nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2013‒09‒13
eight papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Capacity Development in Higher Education: New Public Universities in Ethiopia By Rita van Deuren; Tsagazeab Kahsu; Seid Mohamed Ali; Wondimu Woldie
  2. Complementary Policies to Increase Poor People’s Access to Higher Education: the Case of West Java, Indonesia By Mohamad Fahmi; Achmad Maulana; Ariek A. Yusuf
  3. Progress through school and the determinants of school dropout in South Africa By Nicola Branson; Clare Hofmeyr; David Lam
  4. Changes in education, employment and earnings in South Africa – A cohort analysis By Nicola Branson; Cally Ardington; David Lam; Murray Leibbrandt
  5. Developing an evidence-based management approach for creating high performing higher education institutions By André de Waal; Leo Kerklaan
  6. Preferences and biases in educational choices and labor market expectations: shrinking the black box of gender By Ernesto Reuben; Matthew Wiswall; Basit Zafar
  7. The Role of Tertiary Education Institutions in Teaching Entrepreneurship in Post- Conflict Environments By Johan Venter
  8. Improving Post-High School Outcomes for Transition-Age Students with Disabilities: An Evidence Review. By R. Brian Cobb; Stephen Lipscomb; Jennifer Wolgemuth; Theresa Schulte; Abigail Veliquette; Morgen Alwell; Keriu Batchelder; Robert Bernard; Paul Hernandez; Helen Holmquist-Johnson; Rebecca Orsi; Laura Sample McMeeking; Jun Wang; Andrea Welnberg

  1. By: Rita van Deuren (Maastricht School of Management, The Netherlands); Tsagazeab Kahsu (Aksum University, Ethiopia); Seid Mohamed Ali (Jigjiga University, Ethiopia); Wondimu Woldie (Wolaita Sodo University, Ethipia)
    Abstract: Higher education in developing countries faces tremendous challenges. Universities are expected to contribute to social and economic development by delivering quality higher education to a fast growing number of students. This requires both quantitative and qualitative capacity development of the higher education sector in developing countries to increase enrollment rates and improve quality of educational programs and graduates. Different roadmaps exist in different countries. This paper focuses on the Ethiopian situation and aims at describing how the Ethiopian higher education system was able to realize growth and what its future ambitions are. Also, characteristics and challenges of the higher education system are included. At the university level, specific attention will be given to the 13 new public universities: illustrative case studies from three new public universities are included describing history, current situation, results achieved, ambitions and challenges.
    Date: 2013–09
  2. By: Mohamad Fahmi (CEDS - Universitas Padjadjaran, INDONESIA); Achmad Maulana (CEDS - Universitas Padjadjaran, INDONESIA); Ariek A. Yusuf (CEDS - Universitas Padjadjaran, INDONESIA)
    Abstract: We see a weakness in the merit-based government scholarship program, Bidik Misi, for students from poor families; most of them fail to meet the minimum academic requirements. This paper provides a policy simulation that compares two programs – private tutoring voucher (PTV) and conditional cash transfer (CCT) – to complement the Bidik Misi scholarship to boost the number of poor students eligible for the support. To this end, we offer a policy targeted at second and third year high school students at public schools. The data sources used in this study are: the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), the Indonesia Social and Economic Survey (SUSENAS), and some primary data. To choose the best alternative, we compare the cost effectiveness of both the programs and find that the cost per student in private tutoring voucher (PTV) program is lower than the CCT program. The PTV program is also more convincing than CCT as it could directly influence the quality of instruction. We also check the robustness of the scenario using two one-way sensitivity analyses. These analyses support our finding that the PTV program is more cost effective than the CCT program.
    Date: 2013–09
  3. By: Nicola Branson (SALDRU, School of Economics, University of Cape Town); Clare Hofmeyr; David Lam (University of Michigan)
    Abstract: The release of the National Income Dynamics Study Wave 2 provides the first nationally representative longitudinal data collected in South Africa. This makes it possible to study transitions in and out of school, across grades and into work in ways not previously possible. We illustrate the high levels of grade repetition evident in South African schools and show how school completion presents a significant hurdle with very few youth successfully completing matric. Exit from school does not offer any advantages as most youth find themselves idle once they have left school. Our regression analysis investigates correlates of school dropout and shows that not keeping pace is a key determinant of school dropout, even after controlling for school quality and socioeconomic status. Those behind but attending higher quality schools are partially protected from dropping out. Some evidence that credit constraints may be related to dropout is found, especially among males.
    Keywords: education, dropout, school completion, credit constraints in educational attainment
    JEL: I24 I20
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Nicola Branson (SALDRU, School of Economics, University of Cape Town); Cally Ardington (SALDRU, School of Economics, University of Cape TownAuthor-Email:); David Lam (; Murray Leibbrandt (SALDRU, School of Economics, University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: Rapid increases in educational attainment and the massification of secondary education in South Africa resulted in substantial differences in the supply and quality of educated workers across generations. This paper describes changes in the distribution of education across birth cohorts and how these relate to changes in the probability of employment, the distribution of earnings and the earnings premiums to complete secondary and tertiary education. Tracking cohorts over time allows us to disentangle generational and life-cycle components of these changes. Younger cohorts are shown to have increasingly faced worse labour market conditions than their predecessors, although this may be changing for cohorts born after 1980. Furthermore, the relative reward to complete secondary and tertiary education has remained positive, and increased for tertiary educated cohorts born since the 1960s. Increases in earnings inequality among those with complete secondary education suggests increased variance in education quality during the period when completed secondary education expanded rapidly.
    Keywords: Educational attainment, Earnings, Employment, South Africa, Cohort analysis
    JEL: I25 I24 J24
    Date: 2013
  5. By: André de Waal (HPO Center, Hilversum, The Netherlands, Maastricht School of Management, Maastricht, The Netherlands); Leo Kerklaan (Franeker Management Academie, Franeker, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: Effective higher education institutions (HEIs) are seen as an important building block in the development of a country. Unfortunately HEIs have come under increased pressure because of the worldwide trend of massification of higher education when at the same time students look for better quality education, while concurrently educational budgets are under pressure because of the economic crisis. This puts a great strain on HEIs who are forced to do more, of higher quality, in different ways, and with less resources. HEIs who manage to thrive in these challenging circumstances, by paying equal attention to increasing quality of both teaching and the internal organization, are known as high performing HEIs (HPHEIs). In this article an evidence-based management approach is applied for creating HPHEIs. Thus HEIs can, based on facts, make well-founded decisions in regard to the way forward when transforming themselves into HPHEIS.
    Date: 2013–09
  6. By: Ernesto Reuben; Matthew Wiswall; Basit Zafar
    Abstract: Standard observed characteristics explain only part of the differences between men and women in education choices and labor market trajectories. Using an experiment to derive students' levels of overconfidence, and preferences for competitiveness and risk, this paper investigates whether these behavioral biases and preferences explain gender differences in college major choices and expected future earnings. In a sample of high-ability undergraduates, we find that competitiveness and overconfidence, but not risk aversion, are systematically related with expectations about future earnings: Individuals who are overconfident and overly competitive have significantly higher earnings expectations. Moreover, gender differences in overconfidence and competitiveness explain about 18 percent of the gender gap in earnings expectations. These experimental measures explain as much of the gender gap in earnings expectations as a rich set of control variables, including test scores and family background, and they are poorly proxied by these same control variables, underscoring that they represent independent variation. While expected earnings are related to college major choices, the experimental measures are not related with college major choice.
    Keywords: Career development - Sex differences ; Women - Education ; Universities and colleges ; Risk-taking (Psychology) ; Prediction (Psychology) ; Competition
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Johan Venter (Maastricht School of Management, Maastricht, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of tertiary institutions in teaching entrepreneurship in Post- Conflict Liberia, one of several Post-Conflict Environments (PCEs) in Africa and abroad. The country wracked with years of civil war, and now seemingly on a path of democracy and economic growth rightfully is turning towards entrepreneurship education as a vehicle to job creation, especially among graduates and the unemployed youth. Four institutions of tertiary education in Liberia were earmarked by their educational authorities to play a leading role in delivering effective entrepreneurship education in future. A survey (n=28) was conducted among academics of the institutions in order to ascertain a better understanding of their perceptions on entrepreneurship education, the Liberian Post-Conflict labor market and related issues such differences between sub-Saharan labor markets and the loss of skilled individuals and professionals as a result of emigration (brain drain). Also the extent to which the academics were willing and able to participate in a program of entrepreneurship education. The results in general show enthusiasm for entrepreneurship education. Ideally it would seem that a process of infusing entrepreneurship into all curricula would be ideal. Special care should also be given to accommodating specific demands of the Liberian labor market, especially given their past history of conflict.
    Date: 2013–09
  8. By: R. Brian Cobb; Stephen Lipscomb; Jennifer Wolgemuth; Theresa Schulte; Abigail Veliquette; Morgen Alwell; Keriu Batchelder; Robert Bernard; Paul Hernandez; Helen Holmquist-Johnson; Rebecca Orsi; Laura Sample McMeeking; Jun Wang; Andrea Welnberg
    Keywords: Students with disabilities, secondary transition, post-high school outcomes, evidence review
    JEL: I J I
    Date: 2013–08–30

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