool years, has the highest rate of return. Over the last decade, this return on investment- based analysis of educational investment has become increasingly influential with policymakers throughout the world. Drawing from a small-scale pilot project launched and implemented by the Center for Innovations in Education (CIE) in the Shamkir region of Azerbaijan, this paper analyzes the potential of public-private partnerships (PPP) in preschool education and social support provision as a model contributing to accessibility and affordability of these services, in addition to rejuvenating employability of a largely unemployed population of preschool professionals. The project focuses on supporting families with young children through community-based preschool services and improving the quality of primary education. Arguments presented in this paper are based on a review of existing scholarship on the PPP model, previous policy analysis on expanding national access to preschool education through PPP (and other service provision models) done by CIE, and a review of the ongoing project. The project exemplifies a case of PPP through the cooperation of a local municipal authority, business sector corporate social responsibility department, and a civil society organization. This alternative model is of particular importance, when taking into account that the expansion of preschool education is one of the areas included in Azerbaijan’s national development strategies. This paper examines the effectiveness of social practices developed through cross-sectoral collaboration and explores how such cooperation may lead to socio-economic development of society as a whole.From the perspective of different stakeholders involved, this model suggests multi-layered desired outcomes. For private sector and corporate stakeholders, the PPP model for preschool services may present a type of arrangement that helps to achieve more sustainable social benefit in realization of their CSR. In addition, the small scale of this model better enables educational services to meet the diverse needs of communities and beneficiaries. In the example of the CIE project, the community-based PPP model suggests several components that may help to increase return on national education investment. Hiring and training of qualified but unemployed professionals develops both unemployed former educators and community children. Considering the highly centralized nature of pre-school education services and institutions in urban areas, an approach that utilizes untapped local resources facilitates the expansion of preschool services to rural areas and in general, outside the capital.
    Keywords: Azerbaijan, Socio-economic development, Sectoral issues
    Date: 2013–09–05
  12. By: Charles M. Becker; Cecilia Elena Rouse; Mingyu Chen
    Abstract: In the 1970s, the American Economic Association (AEA) was one of several professional associations to launch a summer program with the goal of increasing racial and ethnic diversity in its profession. In this paper we estimate the effectiveness of the AEA’s program which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to rigorously study such a summer program. Using a comparison group consisting of those who applied to, but did not attend, the program and controlling for an array of background characteristics, we find that program participants were over 40 percentage points more likely to apply to and attend a PhD program in economics, 26 percentage points more likely to complete a PhD, and about 15 percentage points more likely to ever work in an economics-related academic job. Using our estimates, we calculate that the program may directly account for 17-21 percent of the PhDs awarded to minorities in economics over the past 20 years.
    JEL: I21 I24 J15
    Date: 2014–08
  13. By: Charles L. Baum; Christopher J. Ruhm
    Abstract: We examine whether the benefits of high school work experience have changed over the last 20 years by comparing effects for the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our main specifications suggest that the future wage benefits of working 20 hours per week in the senior year of high school have fallen from 8.3 percent for the earlier cohort, measured in 1987-1989, to 4.4 percent for the later one, in 2008-2010. Moreover, the gains of work are largely restricted to women and have diminished over time for them. We are able to explain about five-eighths of the differential between cohorts, with most of this being attributed to the way that high school employment is related to subsequent adult work experience and occupational attainment.
    JEL: J22 J38 J4
    Date: 2014–08

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