nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2013‒11‒09
fifteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior and Universidade de Lisboa

  1. Do Single-Sex Classes Affect Achievement? A Study in a Coeducational University By Alison L. Booth; Lina Cardona-Sosa; Patrick Nolen
  2. Analyzing Zero Returns to Education in Germany: Heterogeneous Effects and Skill Formation By Daniel A. Kamhöfer; Hendrik Schmitz
  3. Testing the Internal Validity of Compulsory School Reforms as Instrument for Years of Schooling By G. Brunello; M. Fort; G. Weber; C. T. Weiss
  4. Revisiting the Educational Effects of Fetal Iodine Deficiency By Bengtsson, Niklas; Peterson, Stefan; Sävje, Fredrik
  5. Different levels of social organization in the formation of anti-school attitudes among adolescents By Valeria Ivaniushina; Daniel Alexandrov
  6. Equity and Access to Tertiary Education: The Case of Vietnam By VU HOANG LINH; LE VIET THUY; GIANG THANH LONG
  7. Why Should Business Education Care About Care? Toward an Educare Perspective By Kévin André
  8. Learning from the test: raising selective college enrollment by providing information By Sarena F. Goodman
  9. Adult Education in Turkey: Stylized Facts, Determinants and Further Issues By Dinçer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayça
  10. Governance Mode Choice in Collaborative PhD Projects By Negin Salimi; Rudi Bekkers; Koen Frenken
  11. Educational attainment and economic outcomes By Eric S. Rosengren
  12. Driving positive behavior change through education and motivation: summary of a PayPerks workshop By Susan Herbst-Murphy
  13. Growth and dispersion of accounting research about New Zealand before and during a National Research Assessment Exercise: Five decades of academic journals bibliometrics By Dixon, Keith
  14. Compensation Discrimination in the NFL: An Analysis of Career Earnings By Johnny Ducking; Peter A. Groothuis; James Richard Hill
  15. Are recent college graduates finding good jobs? By William C. Dudley

  1. By: Alison L. Booth; Lina Cardona-Sosa; Patrick Nolen
    Abstract: We examine the effect of single-sex classes on the pass rates, grades, and course choices of students in a coeducational university. We randomly assign students to all-female, all-male, and coed classes and, therefore, get around the selection issues present in other studies on single-sex education. We find that one hour a week of single-sex education benefits females: females are 7.5% more likely to pass their first year courses and score 10% higher in their required second year classes than their peers attending coeducational classes. We find no effect of single-sex education on the subsequent probability that a female will take technical classes and there is no effect of single-sex education for males. Furthermore we are able to examine potential mechanisms and indirect effects of single-sex education. We find that the effects of single-sex education do not appear to be driven by a tracking mechanism and that there are indirect effects on class attendance and completion of optional assignments for females. However, the indirect effects cannot explain much of the effect of single-sex education for females.
    Keywords: Gender, single-sex groups, cognitive ability. Classification JEL:C9, C91, C92, J16, J16, J24
    Date: 2013–10
  2. By: Daniel A. Kamhöfer; Hendrik Schmitz
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of education on wages using German Socio-Economic Panel data and regional variation in mandatory years of schooling and the supply of schools. This allows us to estimate more than one local average treatment effect and heterogeneous effects for different groups of compliers. Our results are in line with previous studies that do not find an effect of compulsory schooling on wages in Germany. We go beyond these studies and test a potential reason for it, namely that basic skills are learned earlier in Germany and additional years of schooling are not effective anymore. This is done by also estimating the effect of education on cognitive skills. The results suggest that education after the eighth year does not seem to have a causal effect on cognitive skills in Germany. This is consistent with the explanation for zero effects of schooling on earnings.
    Keywords: Returns to education, Skills, IV estimation
    JEL: I21 J24 C26
    Date: 2013
  3. By: G. Brunello; M. Fort; G. Weber; C. T. Weiss
    Abstract: In the large empirical literature that investigates the causal effects of education on outcomes such as health, wages and crime, it is customary to measure education with years of schooling, and to identify these effects using the exogenous variation provided by school reforms increasing compulsory education and minimum school leaving age. If these reforms are correlated to changes in school quality, and school quality is an omitted variable, this identification strategy may fail. We test whether this is the case by using the information provided by two distinct test scores on mathematics and reading and find that we cannot reject the internal validity of this popular identification strategy.
    JEL: C26 I2
    Date: 2013–10
  4. By: Bengtsson, Niklas (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies); Peterson, Stefan (Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet); Sävje, Fredrik (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies)
    Abstract: Recent research has reported positive effects on schooling due to in utero protection from iodine deficiency resulting from iodized oil capsule distribution in Tanzania. We revisit the Tanzanian experience by investigating how these effects differ over time and across surveys; across different treatment specifications; and across additional educational outcome measures. Contrary to previous studies, we find that the estimated effects tend to be small and not robust across specifications or samples. Using all available data and a medically motivated iodine depletion function, we find no evidence of a positive long-run effect of iodine deficiency protection on educational attainment.
    Keywords: Iodine de ciency; Education; Prenatal exposure; Multiple outcomes; Replication; Field; Robles; Torero
    JEL: I12 I21 J16 O15
    Date: 2013–10–25
  5. By: Valeria Ivaniushina (Sociology of Education and Science Lab, National Research University Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg, Senior Researcher.); Daniel Alexandrov (Sociology of Education and Science Lab, National Research University Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg, Professor.)
    Abstract: This article analyzes student pro-school/anti-school attitudes on different levels and explores their relation to educational outcomes. We examine the individual level, school level, and clique level predictors (clique is defined as a tight social group within a class social network). Cliques were identified using special software called Kliquefinder. We use multi-level regression approach on a sample of 7300 students from 104 public schools from St.Petersburg. Our findings show that: 1.) Socio-economic differentiation of Russian schools does not lead to a polarization of pro-school/anti-school attitudes in different types of schools; 2.) The polarization of attitudes emerges and is maintained at the clique level; and, 3.) Clique attitudes have a significant impact on educational outcomes (net of a student’s socio-demographic characteristics and individual attitudes).
    Keywords: pro-school/anti-school culture, peer effects, social network analysis, cliques.
    JEL: I21 C12
    Date: 2013
  6. By: VU HOANG LINH (Indochina Research & Consulting (IRC), Hanoi); LE VIET THUY (Department of Education Management, National Economics University, Hanoi); GIANG THANH LONG (Indochina Research & Consulting (IRC), Hanoi)
    Abstract: The objectives of this case study of equity and access to tertiary education in Vietnam are to (i) document the significance and consequences of disparities in tertiary education opportunities, particularly in specific instances and areas of Vietnam, (ii) investigate the results and lessons of efforts to expand access to tertiary education, and (iii) offer concrete recommendations for effective policies directed toward the ideas of widening participation. To pursue these research objectives, we evaluate students at three periods of their study life, i.e. access to universities; performance in universities; and completion from universities, using a number of individual and household characteristics. Our data include the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) in 2006 and a survey conducted at the National Economics University (NEU), Hanoi in late 2009. An important contribution of this paper is to highlight cases, in which equity provisions in tertiary education policies might have had detrimental effects on the quality of the tertiary system and on the capacity for a government to maximize the potential of tertiary education in stimulating economic growth and development.
    Date: 2012
  7. By: Kévin André (ESSEC Business School - ESSEC Business School)
    Abstract: This article considers the potential contribution of care ethics in business education through the lens of a new perspective, called "educare." This paper will first give a definition of educare as a pedagogical strategy which aims to make all students free to care. We will then look at why the educare strategy is relevant for business ethics education, given the intense challenges it is presently facing. Lastly, we will see how educare could be implemented effectively through service-learning.
    Keywords: Business Education ; Business Ethics ; Educare ; Empathy ; Ethic of Care ; Service-Learning
    Date: 2013–11
  8. By: Sarena F. Goodman
    Abstract: In the last decade, five U.S. states adopted mandates requiring high school juniors to take a college entrance exam. In the two earliest-adopting states, nearly half of all students were induced into testing, and 40-45% of them earned scores high enough to qualify for selective schools. Selective college enrollment rose by 20% following implementation of the mandates, with no effect on overall attendance. I conclude that a large number of high-ability students appear to dramatically underestimate their candidacy for selective colleges. Policies aimed at reducing this information shortage are likely to increase human capital investment for a substantial number of students.
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Dinçer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayça
    Abstract: We provide a novel set of stylized facts on individuals engaging in adult education using the Adult Education Survey (AES) conducted by TurkStat for the first time. This way we provide the first evidence on the determinants of participation in adult education in a developing country, Turkey. Our results indicate that old, uneducated, workingwomen with uneducated fathers and with young children in the household are less likely to take part in adult education activities in Turkey. However, young, educated, workingmen living in rural areas are more likely to participate in adult education. We also find that past performance of the sector of employment, significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education. Finally, we repeated our analysis for different fields of adult education. Our results suggest that characteristics of men and women who take courses in the most popular fields of education vary.
    Keywords: Adult education, economic growth, Turkey
    JEL: I21 I24 I25
    Date: 2013–08
  10. By: Negin Salimi; Rudi Bekkers; Koen Frenken
    Abstract: Joint PhD projects are a promising form of research collaboration, connecting universities to firms and public research organizations. Entering into such collaborations, however, requires decisions in terms of governance. This paper investigates how a university and its partners govern such projects, including decision-making, daily management and disclosure policies. Earlier studies show that shared governance modes have had a higher success rate than centralized governance modes. Nevertheless, more than two thirds of the 191 joint PhD projects we investigated opted for centralized rather than shared governance. Our findings show that: (i) geographical and cognitive distance render the adoption of a shared governance mode less likely; (ii) the partner controlling critical resources tends to centralize governance, and (iii) partnering firms are more likely to put restrictions on publication output than public research organizations. We therefore recommend that universities and their partners take these aspects into account when selecting such projects.
    Keywords: university-industry collaboration, collaborative PhD project, shared governance, centralized governance, proximity, resource imbalances, publication disclosure.
    Date: 2013–10
  11. By: Eric S. Rosengren
    Abstract: Remarks by Eric S. Rosengren, President and Chief Executive Officer, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, at the Boston Children's Museum's Early Childhood Summit 2013: Innovation and Opportunity, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, April 5, 2013.
    Keywords: Education - Economic aspects ; Early childhood education
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Susan Herbst-Murphy
    Abstract: Start-up firm PayPerks has developed a financial capability and rewards platform that combines online education with sweepstakes-based incentives. PayPerks’ initial emphasis has been on improving the understanding and use of prepaid cards among individuals with little prior experience using payment cards. Participants can earn points in a variety of ways, including taking short, self-directed tutorials on prepaid card use. Every month, those points become chances to win cash prizes in sweepstakes drawings. PayPerks co-founders facilitated a Payment Cards Center workshop where they demonstrated their product and discussed the journey it took from raw idea to commercialization. Two significant new PayPerks partnerships were also announced during this workshop.
    Keywords: Financial literacy ; Payment systems ; Unbanked
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Dixon, Keith
    Abstract: Purpose – University academics are important to the discovery and dissemination of knowledge about accounting practice and accounting learning. This article explores the consequences for the Pacific society of New Zealand of how these discovery and dissemination activities have come to be assessed for performance management, formulaic public funding and offshore accreditation. Design/methodology/approach – A longitudinal, bibliometric approach is taken to how knowledge about accounting practice and accounting learning in New Zealand has been disseminated over the past half century. The approach lends itself to the question of whether the trends revealed in the bibliometrics are suited to New Zealand audiences, including students, accountants, policymakers, Aotearoa New Zealand’s indigenous people and its diverse recent-settler populations, and Pacific New Zealand Society. One hundred and sixty accounting journals and several professional magazines are searched for articles based on empirical materials drawn from New Zealand. Findings – The findings relate to the geographical locations of the editors and the rankings of the periodicals that articles have been published in, and the topics the articles cover. The findings are interpreted in the broad contexts of academic activities, university development, and tertiary education policy and funding. Of the three activities associated with accounting in New Zealand universities, research has been the last to develop, starting with occasional articles penned by a small band of professors and published in the Chartered Accountants Journal (CAJ) and The Accounting Review. Now, research is often accorded the highest priority, as reflected in formal individual academic performance measurement systems, and related institutional incentives and penalties (exemplified by the Performance Based Research Fund of 2012). Measurement is conducted at the individual and institutional level, using criteria linked to lists of periodicals that are decidedly Atlantocentric. The CAJ has been deserted in favour of academic journals, virtually all based outside New Zealand. Academics have modified the way they report to suit the foreign editors and readerships. Publication patterns continue to change. Strong incentives and coercements seem to exist for New Zealand-based academics to behave selfishly for short-term survival. These persuaders seem to be wielded by a quasi-indigenous élite seeking to mimic their supposed superior counterparts elsewhere; and to dominate their subjects, and so exercise power and maintain their status. This is regardless of what might be better from a local, societal point of view. To publish about New Zealand, there is some advantage in studying areas in which New Zealand is seen as a “world leader” (e.g., Structural Adjustment, New Public Management, environmental accounting). This contrasts with areas about which the outside world is oblivious (e.g., New Zealand’s multicultural array of people and organisations, including the Maori people) or areas in which New Zealand lacks differences of “world” interest (e.g., financial collapses and director impropriety, what can be learnt from stock exchange data). Research limitations/implications – The research is confined to basic bibliometrics (a publication analysis, rather than citation or co-citation analyses), anecdotes and comparison with secondary sources. Originality/value – This study is concerned with whether knowledge about accounting practice and accounting learning in New Zealand is being disseminated in a way that suits those likely to be most interested and affected. It is distinct from most studies of this ilk, which attempt to rank journals or are about researcher productivity and author placement.
    Keywords: Higher education, Bibliometrics, Colonialism, Criticism, Accounting history, Accounting research, New Zealand, Research assessment
    JEL: I2 I23 M4 N3 Z18
    Date: 2013–11–05
  14. By: Johnny Ducking; Peter A. Groothuis; James Richard Hill
    Abstract: Using NFL data from 2000 to 2008, we test for compensation discrimination on career earnings in the NFL. We use both the traditional dummy variable technique applied to Ordinary Least Squares regression as well as quantile regression analysis to measures the effect of race on earnings. We focus on six positional groups: defensive backs, defensive linemen, linebackers, running backs, tight ends and wide receivers. Our analysis finds that a player’s performance determines career earnings and not their race. Perhaps, using a Becker-like argument, market competition for the best players in a competitive environment to achieve a winning team has overcome personal prejudice. Key Words: economics
    Date: 2013
  15. By: William C. Dudley
    Abstract: Remarks at the Regional Economic Press Briefing, New York City.
    Keywords: Education - Economic aspects ; Employment ; Economic conditions ; Housing - Prices ; Inflation (Finance) ; Consumption (Economics) ; Federal Open Market Committee ; Federal Reserve District, 2nd ; Universities and colleges
    Date: 2013

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