nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2014‒06‒14
28 papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior and Universidade de Lisboa

  1. Mister Sandman, Bring Me Good Marks! On the Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Academic Achievement By Baert, Stijn; Omey, Eddy; Verhaest, Dieter; Vermeir, Aurélie
  2. The Effect of Islamic Secondary School Attendance on Academic Achievement By Asadullah, Niaz
  3. Money counts for a Times Higher Education top-rank By Marconi G.; Ritzen J.
  4. A Simple Model of Learning Styles By Gervas Huxley; Mike Peacey
  5. Private school participation in Pakistan By Nguyen, Quynh; Raju, Dhushyanth
  6. The Impact of Degree Duration on Higher Education Participation: Evidence from a Large-Scale Natural Experiment By Fabio Berton; Daniele Bondonio
  7. Private non-state sector engagement in the provision of educational services at the primary and secondary levels in South Asia : an analytical review of its role in school enrollment and student achievement By Dahal, Mahesh; Nguyen, Quynh
  8. Does Participation in 4-H Improve Schooling Outcomes? Evidence from Florida By Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso; Timko, Troy
  9. Gender gaps in primary school achievement. A decomposition into endowments and returns to IQ and non-cognitive factors By Golsteyn B.H.H.; Schils T.
  10. Selective schooling systems increase inequality By Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson
  11. Educational Policies and Income Inequality By Checchi, Daniele; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.
  12. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings By Gensowski, Miriam
  13. Impacts of New Leaders on Student Achievement in Oakland. By Kevin Booker; Jaime Thomas
  14. Do occupational demands explain the educational gradient in health? By Meyer S.C.; Künn-Nelen A.C.
  15. Directing remittances to education with soft and hard commitments : evidence from a lab-in-the-field experiment and new product take-up among Filipino migrants in Rome By De Arcangelis, Giuseppe; Joxhe, Majlinda; McKenzie, David; Tiongson, Erwin; Yang, Dean
  16. Disentangling Peer Influence On Multiple Levels By Valeria Ivaniushina; Daniel Alexandrov
  17. Case Studies of Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants: Findings After the First Year of Implementation. By Kerstin Carlson Le Floch; Beatrice Birman; Jennifer O'Day; Steven Hurlburt; Diana Mercado-Garcia; Rose Goff; Karen Manship; Seth Brown; Susan Bowles Therriault; Linda Rosenberg; Megan Hague Angus; Lara Hulsey
  18. Making the Most of Opportunities to Learn What Works: A School District's Guide. By Lauren Akers; Alexandra Resch; Jillian Berk
  19. Improving the Implementation and Effectiveness of Out-of-School-Time Tutoring By Carolyn J. Heinrich; Patricia Burch; Annalee Good; Rudy Acosta; Huiping Cheng; Marcus Dillender; Christi Kirshbaum; Hiren Nisar; Mary Stewart
  20. Value-Added Models for the Pittsburgh Public Schools, 2012-13 School Year. By Dana Rotz; Matthew Johnson; Brian Gill
  21. Child labor and learning By Emerson, Patrick M.; Ponczek, Vladimir; Portela Souza, Andre
  22. Why was the Dutch legacy so poor? Educational development in the Netherlands Indies, 1871-1942 By Ewout Frankema
  23. Gender Peer Effects in School, a Birth Cohort Approach By Antonio Chiccone; Walter Garcia-Fontes
  24. State of the Art Review of Quality Issues related to Open Educational Resources (OER) By Anthony F. Camilleri; Ulf-Daniel Ehlers; Jan Pawlowski
  25. Income Inequality, Social Mobility, and the Decision to Drop Out of High School By Melissa S. Kearney; Phillip B. Levine
  26. Math matters: education choices and wage inequality By Andrew Rendall; Michelle Rendall
  27. Ten Years Later: Examining the Long-Term Impact of the California Safe Routes to School Program By Ragland, David R; Pande, Swati; Bigham, John; Cooper, Jill F
  28. Determinantes de la desigualdad en el desempeño educativo en la Argentina By Marchionni, Mariana; Pinto, Florencia; Vazquez, Emmanuel

  1. By: Baert, Stijn (Ghent University); Omey, Eddy (Ghent University); Verhaest, Dieter (K.U.Leuven); Vermeir, Aurélie (Ghent University)
    Abstract: This study assesses the relationship between sleep quality and academic achievement. We survey college students about their sleep quality by means of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before the start of their first exam period at university. PSQI scores are matched with course marks in this first exam period. Instrumenting PSQI scores by sleep quality during secondary education, we find that increasing total sleep quality with one standard deviation leads to 4.85 percentage point higher course marks.
    Keywords: economics of education, economics of health, economics of sleep, academic achievement, sleep quality
    JEL: I10 J24 I23
    Date: 2014–06
  2. By: Asadullah, Niaz (University of Reading)
    Abstract: Using unique survey data on rural secondary school children, this paper evaluates the relative quality of Islamic secondary schools (i.e. madrasahs) in Bangladesh. Students attending registered madrasahs fare worse in maths and English than students attending non-madrasah schools. However, failure to account for non-random sorting over-estimates the negative influence of madrasahs on student achievement. Evidence on the magnitude of this bias is presented. Once selection effect is taken into account, madrasah disadvantage in English is small while that in maths becomes insignificant. Given the overall low level of achievement, this suggests that madrasah students perform just as poorly as those from non-madrasah schools in rural Bangladesh.
    Keywords: instrumental variable, madrasahs, school quality, Bangladesh
    JEL: D04 I21 O15
    Date: 2014–06
  3. By: Marconi G.; Ritzen J. (GSBE)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relationship between a universitys expenditure per student and its position in international university rankings. We take into account other factors that are expected to play a role, such as university mission, size, and productive inefficiency. We formalise these concepts in our theoretical model of rankings and universities, and estimate this model with data on universities classified in the top 200 by the Times Higher Education Supplement ranking of 2007. We find that the elasticity of a universitys ranking score for the expenditure per student is equal to 8.9, and that there are no clear signs of inefficiency in production among these universities. University mission and size are also significant predictors of ranking score. These results are important in view of the relevance attributed to rankings by government officials, university directors and students.
    Keywords: Model Construction and Estimation; Production and Organizations: General; Multinational Firms; International Business; Higher Education and Research Institutions;
    JEL: C51 D20 F23 I23
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Gervas Huxley; Mike Peacey
    Abstract: Much of the economic literature on education treats the process of learning as a `black box'. While such models have many interesting uses, they are of little use when a college seeks advice about reallocating resources from one input to another (e.g. from lecture hours to seminars). Commenting on such questions requires us to `open up' the black box. This paper shows what one such model would look like by explicitly modelling how students vary in their `learning styles'. We apply this framework to investigate how reforms to higher education (e.g. MOOCs) would affect students with different learning styles.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Education Production Function, Learning Style, Independent Learner, MOOC
    JEL: I20 I23 J24
    Date: 2014–05
  5. By: Nguyen, Quynh; Raju, Dhushyanth
    Abstract: Private schooling is an important feature of the educational landscape in Pakistan and is increasingly a topic of public and government discourse. This study uses multiple rounds of national household sample surveys to examine the extent and nature of private school participation at the primary and secondary levels in Pakistan. Today, one-fifth of children -- or one-third of all students -- go to private school in Pakistan. Private school students tend to come from urban, wealthier, and more educated households than do government school students and especially out-of-school children. Important differences exist across Pakistan’s four provinces with respect to the characteristics of private school students relative to government school students, as well as in the composition of private school students. Private schooling is highly concentrated, with a few districts (situated mainly in northern Punjab province) accounting for most of the private school students. Private school participation among children varies largely from one household to another, rather than within households, and to a greater extent than does government school participation. The spatial patterns of private school supply are often strongly correlated with the spatial patterns of private school participation. In the 2000s, private school participation rates grew in Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces and across socioeconomic subgroups, contributing in particular to the growth in overall school participation rates for boys, children from urban households, and children from households in the highest wealth quintile. Nevertheless, the composition of private school students has become less unequal over time. This trend has been driven mainly by Punjab province, which has seen declines in the shares of private school students from urban households and households in the highest wealth quintile.
    Keywords: Education For All,Primary Education,Tertiary Education,Disability,Secondary Education
    Date: 2014–05–01
  6. By: Fabio Berton; Daniele Bondonio
    Abstract: This paper exploits a national university reform, introduced in Italy with an exogenous timing and an unintended delay of treatment scheme, to identify the impact on higher education participation of shortening the degree duration of the first-tier university studies. Using a degree-specific universal database, we estimate that enrolment increased on average between 10.3 and 10.9 percentage points in the first year of the reform, and between 27.3 to 29.3 p.p. in the subsequent steady state. Such increase did not occur at the expense of deteriorating retention and on-time graduation rates. These results are of high policy relevance in two ways: first, because they indicate that the steady state cost-elasticity of participation to higher education is higher than what previously indicated by short-run estimates; second, because the enrolment gains are not suggested to be achieved at the expense of enlarging participation to insufficiently-skilled students.
    JEL: C21 J21
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Dahal, Mahesh; Nguyen, Quynh
    Abstract: Private (non-state) sector engagement in the provision of educational services at the primary and secondary levels in South Asia has recently undergone remarkable growth. This type of education comes in various forms, such as schools financed and managed by the private sector, schools financed by the government and managed by the private sector, private school vouchers, and tutoring outside the classroom. According to recent household survey data, almost one-third of school-goers aged 6 to 18 years in South Asia go to private schools, with a high concentration in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Data for India, Nepal, and Pakistan show that on average, private schools perform at least as well as government schools on student test scores, after controlling for socioeconomic factors, and they do so at significantlylower costs to society. However, student achievement varies greatly across schools of each type, with many weak private schools as well as strong government schools. Substantial, albeit indirect, evidence points to teacher behavior and accountability as an important driver of the effectiveness of private schools. In the long run, however, many factors may play important roles in sustaining the private sector's advantage. Another risk is that overall poor quality in a large government sector may set a low benchmark for the private sector. The findings cast doubt on the effectiveness of government regulations for private schools, given weak institutional capacity. Public-private partnerships with effective accountability mechanisms could leverage both equity and efficiency. Finally, it appears important to understand and customize teaching to the child's individual level.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Primary Education,Education For All,Secondary Education,Teaching and Learning
    Date: 2014–06–01
  8. By: Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso (Binghamton University, New York); Timko, Troy (affiliation not available)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of participation in 4-H, the largest youth development program in the United States, on standardized test scores. We do this by utilizing grade-level longitudinal data on Florida's school districts from the Florida Department of Education combined with 4-H participation statistics from Florida 4-H. Specifically, we analyze the effect of the extent of 4-H participation for third through tenth grade on the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). We use a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) approach to control for potential confounders of the causal relationship at the level of school districts, grades, and years. Our results indicate that the extent of 4-H participation at the district-grade-year level is positively and significantly related to several measures of performance on the FCAT test.
    Keywords: 4-H program, Florida, standardized test scores
    JEL: I21 I28 H52
    Date: 2014–06
  9. By: Golsteyn B.H.H.; Schils T. (ROA)
    Abstract: In elementary school, girls typically outperform boys in languages and boys typically outperform girls in math. The determinants of these differences have remained largely unexplored. Using rich data from Dutch elementary schools, we decompose the differences in achievement into gender differences in endowments and returns to IQ and non-cognitive factors. This descriptive analysis is a thought experiment in which we show the consequences for school performance if girls and boys would have similar resources and take similar advantage of these resources. Our findings indicate that gender differences in resources with respect to social and instrumental skills and need for achievement can explain part of the differences in performance. Boys seem to be better equipped with these resources. Additionally, boys and girls employ their skills differently. Girls take more advantage of their IQ than boys. Yet, the largest part of this parameter effect is left unexplained by IQ and non-cognitive factors.
    Keywords: Analysis of Education; Education and Inequality;
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson
    Abstract: We investigate the impact on earnings inequality of a selective education system in which school assignment is based on initial test scores. We use a large, representative household panel survey to compare adult earnings inequality of those growing up under a selective education system with those educated under a comprehensive system. Controlling for a range of background characteristics and the current location, the wage distribution for individuals who grew up in selective schooling areas is quantitatively and statistically significantly more unequal. The total effect sizes are large: 14% of the raw 90-10 earnings gap and 18% of the conditional 90-10 earnings gap can be explained by differences across schooling systems.
    Keywords: selective schooling, inequality, wages
    JEL: I24 J31
    Date: 2014–05
  11. By: Checchi, Daniele (University of Milan); van de Werfhorst, Herman G. (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: In this paper we study the associations between educational policies, distributions of educational attainments and income distributions. By matching inequality measures on test scores, years of education and labour earnings by country, birth cohorts and gender, we show that inequality in education (measured both at quality and quantity levels) affect earnings inequality. We then consider potential endogeneity of educational distributions and we resort to instrumental estimation using information on government reforming activity in the field of education. By controlling for country-specific and time fixed effects, and by separating age and cohorts effects, we prove that educational inequality respond to educational reforms, identifying educational policies (like later entry into compulsory education or introduction of standardised tests) capable to reduce income inequalities thirty years later.
    Keywords: educational inequality, test score, earnings inequality, educational policies
    JEL: I24 I28
    Date: 2014–05
  12. By: Gensowski, Miriam (University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that even in a group of high-IQ men and women, lifetime earnings are substantially influenced by their education and personality traits. I identify a previously undocumented interaction between education and traits in earnings generation, which results in important heterogeneity of the net present value of education. Personality traits directly affect men's earnings, with effects only developing fully after age 30. These effects play a much larger role for the earnings of more educated men. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly through educational choice. Surprisingly, education and personality skills do not always raise the family earnings of women in this cohort, as women with very high education and IQ are less likely to marry, and thus have less income through their husbands. To identify personality traits, I use a factor model that also serves to correct for prediction error bias, which is often ignored in the literature. This paper complements the literature on investments in education and personality traits by showing that they also have potentially high returns at the high end of the ability distribution.
    Keywords: personality traits, social skills, cognitive skills, returns to education, life-time earnings, Big Five, human capital, factor analysis
    JEL: J24 I24 J16
    Date: 2014–06
  13. By: Kevin Booker; Jaime Thomas
    Keywords: New Leaders, Student Achievement, Oakland, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–05–19
  14. By: Meyer S.C.; Künn-Nelen A.C. (GSBE)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate to what extent occupation-specific demands explain the relationship between education and health. We concentrate on ergonomic, environmental, psychical, social and time demands. Merging the German Microcensus 2009 data with a dataset including detailed occupational demands German Employment Survey 2006, we have a unique dataset to analyze the mediating role of occupational demands in the relationship between education and health status on the one hand and education and health behavior BMI and smoking on the other. We base our analyses on the entire working population and therefore also include those who no longer work, taking occupational demands related to their last job. First, we find that occupational demands are significantly related to subjective health and health behaviors. This holds even stronger for those who are no longer employed. Second, we find that whereas occupational demands do not explain educational differences in subjective health status, they do partially mediate the education gradient in the considered health behaviors. Educational differences in smoking status can partly be explained by ergonomic, environmental, psychical and social demands. The educational gradient in BMI is partly attributable to social occupational demands.
    JEL: I1 I2 J2
    Date: 2014
  15. By: De Arcangelis, Giuseppe; Joxhe, Majlinda; McKenzie, David; Tiongson, Erwin; Yang, Dean
    Abstract: This paper tests how migrants'willingness to remit changes when given the ability to direct remittances to educational purposes using different forms of commitment. Variants of a dictator game in a lab-in-the-field experiment with Filipino migrants in Rome are used to examine remitting behavior under varying degrees of commitment. These range from the soft commitment of simply labeling remittances as being for education, to the hard commitment of having funds directly paid to a school and the student's educational performance monitored. The analysis finds that the introduction of simple labeling for education raises remittances by more than 15 percent. Adding the ability to directly send this funding to the school adds only a further 2.2 percent. The information asymmetry between migrants and their most closely connected household is randomly varied, but no significant change is found in the remittance response to these forms of commitment as information varies. Behavior in these games is shown to be predictive of take-up of a new financial product called EduPay, designed to allow migrants to pay remittances directly to schools in the Philippines. This take-up seems largely driven by a response to the ability to label remittances for education, rather than to the hard commitment feature of directly paying schools.
    Keywords: Remittances,Tertiary Education,Access&Equity in Basic Education,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems,Debt Markets
    Date: 2014–05–01
  16. By: Valeria Ivaniushina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Daniel Alexandrov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this study we focus on the influence of peers on adolescents academic achievement. Specifically, how the learning motivation of peers is related to a student's school grades. We use multilevel regression to analyze the influence of peers on different levels of social circles: school, class, personal network, and compare the effects of "assigned friends" and "chosen friends". The methods of social network analysis are used to define the personal network of a student in different ways: cliques, complete ego networks, and mutual ego networks. We demonstrate that the model improves considerably when the level of personal networks is included between individual and class levels. The learning motivation of a student's friends (defined as a clique or ego network) has an important influence on the student’s school performance, net of student’s personal characteristics.
    Keywords: social network analysis, schools, peer influence, ego networks, cliques
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Kerstin Carlson Le Floch; Beatrice Birman; Jennifer O'Day; Steven Hurlburt; Diana Mercado-Garcia; Rose Goff; Karen Manship; Seth Brown; Susan Bowles Therriault; Linda Rosenberg; Megan Hague Angus; Lara Hulsey
    Keywords: School Improvement Grants, SIG, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–05–30
  18. By: Lauren Akers; Alexandra Resch; Jillian Berk
    Keywords: School District, Random Assignment, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–06–30
  19. By: Carolyn J. Heinrich (University of Texas at Austin); Patricia Burch (University of Southern California); Annalee Good (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Rudy Acosta (University of Southern California); Huiping Cheng (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Marcus Dillender (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research); Christi Kirshbaum (University of Texas at Austin); Hiren Nisar (Abt Associates); Mary Stewart (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
    Keywords: tutoring, out-of-school time, education, inequality, No Child Left Behind
    JEL: I21 I24
  20. By: Dana Rotz; Matthew Johnson; Brian Gill
    Keywords: Education, VAM, Value-Added Models, Pittsburgh Public Schools
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–05–05
  21. By: Emerson, Patrick M.; Ponczek, Vladimir; Portela Souza, Andre
    Abstract: This paper uses a unique micro panel dataset of Brazilian students to investigate the impact of working while in school on learning outcomes. The potential endogeneity is addressed through the use of difference-in-difference and instrumental variable estimators. A negative effect of working on learning outcomes in math and Portuguese is found. The effects of child work range from 3 to 8 percent of a standard deviation decline in test score, which represents a loss of about a quarter to a half of a year of learning on average.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Youth and Governance,Labor Markets,Street Children,Primary Education
    Date: 2014–06–01
  22. By: Ewout Frankema
    Abstract: The educational legacy of Dutch colonial rule in the Netherlands Indies has been widely regarded as disappointing. This paper probes further into the underlying causes of the poor Dutch legacy. It is argued that the spread of popular education was not only hampered by a lack of financial commitment by the colonial state, but also by notable inequalities in the allocation of funds for education and a major reluctance to support initiatives in investment in private education, which may be interpreted as a consequence of the Dutch metropolitan commitment to secular rule in an overwhelmingly Islamic society.
    Keywords: colonial legacy, education, Indonesia
    Date: 2014–05
  23. By: Antonio Chiccone; Walter Garcia-Fontes
    Abstract: We propose estimating gender peer effects in school by exploiting within-school variation in gender composition across birth cohorts. Our approach differs from the existing literature, which exploits variation in gender composition at a given grade level in different years. We argue that the birth cohort approach is a useful alternative as the grade level approach generally yields spurious gender peer effects when there is grade retention. The birth cohort approach applied to primary schools in Spain indicates statistically significant positive gender peer effects of girls on boys' academic achievement and statistically insignificant effects of girls on girls' achievement.
    Date: 2014–06
  24. By: Anthony F. Camilleri (European Foundation for Quality in e-Learning); Ulf-Daniel Ehlers (European Foundation for Quality in e-Learning); Jan Pawlowski (University of Jyväskylä)
    Abstract: The need for quality assurance mechanisms to support the development and sustainable use of Open Educational Resources (OER) are being raised in the literature and in European and national policy documents as a major challenge and opportunity. There is however, only little experience and consensus in research and practice on how to define and approach quality for OER, in contrast with quality assurance related to eLearning for instance. The notion of openness is posing additional challenges. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of Quality approaches and concepts for OER and to some extent, Open Education, with the aim to identify policy options for action at EU and Member State level to further promote the development and use of OER in Europe. The focus for the overview is on Higher Education in the context of Open Education as announced in the Commission Communication on “Rethinking education: Investing in skills for better socio-economic outcomes” (EC, 2013). This report introduces quality concepts and approaches related to OER. It provides an overview of definitions of quality for OER and suggests a conceptual mapping as well as an overview of major issues related to quality for OER. Where appropriate, it gives examples of relevant existing practices and initiatives to illustrate the conceptual mapping. It also provides insights on the role of different actors and institutions involved in quality and OER. Finally, the report provides recommendations for policymakers at European and Member States level on quality assurance and OER with the aim to support the further development and use of OER in Europe.
    Keywords: Open Educational Resources, Quality Assurance, Quality Strategies, Open Educational Practicies, Formal education and training
    JEL: I20 I21 I23 I29
    Date: 2014–01
  25. By: Melissa S. Kearney; Phillip B. Levine
    Abstract: This paper considers the role that high levels of income inequality and low rates of social mobility play in driving the educational attainment of youth in low-income households in the United States. Using high school degree status from five individual-level surveys, our analysis reveals that low-socioeconomic status (SES) students, and particularly boys, who grow up in locations with greater levels of lower-tail income inequality and lower levels of social mobility are relatively more likely to drop out of high school, conditional on other individual characteristics and contextual factors. The data indicate that this relationship does not reflect alternative characteristics of the place, such as poverty concentration, residential segregation, or public school financing. We propose that the results are consistent with a class of explanations that emphasize a role for perceptions of one’s own identity, position in society, or chances of success. In the end, our empirical results indicate that high levels of lower-tail income inequality and low levels of social mobility hinder educational advancement for disadvantaged youth.
    JEL: D31 I24 J24
    Date: 2014–06
  26. By: Andrew Rendall; Michelle Rendall
    Abstract: SBTC is a powerful mechanism in explaining the increasing gap between educated and uneducated wages. However, SBTC cannot mimic the US within-group wage inequality. This paper provides an explanation for the observed intra-college group inequality by showing that the top decile earners' significant wage growth is underpinned by the link between ex ante ability, math-heavy college majors and highly quantitative occupations. We develop a general equilibrium model with multiple education outcomes, where wages are driven by individuals' ex ante abilities and acquired math skills. A large portion of within-group and general wage inequality is explained by math-biased technical change (MBTC).
    Keywords: Wage inequality, SBTC, college majors, occupations, mathematics abilities
    JEL: E20 E24 E25 I20 I24 J24 J31
    Date: 2014–05
  27. By: Ragland, David R; Pande, Swati; Bigham, John; Cooper, Jill F
    Abstract: California was the first state to legislate a Safe Routes to School (SR2S) program under Assembly Bill AB 1475 (1999). SR2S funds construction projects that make it safer for children to walk/bicycle to school and encourage a greater number of children to choose these modes of travel for the school commute. The main goal of this project was to assess the long-term impact of program-funded engineering modifications on walking/bicycling levels and on safety. Evaluation of improvements was determined using a targeted method of determining the countermeasures to result in safety and mode shift. Major results indicate that safety of pedestrians increased within 250 feet of an infrastructure improvement, such as a sidewalk. There was also evidence of mode shift near improvements, as well. Positive results for safety and mobility, as well as improved data collection for funded programs, should make Safe Routes to School programs competitive among other transportation needs. 
    Keywords: Engineering, Medicine and Health Sciences
    Date: 2014–01–14
  28. By: Marchionni, Mariana; Pinto, Florencia; Vazquez, Emmanuel
    Abstract: Inequality in PISA test scores of Argentinean students is among the highest of the participating countries. This paper explores the determinants of this inequality and quantifies the marginal contribution of characteristics of students and schools. We estimate Multilevel Models of the determinants of PISA 2009 reading results for Argentina and decompose the overall score inequality based on the methodology proposed by Lerman and Yitzhaki (1985) to decompose the Gini coefficient of total income by income source. The main result is that overall test scores inequality is mainly due to the high socioeconomic segregation among Argentinean schools.
    Keywords: Educación, desigualdad, descomposición del GINI, PISA, Argentina
    JEL: I24
    Date: 2013–11

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