nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2013‒08‒05
twenty-one papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Do College Entrance Examination Scores Predict Undergraduate GPAs? A Tale of Two Universities By Bai, Chong-en; Chi, Wei; Xiaoye, Qian
  2. The Icarus Syndrome: Why Do Some High Flyers Soar While Others Fall? By Eric Parsons
  3. Transition to Higher Education Examination Outcomes: Does High School Matter? By Bengi Yanik Ilhan; Sumru Oz
  4. Causal effects of mathematics By Torberg Falch; Ole Henning Nyhus; Bjarne Strom
  5. School Resources, Behavioral Responses and School Quality: Short-Term Experimental Evidence from Niger By Elise Huillery; Elizabeth Beasley
  6. Learning Style and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students By Rajshri Vaishnav
  7. Students’ Perception About Management Education in India and USA By Shetty, Bhavna R.; Gujarathi, Rajashree
  8. Distributional Effects of a School Voucher Program: Evidence from New York City By Marianne P. Bitler; Thurston Domina; Emily K. Penner; Hilary W. Hoynes
  9. Universalisation of Elementary Education Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in Manipur By H. Ibomcha Sharma
  10. A Study of Lessons Evaluation by the Diet’s Teacher Trainees for Improvement of Teaching Efficiency in Imphal West District of Manipur By Taorem Surendra Singh
  11. An empirical study of factors influencing adoption of Internet banking among students of higher education: Evidence from Pakistan By Kazi, Abdul Kabeer
  12. A study of Practice Teaching Programme: A transitional phase for student teachers By Rakesh Ranjan
  13. The deadly effect of high-stakes testing on teenagers with reference-dependent preferences By Liang Choon Wang
  14. Credit Constraints and Demand for Higher Education: Evidence from Financial Deregulation By Teng Sun, Stephen; Yannelis, Constantine
  15. Has Education Paid Off for Black Workers? By John Schmitt; Janelle Jones
  16. Youth Unemployment in Belgium: Diagnosis and Key Remedies By Cockx, Bart
  17. Endophilia or exophobia: beyond discrimination By Salamanca Acosta N.; Hamermesh D.; Feld J.F.
  18. Research on Stress Management Among the Campus Students By T. V. Ramana; M. Satyanarayana; V.V. Ratnaji Rao Chowdary
  19. Teachers’ Views about Role of Television in Learning By Bharti Rathore
  20. Influence of Learning Styles and Teaching Strategies on Students’ Achievement in Biology By Ikitde, Godwin A.; Edet, Uduak Bassey
  21. Curriculum Framework for Application of ICT in Education By Sarita Sorokhaibam; Thokchom Asha Sinha

  1. By: Bai, Chong-en; Chi, Wei; Xiaoye, Qian
    Abstract: Each year, millions of Chinese high school students sit the National College Entrance Examination (CEE). For the majority of students, the CEE score is the single determinant in whether they gain admission into a college and to what college they enter. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether and how well the CEE score predicts college academic success. We also consider high school achievement and admission route in predicting college grades. We obtain administrative data on CEE and undergraduate GPAs from two Chinese universities with very different rankings. We find that, for both universities the CEE total score predicts undergraduate GPAs for all four years in college. Even the size of the estimates for CEE is similar for the two universities. High school achievement and admission routes are also significant predictors of college grades. However, we do not find consistent results as to which CEE subject test scores predict students’ academic performance in college.
    Keywords: Undergraduate GPA; Student Attributes; Admission Route
    JEL: I2 I21 I23
    Date: 2013–07–30
  2. By: Eric Parsons (Department of Economics, University of Missouri-Columbia)
    Abstract: This paper follows a cohort of initially high performing Missouri students from grade-3 through grade-9 and examines which school factors influence their academic success. Three key findings emerge. First, in terms of performance on standardized tests, schools that are effective in promoting academic growth among low performing students are also generally effective with high performing students. Second, high performing students who attend disadvantaged schools are more likely to take Algebra I later relative to their counterparts who attend more advantaged schools. Third, somewhat surprisingly, increasing the number of high performing students in a school negatively affects high performing student outcomes.
    Keywords: economics of dducation, high performing students, No Child Left Behind, exam score performance
    JEL: I20 I24 I28
    Date: 2013–07–15
  3. By: Bengi Yanik Ilhan (Faculty of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University); Sumru Oz (Economic Research Forum, Koc University-TUSIAD)
    Abstract: Abstract This paper estimates the impact of school quality on the transition to higher education examination (abbreviated as YGS in Turkey) outcomes by controlling for the student quality. Either the class size or the teacher-pupil ratio in main branches is used as a proxy for the quality of schools. Due to data limitations we concentrate on the Anatolian High Schools (AHS) in Istanbul. This choice gives us the opportunity to control for the student quality by making use of the minimum OKS score required for admission to each AHS. Using YGS scores for 2010&2011 and OKS scores for 2006&2007 corresponding to the same cohort, we find that student quality explains the transition to higher education examination outcomes to a large extent. Holding constant student quality however, we find no evidence that class size or the teacher-pupil ratio affects average YGS score of AHS. This can be explained by the relatively standardized school resources devoted to AHS. The results are robust to different scorings of YGS and to the inclusion of clustering.
    Keywords: Unemployment; Education, High schools, Entrance exams, Cluster.
    JEL: I20 I21 C38
    Date: 2013–07
  4. By: Torberg Falch (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Ole Henning Nyhus (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Center for Economic Research at NTNU); Bjarne Strom (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: This paper exploits that students at age 16 in Norway are randomly selected into one compulsory exit exam in either mathematics or languages. A few days before the actual exam day, the students are notified about exam subject. The students have an intensive preparation period, and preparation in mathematics relative to languages is found to decrease dropout from high school, increase enrollment in higher education, and increase enrollment in natural science and technology education programs. The causal effects are strongest for males, and depend on prior skills in mathematics. We explore several mechanisms that might contribute to these findings.
    Keywords: Mathematical training, Intervention, External exit examination, High school graduation, Higher education
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2013–07–30
  5. By: Elise Huillery (Département d'économie); Elizabeth Beasley
    Abstract: Increasing school resources has often shown disappointing effects on school quality in developing countries, a lack of impact which may be due to student, parent or teacher behavioral responses. We test the short-term impact of an increase in school resources under parental control using an experimental school grant program in Niger.
    JEL: H52 O15 I21 I28
    Date: 2013–04
  6. By: Rajshri Vaishnav
    Abstract: Learning style refers to the ability of learners to perceive and process information in learning situations. One of the most important uses of learning styles is that it makes it easy for teachers to incorporate them into their teaching. There are different learning styles. Three of the most popular ones are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic in which students take in information. This study is an analysis of learning styles prevalent among secondary school students. It was conducted on three learning styles- visual, auditory and kinesthetic (VAK). It also tries to find out relation and effect of different learning styles on academic achievements of students. A sample of 200 students of class 9th, 10th and 11th standard of Maharashtra state was selected for the study. Findings of the study reveal that, kinesthetic learning style was found to be more prevalent than visual and auditory learning styles among secondary school students. There exist positive high correlation between kinesthetic learning style and academic achievement. The main effects of the three variables - visual, auditory and kinesthetic are significant on academic achievement. Key words: learning, learning style, academic achievement
    Date: 2013–03
  7. By: Shetty, Bhavna R.; Gujarathi, Rajashree
    Abstract: The purpose of this research was to gain an insight into students’ perception about the quality of management education especially the Masters of Business Administration (MBA) program; as structured and taught in India and USA. Specific objectives were comparing students’ perception regarding the quality parameters input, process and output of the two MBA programs. The study covered students who had successfully completed MBA in India and those Indians who had pursued an MBA in USA. The hypothetical associations of students’ perception of high quality education with input, process and output of management schools were tested. Findings indicated that students perceived high quality of education if processes and outputs were satisfactory. Indians completing MBA from USA, perceived good quality of all parameters, with the only problem of finding a good job in America after completion of an MBA.
    Keywords: Perception, Students, Management Education, Quality, MBA, India, USA
    JEL: M00 M10 M38
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Marianne P. Bitler; Thurston Domina; Emily K. Penner; Hilary W. Hoynes
    Abstract: We use quantile treatment effects estimation to examine the consequences of a school voucher experiment across the distribution of student achievement. In 1997, the School Choice Scholarship Foundation granted $1,400 private school vouchers to a randomly-selected group of low-income New York City elementary school students. Prior research indicates that this program had no average effect on student achievement. If vouchers boost achievement at one part of the distribution and hurt achievement at another, zero or small mean effects may obscure theoretically important but offsetting program effects. Drawing upon prior research related to Catholic schools and school choice, we derive three hypotheses regarding the program’s distributional consequences. Our analyses suggest that the program had no significant effect at any point in the skill distribution.
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2013–07
  9. By: H. Ibomcha Sharma
    Abstract: One of the constitutional obligations of the Indian democracy is to provide universalisation of elementary education (UEE) in the country. However, due to various reasons and factors, this obligation could not achieve yet. After the formulation of National Policy on Education, 1986 and follow up POA-1986, certain steps and measures have been taken up in the form of meaningful partnership of Union and State Government. The scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) has been launched since 2001 in order to make universalise elementary education for all children till they complete fourteen years of age all over the country. The present paper is to focus the status of Universalisation of Elementary Education under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in the state of Manipur, and its constraint to achieve by 2010. This paper will be so useful for students and teachers in general for their academic purpose and for the researchers as a source of related literature in particular. Key words: Universalisation of Elementary Education(UEE), Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. (SSA) District Primary Education (DPE), Lok Jumbish Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative and Innovative Education (AIE)
    Date: 2013–03
  10. By: Taorem Surendra Singh
    Abstract: Elementary teacher education is also one of the most important educations, which helps teacher to equip well with modern teaching skills, methods, and teaching technology for effective teaching learning process for quality elementary school education. The realization of objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is possible mainly, when the effective and efficient teachers are teaching in the classroom, where students can learn without any burden. Therefore, the article tries to find out the quality status of elementary teacher training given at DIET (District Institute of Educational Training), Imphal West District by collecting the opinion of teacher trainees during the internship course. Key words: Teaching, Teaching Efficiency, Lesson evaluation, and DIET Teacher Trainees
    Date: 2013–03
  11. By: Kazi, Abdul Kabeer
    Abstract: This paper investigated the influence of factors on the intention to adopt Internet banking services among students of higher education in Pakistan. Theoretical framework used for this study has been adopted from Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with four independent variables. Convenience sampling method was used with a total of valid 220 respondents, which included students of Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology (KASBIT), Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through self administered questionnaire of two parts: Demographic and Likert scale multi-item scale for variables under study. Results indicated that convenience, perceived credibility, and perceived usefulness had significant positive influence among students on the intention to adopt Internet banking. The findings from this research would be useful for banks in the subject area, particularly for students in Pakistan.
    Keywords: Internet banking; students of higher education; technology acceptance model; Pakistan
    JEL: G2 G20 G21
    Date: 2013–03–02
  12. By: Rakesh Ranjan
    Abstract: Practice Teaching is an integral component of teacher training. This study explores the experiences of the student-teachers of Waymade College of Education during their 8-10 weeks’ practice teaching. Semi-structured interviews and focused group discussion with all student-teachers were used to collect the data while content analysis was used to analyze the data. The research established that, despite the positive experiences during practice teaching, student-teachers experienced challenges. Based on the findings of this study, measures were suggested on how to improve practice teaching. Key words: Practice teaching, trainee teachers, transitional phase
    Date: 2013–03
  13. By: Liang Choon Wang
    Abstract: This paper explains why suicidal tendency and test performance of teenagers may not be inversely related when individuals have reference-dependent preferences. Using panel survey data of South Korean secondary school students, I show that the relationship between suicidal ideation and test performance is consistent with reference-dependent preferences. When a student’s rank in the high-stakes College Scholastic Ability Test falls below her average ranks in prior national examinations, she exhibits greater suicidal tendency. The reference dependent effects, however, are absent for low-stakes in-school academic performance. The findings highlight the potential adverse consequences of disappointment in high-stakes testing.
    Keywords: High-Stakes Testing, Reference-Dependent Preference, Suicide, Suicidal Ideation, Korea.
    JEL: I12 I21 I31
    Date: 2013–07
  14. By: Teng Sun, Stephen; Yannelis, Constantine
    Abstract: This paper uses staggered bank branching deregulation across states in the United States to examine the impact of the resulting increase in the supply of credit on college enrollment from the 70s to early 90s. A significant advantage of our research design is that it produces estimates that are not confounded by wealth effects. We find that lifting branching restrictions raises college enrollment by about 2 percentage points (4%). Our results rule out alternative interpretations to the credit constraints channel. First, the effects are largest for low and middle income families, while insignificant for upper income families as well as bankrupt families who would have been unaffected by the increased access to private credit. Second, the effect of lifting branching restrictions subsided immediately following periods of increased loan limit through government student loan programs. We also show that household educational borrowing increased as a result of lifting branching restrictions. Our results provide novel evidence that credit constraints play an important role in determining household college enrollment decisions in the United States.
    Keywords: Credit Constraints, College Enrollment, Banking Deregulation, Human Capital
    JEL: H52 H81 I22 J24
    Date: 2013–07–30
  15. By: John Schmitt; Janelle Jones
    Abstract: Over the past three decades, the “human capital” of the employed black workforce has increased enormously. In 1979, only one-in-ten (10.4 percent) black workers had a four-year college degree or more. By 2011, more than one in four (26.2 percent) had a college education or more. Over the same period, the share of black workers with less than a high school degree fell from almost one-third (31.6 percent) to only about one in 20 (5.3 percent). The black workforce has also grown considerably older. In 1979, the median employed black worker was 33 years old; today, the median is 39. Economists expect that increases in education and work experience will increase workers' productivity and translate into higher compensation. But, the share of black workers in a “good job” – one that pays at least $19 per hour (in inflation-adjusted 2011 dollars), has employer-provided health insurance, and an employer-sponsored retirement plan – has actually declined. This paper looks at this trend and policies that would have a large, positive impact on the quality of jobs for black workers.
    Keywords: black workers, good jobs, retirement, pensions, health insurance, wages, labor, education, bad jobs, gender, pay equity
    JEL: J J3 J31 J32 J38 J5 J1 J11 J15 I I2 I24 I25
    Date: 2013–06
  16. By: Cockx, Bart (Ghent University)
    Abstract: In Belgium youth unemployment is structurally higher than the European (EU27) average, in particular for the low educated. In this study we set a diagnosis of the main structural factors and advance key remedies. We analyze the system of employment protection, education and passive and active labor market policies. A high minimum wage, a strict separation between school and work, and a vertically segmented schooling system with high retention rates and too early tracking are identified as main causal factors. Strict employment protection legislation is only concern for high-skilled youth. Reducing labor costs at low wages and a fundamental schooling reform that aims at dismantling the strict barrier between school and work are proposed as key remedies. In addition, youth should be entitled as of the start of unemployment to a low benefit based on the principle of “mutual obligation”. Very intensive and durable guidance is to be targeted to the low educated.
    Keywords: youth unemployment, employment protection, education, active and passive labor market policies, Belgium
    JEL: J24 J38 J68
    Date: 2013–07
  17. By: Salamanca Acosta N.; Hamermesh D.; Feld J.F. (ROA)
    Abstract: The immense literature on discrimination treats outcomes as relative One group suffers compared to another. But does a difference arise because agents discriminate against othersare exophobicor because they favor their own kindare endophilic This difference matters, as the relative importance of the types of discrimination and their inter-relation affect market outcomes. Using a field experiment in which graders at one university were randomly assigned students exams that did or did not contain the students names, on average we find favoritism but no discrimination by nationality, and neither favoritism nor discrimination by gender, findings that are robust to a wide variety of potential concerns. We observe heterogeneity in both discrimination and favoritism by nationality and by gender in the distributions of graders preferences. We show that a changing correlation between endophilia and exophobia can generate perverse predictions for observed market discrimination.
    Keywords: Economic Methodology: General; Education and Inequality; Labor Discrimination;
    JEL: J71 I24 B40
    Date: 2013
  18. By: T. V. Ramana; M. Satyanarayana; V.V. Ratnaji Rao Chowdary
    Abstract: Career planning and development of the students depends on their physical/mental, family, school, relationship and social factors. Pessimistic sense of these factors lead to stress in various forms like emotional, cognitive, physical, and behavioral reaction to any perceived demands or threats. Keeping this in mind, the present study is tried to find out the stress factors and to give suitable suggestions. It is observed that the students are facing stress at the campus regarding study hours, examinations, campus environment, relationship with others, home sick, monetary, body and mind related feelings etc. tress factors are examined with X2 test and likert’ scaling method. It is found that students who have Counseling from their teachers and the parents are felt relief from the stress. Various methods are suggested to avoid the stress. It can be said that the persons who having self control, self esteem and Yoga can avoid stress. Key words: Stress Management, Career Planning and Development, Counseling, Self Control, Yoga/Meditation
    Date: 2013–06
  19. By: Bharti Rathore
    Abstract: Television is a very popular and powerful medium. Being an audio visual medium it can move its audience to tears and to action. Use of soothing melodious music and attractive pictures make this medium very powerful but the sad reality is that some of the programmes are full of violence and sex and poison the soft, impressionable minds of teenagers. Besides that too much T.V. watching makes the youngsters lazy and inactive. Lack of physical activity gives birth to so many couch potatoes which makes us think whether television is a boon or bane. If T.V. programmes are to be used for educational purposes they should be planned in such a way that they support learning. If children watch good educational programs on TV, they can learn many new things very easily. They can learn about places they have never been to and animals they have never seen and they could learn about new scientific discoveries. Television can also stimulate thinking and make the people broad minded. TV can be a medium for education but it is important to choose the right TV programmes according to the age of the child. This way he/she can learn useful things. The right programmes can help him/her develop his/her imagination. Teachers imparting knowledge are best judge of the utility of television so the researcher has taken the views of the teachers about effect of television on students’ learning. Key words: Television, learning, role of television
    Date: 2013–06
  20. By: Ikitde, Godwin A.; Edet, Uduak Bassey
    Abstract: This study investigated the effect of learning styles (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global) and teaching strategies (guided inquiry, demonstration and lecture) on students’ achievement in biology. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two hundred and forty (240) Senior Secondary Two (SSII) biology students, comprising of one hundred and thirty six (136) females and one hundred and four (104) males were randomly drawn from six (6) Secondary Schools in Uyo Metropolis. A non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design was used for the study. Two research instruments used in gathering data for the study include: Biology Achievement Test (BAT) and Index of Learning Style Questionnaire (ILSQ). Pearson Product moment correlation was used to establish the reliability coefficient for Biology Achievement Test which stood at 0.86 Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) and Scheffe multiple comparison test were the statistics used to analyse the data. From the findings, a significant effect was found to exist in the academic achievement of biology students taught with guided-inquiry considering their learning styles. Key words: learning, learning style, teaching strategies
    Date: 2013–03
  21. By: Sarita Sorokhaibam; Thokchom Asha Sinha
    Abstract: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are making dynamic changes in every aspects of life including education. Observation of various lacunas and limitations indicated the problems faced in the implementation of ICT in education. Though origin of many of the problems are complex and multifaceted, but core issues that need to be defined lies on the conceptualizing the implementing mechanism and paradigm. Observations at the application level show the lack of coherent curriculum framework with regard to ICT. In this background, framing a proper curriculum framework as per the needs of the existing system has been felt. Key words: ICT; Education; E-Content; E-Learning; curriculum framework
    Date: 2013–06

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