nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2014‒08‒02
fourteen papers chosen by
João Carlos Correia Leitão
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Advanced Education in Real Estate Management: Experience from an Interdisciplinary and International Approach By Geurts, Tom G.; van Gool, Peter; Wellner, Kristin
  2. Accounting for Peer Effects in Treatment Response By Rokhaya Dieye; Habiba Djebbari; Felipe Barrera-Osorio
  3. Asset Management of Polish Universities By Rymarzak, Malgorzata; Trojanowski, Dariusz
  4. Health behaviors and education in Turkey By Tansel, Aysit; Karaoglan, Deniz
  5. Real Estate Education and Blended Learning: An Educational Briefing on the Implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment By Martens, Bob
  6. Corporate Real Estate Alignment Strategies in Dutch Higher Education By Beckers, Ronald; van der Voordt, Theo
  7. Concept Mapping and Meaningful Learning in Real Estate Education By Santovito, Rogerio Fonseca; da Rocha-Lima, Joao
  8. Engaging sustainability good practice within the curriculum and property portfolio in the higher education sector By Poon, Joanna
  9. Teaching Students to "Do" Public Choice in an Undergraduate Public Sector Course By Joshua C. Hall; Kaitlyn R. Harger
  10. Student-lead evaluation of a new workplace concept in an academic environment By Le Roux, Pieter
  11. Developing Real Estate Education in Brazil: A Case Study of an MBA in Real Estate Development By Haddad, Emilio
  12. Should Student Employment Be Subsidized? Conditional Counterfactuals and the Outcomes of Work-Study Participation By Judith Scott-Clayton; Veronica Minaya
  13. Guns, Economic Growth and Education during the second half of the Twentieth Century: Was Spain different? By José Jurado-Sánchez; Juan-Ángel Jiménez-Martín
  14. Contribution des inobservables aux disparités de genre dans la scolarisation et le travail des enfants au Mali By Keita, Moussa

  1. By: Geurts, Tom G.; van Gool, Peter; Wellner, Kristin
    Abstract: Based on the description of a sample Real Estate Management master classes at the Technical University Berlin, which is offered in cooperation with the George Washington University (GW) and the University of Amsterdam, the authors discuss the outcome of an interdisciplinary and international study program.The result is a set of special and unique experiences, with a wide range of diverse items, for example technical, economical, financial, ecological, planning and law matters, as well as the impact of different lecturers from different nationalities. An important segment of this education is the connection to the real estate practice with semester projects. A semester project helps students to learn in interdisciplinary groups, as well as on their own, with actual cases of existing properties. All these items illustrate a number of imported outcomes. An auxiliary question is why students choose this avenue of advanced education. The authors will provide results from a current survey to provide answers. Finally, the authors discuss the future of this educational approach with its threats and opportunities.
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Rokhaya Dieye (Department of Economics, Université Laval); Habiba Djebbari (Department of Economics, Université Laval); Felipe Barrera-Osorio (Harvard Graduate School of Education, Harvard University)
    Abstract: When one’s treatment status affects the outcomes of others, experimental data are not sufficient to identify a treatment causal impact. In order to account for peer effects in program response, we use a social network model. We estimate and validate the model on experimental data collected for the evaluation of a scholarship program in Colombia. By design, randomization is at the student-level. Friendship data reveals that treated and untreated students interact together. Besides providing evidence of peer effects in schooling, we find that ignoring peer effects would have led us to overstate the program actual impact.
    Keywords: Education, social network, impact evaluation
    JEL: C31 C93 I22
    Date: 2014–07
  3. By: Rymarzak, Malgorzata; Trojanowski, Dariusz
    Abstract: In recent years higher education in Poland has been facing serious problems. Due to the demographic fall, fewer and fewer students continue their education at universities. On the other hand, competition between institutions is quite large, because in Poland there are now 470 of them (including 132 public universities and 338 private ones), which is the largest number of higher education institutions in Europe.The decreasing number of students results in lowering the income from tuition fees, as well as a real reduction of state subsidies. At the same time labor costs, energy prices, the media, etc, are rising. Some of the universities with help from the EU have also invested in infrastructure, new buildings. Due to the smaller number of students, they remain unused, contributing to the worsening of the financial situation of many universities.However, the problem does not only concern educational buildings. Many universities, in particular public ones, have significant assets in Poland also for other use (commercial, service, residential, etc), which is not well exploited and managed as well.Undoubtedly, the asset management process involves making decisions regarding the formation of the rational structure of property, sources of financing, assessing the effectiveness of the use of individual assets and thus affects the economic situation of each university. Irrational management led to increase of operating cost, lowers budgetary incomes, disorganizes management process. The general aim of the study is to provide insight into the principles of asset management of universities in Poland on the example of a public university - University of Gdansk. Main problems faced by Polish universities will be presented in the field of asset management, asset management determinants of universities, as well as the attempt will be made to identify possible solutions to improve the efficiency of asset management universities in Poland. Developing the answers to the above stated problem can contribute to the competitiveness and greater efficiency of the universities in making real estate decisions that determine higher education institution investment and development. The contribution of the project to a new knowledge area is, therefore, not only of theoretical nature, but has scientific and applicability values in the first place. The experience of the Polish market also may support development of asset management universities in other countries.
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Tansel, Aysit; Karaoglan, Deniz
    Abstract: This is the first study which provides empirical analysis of the variation in health behaviors for adult men and women in Turkey which is a developing country. The health behaviors considered are smoking, drinking, fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise and body mass index (BMI). We find that in Turkey education is the most important factor that affects the health behaviors. The results indicate that smoking is positively associated with education at all levels with a decreasing effect with the level of education unlike in the developed countries. This result indicates that smoking is a serious public health problem in Turkey at all levels of education. Further, alcohol consumption and schooling are positively related and it increases by the level of education. Higher educated individuals clearly eat more fruits, vegetables and exercise more and their BMI levels are in the normal range compared to less educated and illiterate. We also highlight the importance of demographic factors, labor market status and household income. We use Health Survey of Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT) for years 2008, 2010 and 2012. This study will provide a baseline for further studies on the various aspects of health behaviors in Turkey.
    Keywords: Health Behaviors, Education, Demographic Factors, Turkey
    JEL: I10 I12 I2 I20
    Date: 2014–06–20
  5. By: Martens, Bob
    Abstract: Purpose - It is the purpose of this contribution to discuss the possible benefits of a virtual learning environment (VLE) for postgraduate real estate education activities and present considerations on the implementation of such a VLE. The paper primarily addresses people who have already heard about e-learning and are considering becoming involved in it. One of the objectives of this paper is to whet the appetite of potential users of such applications while also providing an insight into their potential usefulness. Experiences gathered in the context of a continuing-education activity at a German-speaking university are presented in case-study format and subjected to in-depth analysis.Design/methodology/approach - Issues relating to real-estate education have grown in importance in recent years. Hence, developments regarding the exchange of information and knowledge merit closer attention. The present considerations focus on the interrelation between face-to-face learning and the virtual learning environment (VLE). This contribution presents the Moodle environment (an acronym denoting 'Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment'), which is used as an implementation tool. Real estate education serves as the working context and provides the third element in the triangular structure of a VLE.Findings - Exaggerated expectations regarding the benefits of VLEs should be avoided. While face-to-face learning has not become at all obsolete, blended learning can be considered as a meaningful addition. Furthermore, the consistent 'feeding' of data into a digital repository promotes the transparency of educational activities and, thus, all aspects of quality management. Sustainable documentation is another aspect worth mentioning.Originality/value - Apart from the intention to provide a model for others with similar needs, it is recommended that teaching institutions familiarise themselves with the different aspects of 'e-learning' and start adopting these methods. A step-by-step approach seems the most sensible.
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Beckers, Ronald; van der Voordt, Theo
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to explore the variables that affect the process of aligning Corporate Real Estate (CRE) with organizational goals on a strategic level, and regarding day-to-day operating activities in higher education institutes.Methodology/approach – The paper first outlines theoretical issues of CRE alignment processes in general. It then presents the findings from 13 interviews with CRE managers who are responsible for the accommodation of large Dutch Universities of Applied Sciences. Findings – The review of CRE theory shows three key CRE alignment process activities and six variables that influence these activities. The empirical study shows how these variables can be used to distinct two extreme strategies for CRE alignment processes, based on control-orientation and involvement-orientation. Originality/value – There are two gaps in research literature on CRE alignment processes. First, there is a need for better CRE alignment tools and techniques with a solid empirical basis. Secondly, the managerial decision-making regarding space issues and its effects on students and staff in higher education is an under exposed topic in CRE research. There is still limited understanding of how to optimally align educational buildings to education. The current research provides practitioners and researchers insights in possible CRE alignment strategies and underlying variables in the field of higher education. The findings might be applicable in other sectors as well.
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Santovito, Rogerio Fonseca; da Rocha-Lima, Joao
    Abstract: Purpose - This paper describes a multi-year research, developed to verify the validity of Concept Mapping as a resource to promote meaningful learning, in order to cope with students' heterogeneity in a real estate education environment.Design/methodology/approach - Three quasi-experimental, multi-year case studies were conducted at the Real Estate Management discipline of an MBA course. Each time the discipline was given, the procedure was to develop activities that involved the drafting of concept maps about specific topics on Real Estate Management; more specifically, the alignment between business strategies and real estate management. After each activity, the maps were analyzed in terms of the nature of concepts, their relations and hierarchy. The effects of the use of Concept Mapping on students' learning experience were then analyzed.Findings - The results show a clear evolution between the concept maps produced at phase 01 (diagnostic evaluation) and phase 02 (months later), but the most important thing is that after months from phase 02, when the same activity took place in another context (phase 03), students were able to develop concept maps as complex as the ones produced at phase 02. The findings support the assertion found in literature that the knowledge acquired through the use of concept maps is anchored in students' prior knowledge, consolidating itself as new subsumers in students' cognitive structure. The use of Concept Mapping helped the educator to cope with students' heterogeneity in terms of professional experiences and academic backgrounds.Research limitations/implications - Due to the non-randomization of the students, this research does not allow a generalization of the findings, but it does provide empirical evidence that supports the didactic use of Concept Maps in real estate education. Some practical difficulties related to the drawing of the maps were occasionally related, and future research will try to evaluate whether or not more agile, software-supported Concept Mapping techniques are appropriated to be used within this didactic framework.Originality/value - There is no bibliography on concept mapping techniques applied to real estate education. In this paper an overview of concept mapping is provided, and presented as straightforward way to cope with student heterogeneity.
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Poon, Joanna
    Abstract: There is a large body of research that has discussed sustainability in the higher education sector, albeit the main focus being curriculum design and development. Extant literature also provides evidence how organisational strategic plans can positively impact sustainable development. Whilst these exemplars have predominantly focused on other sectors (e.g. Manufacturing/Retail), there is a paucity of research on curriculum design, property development, management and maintenance in the higher education sector. Real estate is one of the key assets for large organisations such as universities. However, there is lack of research focusing on ‘sustainability and education’ in the built environment within the higher education sector. The aim of this paper is to identify good practice for incorporating sustainability within the curriculum and property portfolio within the higher education sector. This paper is discussed in the context of a case study. The case study university is Deakin University in Australia. Sustainability is overtly recognised in Deakin University’s Strategic Plan, LIVE (Learning, Ideas, Values and Experience) Strategy. Given this, ‘sustainability’ within the context of this paper can be seen as: (1) the incorporation of core sustainability drivers into the curriculum, and (2) embedding and promoting sector-specific (property and built environment) sustainability agenda.The research methods for this paper include desk-top study and discussion with stakeholders who have responsibility on sustainable development, in areas of curriculum development and property portfolio development and management, within the University. The author reviews Deakin’ University’s policy documents on sustainability and hold discussions with the University’s Sustainability Team in order to identify the University’s current priorities and future plans for sustainable property development, management and maintenance . Discussion will also be held with colleagues in Deakin Learning Futures and the Learning Innovation Team of the Faculty of Business and Law (i.e. University and Faculty’s Learning and Teaching Departments respectively) identifying the good practice on incorporating sustainability within the curriculum.This paper will conclude a list of recommendations to the higher education sector on sustainability strategies that could be incorporated into the curriculum and a strategic framework for the Facilities Services Division on sustainable, property development, management and maintenance.
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Joshua C. Hall (West Virginia University, College of Business and Economics); Kaitlyn R. Harger (West Virginia University, College of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper discusses one approach to using writing assignments in an undergraduate public economics to get students actively involved in doing public choice. Our goal is to provide an overview of the course and its writing assignments with an emphasis on how the scaffolding of assignments helps contribute to the development of interesting and publishable ideas in public choice. A course in public economics provides a good opportunity for an instructor to develop student interest in applied public choice.
    Keywords: Undergraduate Teaching, Public Choice, Scaffolding
    JEL: A22 H0
    Date: 2014–05
  10. By: Le Roux, Pieter
    Abstract: This paper presents the outcome of an evaluation of a new workplace concept in the staff room of the Academy of Hotel and Facility Management at the NHTV – a medium-sized school for higher vocational education – in the city of Breda, the Netherlands. The workplace concept, known as “NHTV@Workâ€?, was centrally developed by the Facilities Division of the said school, with assistance from professional workplace consultants. The objectives of the study was (i) to determine the level of user-satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the new workplace environment, (ii) assess the implementation process by way of self-reporting by staff members using the new workplace environment, and (iii) develop recommendations for improving the overall concept for implementation across all workplace environments of the NHTV. The evaluation of the new workplace concept was considered a suitable project assignment for 2 2nd-year FM student groups of the theme “Corporate Real Estate Managementâ€?. As part of the theoretical component of this theme, students were given instruction on diverse methodologies and approaches to workplace performance evaluation through questionnaires, observations and interviews. Through the application of a process-model for supporting decision-making on organisational accommodation as conceptual framework, the various methodologies were structured to provide students an optimal learning experience.Outcomes of the research identified (i) staff members using the workplace concept to be overall satisfied with the new concept, but less satisfied with the implementation and continued monitoring thereof, (ii) the use of the workplaces to be overall well-adopted, but a need for increased diversity in the functionality of specific types of workplaces provided, and (iii) a perceived misalignment of interest between the development and the new workplace concept by the Facilities Division and external consultants on the one hand, and the perceived work culture and functional requirements of staff members. The study provides a comprehensive framework for firstly, assessing all workplace environments where the NHTV@Work concept has been implemented, and secondly, for inter-organisational comparative research and continues monitoring of the effectiveness of the workplace concept. In addition to this, the approach as applied in the current research, provides a qualitative project-based learning experience for FM-students of the Academy.
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Haddad, Emilio
    Abstract: The practice of Real Estate in Brazil has gone to several changes in recent past that have resulted in an enormous development of the industry. It has implied in increasing demand for manpower training and development a local knowledge of this emerging field. Because of a virtual lack of a “Real Estate school� in Brazil, Real Estate has been approached by different educational traditions, such as construction planning and management, Real Estate business, Real Estate finance. The purpose of this communication is to present the case of MBA in Real Estate development, an educational program that seeks a more comprehensive view of Real Estate Development in Brazil, stresses the need of Real Estate interplay with regulatory city planning, and seeks also more balance between theoretic and applied teaching.
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Judith Scott-Clayton; Veronica Minaya
    Abstract: Student employment subsidies are one of the largest types of federal employment subsidies, and one of the oldest forms of student aid. Yet it is unclear whether they help or harm students’ long term outcomes. We present a framework that decomposes overall effects into a weighted average of effects for marginal and inframarginal workers. We then develop an application of propensity scores, which we call conditional-counterfactual matching, in which we estimate the overall impact, and the impact under two distinct counterfactuals: working at an unsubsidized job, or not working at all. Finally, we estimate the effects of the largest student employment subsidy program—Federal Work-Study (FWS)—for a broad range of participants and outcomes. Our results suggest that about half of FWS participants are inframarginal workers, for whom FWS reduces hours worked and improves academic outcomes, but has little impact on future employment. For students who would not have worked otherwise, the pattern of effects reverses. With the exception of first-year GPA, we find scant evidence of negative effects of FWS for any outcome or subgroup. However, positive effects are largest for lower-income and lower-SAT subgroups, suggesting there may be gains to improved targeting of funds.
    JEL: I22 I28 J24
    Date: 2014–07
  13. By: José Jurado-Sánchez (Department of Economic History and Institutions I, Complutense University of Madrid); Juan-Ángel Jiménez-Martín (Departamento de Economía Cuantitativa (Department of Quantitative Economics), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (Faculty of Economics and Business), Universidad Complutense de Madrid)
    Abstract: In the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted on the trade-off between guns and butter, namely defense versus social sector expenditure. The aim of this research is identifying whether indeed defense spending crowded out investment and other social expenditures as health and education. Previous research does not yield strong and unambiguous evidence of neither positive nor negative effects of military expenditure on social spending. It is striking that the guns versus butter dilemma has not been extensively studied for Spain. Using Mintz and Huang (1991) strategy applied to the US, we test if the government expenditure in defense in Spain during the last part of the Franco’s dictatorship and the first years of the transition and democracy, contributed positively or negatively to education spending. Results show a negative trade-off for the Franco’s regimen and an ambiguous effect for the last part of the sample.
    Keywords: Guns versus butter dilemma.
    JEL: H51 H52 H53 H56 N40 N44
    Date: 2014–06
  14. By: Keita, Moussa
    Abstract: This study attempts to extend reflections on gender disparities in children's time allocation based on household survey data in Mali. We test the gender disparities in schooling and child labor using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. The objective is to identify the contributions of unobservable factors to the differences between girls and boys. Our results confirm the idea that most of the differences between the two groups comes from unobservable factors. We find, for example, that 92% of the difference in schooling remains unexplained based on observable characteristics. We also find evidence of a strong polarization of work by gender. Boys are significantly more oriented toward economic activities (1 hour per day girls) while girls are significantly more oriented toward non-economic activities (about 2.5 hours per day more than boys).
    Keywords: Scolarisation, travail des enfants, disparités de genre / Schooling, child labor, gender disparities
    JEL: C12 D13 I21 J22
    Date: 2014–07–24

This nep-edu issue is ©2014 by João Carlos Correia Leitão. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.