nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2013‒07‒28
twelve papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. A Major in Science? Initial Beliefs and Final Outcomes for College Major and Dropout By Ralph Stinebrickner; Todd Stinebrickner
  2. The educational efficiency drivers in Uruguay: Findings from PISA 2009. By Santín, Daniel; Sicilia, Gabriela
  3. Incentivizing schooling for learning : evidence on the impact of alternative targeting approaches By Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Filmer, Deon
  4. The Impact of College Admissions Policies on The Performance of High School Students By Nicolas Grau
  5. Education and Mortality in India By Motkuri, Venkatanarayana; Mishra, Uday Shankar
  6. Comparison of Hiring and Promotion Criteria Linked to Teaching, Educational Development and Professional Engineering Skills By Asdis Hlokk THEODORSDOTTIR; Ingunn SAEMUNDSDOTTIR; Johan MALMQVIST; Sylvain TURENNE; Siegfried ROUVRAIS
  7. Evaluation of the DC Public Education Reform Amendment Act (PERAA): School Year 2010-2011. By Erikson Arcaira; Stephen Coleman; Jacly MacFarlane; rea Palmiter; Brenda Turnbull; Beatirce Birman; Erin Dunlop; Jane Hannaway; Umut Ozek; Steve Glazerman; Elias Walsh; Michael Feurer; Maxine Freund; Taunya Nesin
  8. Credit Access and College Enrollment By Solis, Alex
  9. Teens, Technology, and Transportation: An exploration of the digital lives of high schoolers By Lee, Brian H.Y.
  10. Postgraduate Education, Labor Participation, and Wages: An empirical analysis using micro data from Japan By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  11. Strategic Disclosure: The Case of Business School Rankings By Michael Luca; Jonathan Smith
  12. Low-skilled Immigration and Parenting Investments of College-educated Mothers in the United States: Evidence from Time-use Data By Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes; Almudena Sevilla-Sanz

  1. By: Ralph Stinebrickner (Berea College); Todd Stinebrickner (University of Western Ontario)
    Abstract: Taking advantage of unique longitudinal data, we provide the first characterization of what college students believe at the time of entrance about their final major, relate these beliefs to actual major outcomes, and, provide an understanding of why students hold the initial beliefs about majors that they do. The data collection and analysis are based directly on a conceptual model in which a student’s final major is best viewed as the end result of a learning process. We find that students enter school quite optimistic about obtaining a science degree, but that relatively few students end up graduating with a science degree. The substantial overoptimism about completing a degree in science can be attributed largely to students beginning school with misperceptions about their ability to perform well academically in science.
    Keywords: Education; College Major; Dropout; Science; Learning; Expectations Data
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Santín, Daniel; Sicilia, Gabriela
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to identify the main drivers of secondary school efficiency in Uruguay. We are particularly interested in identifying which variables could be influenced by the design of public policies in order to improve academic outcomes with the current resource allocation. To do this, we build a two-stage semiparametric model using PISA 2009 database. In the first stage, we use data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiency scores, which are then regressed on school and student contextual variables. This second stage is carried out using four alternative models: a conventional censured regression (Tobit) and three different regression models based on the use of bootstrapping recently proposed in the literature. The results show an average inefficiency of 7.5% for the evaluated Uruguayan schools, suggesting that there is room for improving academic outcomes by adopting appropriate educational policies. Following on from this, the findings of the second stage demonstrate that increasing educational resources, such as reducing class size, has no significant effects on efficiency. In contrast, educational policies should focus on reviewing grade-retention policies, teaching-learning techniques, assessment systems and, most importantly, encouraging students to spend more time reading after school in order to reduce inefficiencies.
    Keywords: Educational production, efficiency, data envelopment analysis, bootstrap, PISA
    JEL: C61 D61 I2
    Date: 2012–03
  3. By: Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Filmer, Deon
    Abstract: This paper evaluates a primary school scholarship program in Cambodia with two different targeting mechanisms, one based on poverty level and the other on baseline test scores ("merit"). Both targeting mechanisms increased enrollment and attendance. However, only the merit-based targeting induced positive effects on test scores. The paper shows that the asymmetry of response is unlikely to have been driven by differences between recipients'characteristics. Higher student and family effort among beneficiaries of the merit-based scholarships suggest that the framing of the scholarship mattered for impact. The results suggest that in order to balance equity and efficiency, a two-step targeting approach might be preferable: first, target low-income individuals, and then, among them, target based on merit.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Secondary Education,Teaching and Learning,Primary Education,Education For All
    Date: 2013–07–01
  4. By: Nicolas Grau (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: This paper empirically evaluates the effects of college admissions policies on high school student performance. To this end, I build a model where high school students decide their level of effort and whether to take the college admissions test, taking into consideration how those decisions may affect their future university admission chances. Using Chilean data for the 2009 college admissions process, I structurally estimate the parameters of the model in order to study the implications of two types of counterfactual experiments: (a) a SES-Quota system, which imposes the population’s SES distribution for each university; (b) increasing the high school GPA weight. The results from these exercises support the claim that increasing the level of equal college opportunities may boost the amount of effort exerted by high school students. Specifically, I find that:(1) average effort significantly increases as opportunities are equalized across different socioeconomic groups. (2) There is a moderate improvement in high school student performance, which is relatively important for certain groups. (3) The highest reactions in terms of exerted effort come from those students who also change their decision about taking the college admissions test. (4) Neither of these policies increases the percentage of students taking the national test for college admission, which is consistent with the fact that in this policy implementation there are winners and losers. However, there are relevant variations in who is taking such a test; in particular, this percentage increases for low-income students and those who have higher level of learning skills. (5) Because the SES-Quota system uses the existing information more efficiently, it implies a more efficient student allocation to equalize opportunities.
    Keywords: College admission; affirmative action; high school student effort; structural estimation; factor models; ex-ante policy evaluation
    JEL: C38 C51 C54 D04 I23 I24
    Date: 2013–07–15
  5. By: Motkuri, Venkatanarayana; Mishra, Uday Shankar
    Abstract: The present paper made an attempt to understand the impact schooling/education on the mortality rate in India, in a developing country context. Present study aims at looking into differences in mortality rate by the status of completion of primary schooling.
    Keywords: Demography, India, Education, Mortality
    JEL: I10 I15 J11 J18
    Date: 2013–04
  6. By: Asdis Hlokk THEODORSDOTTIR (Reykjavík University - Reykjavík University); Ingunn SAEMUNDSDOTTIR (Reykjavík University - Reykjavík University); Johan MALMQVIST (Chalmers University of Technology - Chalmers University of Technology); Sylvain TURENNE (Polytechnique Montréal - Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal - École Polytechnique de Montréal); Siegfried ROUVRAIS (INFO - Département informatique - Institut Mines-Télécom - Télécom Bretagne - PRES Université Européenne de Bretagne [UEB])
    Abstract: Within the higher education system, criteria for promotion based on research quality and contribution are well established and widely accepted. For teaching, on the other hand, such criteria have generally not been developed and implemented to the same degree. This poses a challenge for the implementation of the Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate (CDIO) standards 9 and 10, which deal with the enhancement of faculty CDIO skills and faculty teaching skills. To be able to implement these standards successfully, universities need to have in place effective ways of evaluating teaching contribution and professional engineering experience. To support the implementation of CDIO standards 9 and 10, excellence in teaching and progressive educational development based on engineering experience must be acknowledged and rewarded. This paper compares hiring and promotion policies and criteria for the evaluation of teaching contribution and educational development in four selected universities in Europe and North America. Conclusions are drawn with regard to the CDIO standards 9 and 10 and perspectives for future development of such criteria discussed.
    Keywords: Promotion; Academic; Criteria; Hiring policies; Education; Educational development; Skills; Engineering; Experience and search good; SOTL; Formation des maîtres; Carriere; Enseignant; Formation des maîtres; Reconnaissance des formateurs; Pédagogie; Pedagogical model; Pedagogical method
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Erikson Arcaira; Stephen Coleman; Jacly MacFarlane; rea Palmiter; Brenda Turnbull; Beatirce Birman; Erin Dunlop; Jane Hannaway; Umut Ozek; Steve Glazerman; Elias Walsh; Michael Feurer; Maxine Freund; Taunya Nesin
    Keywords: Special Education, science, technology, engineering, mathematics, STEM, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2013–07–15
  8. By: Solis, Alex (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Does limited access to credit explain some of the gap in schooling attainment between children from richer and poorer families? I present new evidence on this important question using data from two loan programs for college students in Chile. Both programs offer loans to students who score above a threshold on the national college admission test, enabling a regression discontinuity evaluation design. I find that students who score just above the cutoff have nearly 20 percentage points higher enrollment in first, second and third year than students who score just below, which represent relative increases of 100% , 213% and 446% respectively. More importantly, access to the loan program effectively eliminates the family income gradient in enrollment among students with similar test scores.
    Keywords: college enrollment; credit constraints; income gap; college dropout; Chile
    JEL: I22 I24 I28
    Date: 2013–05–30
  9. By: Lee, Brian H.Y.
    Abstract: In the face of increasing sprawl and car-dependence in US metropolitan areas, young people – especially teens in middle-class suburbs – may be experiencing new mobilities generated by their near-universal adoption of cell phones and increasing access to private automobiles. The growth in the adoption of hand-held mobile devices that can be used for communication and information may enhance accessibility and independent mobility for certain segments of the youth population, especially those in higher socio-economic status households. In a project with teens in two high schools in Chittenden County, Vermont, we used a mix of methods to explore the rapid changes in teens’ lives fostered by tools such as cell phones, texting, mobile internet access, and various forms of messaging. In this study, we find that millennial teens use digital devices to construct new intersections between communication, information, and transportation. By also actively employing these devices in our research, we are using novel methods for understanding the "digital lives" of teens, which represent a mix of traditional analog techniques and exploratory digital methodologies. In this presentation we examine issues including how often and in what ways high school students use advanced electronic communication tools to arrange transportation, what travel needs are being met and modes used, and how social processes contextualize the use of digital tools for mobility. We conclude by reflecting on how the daily lives of these teens may serve as a harbinger of emerging intersections of mobility, communication, and place.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2013–07–02
  10. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: Using micro data from the 2007 Employment Status Survey, this paper analyzes the relationship between postgraduate education and labor market outcomes in Japan. According to the analysis, 1) the employment-population rates of females and elderly people with postgraduate education are higher than they are for those with undergraduate education. The negative effect of marriage on labor participation is small for postgraduate females. 2) The wage premium for postgraduates relative to undergraduates is approximately 30%. The postgraduate wage premium is similar in magnitude for male and female workers. 3) The wage reduction after age 60 is less for workers with a postgraduate education. 4) The private rate of return to postgraduate education exceeds 10%. Due to advanced technology and the growing demand for increased skills, the importance of postgraduate education to vitalize the economy is growing. At the same time, the expansion of postgraduate education may contribute to increasing the labor participation of females and elderly people.
    Date: 2013–07
  11. By: Michael Luca (Harvard Business School, Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit); Jonathan Smith (The College Board -Advocacy & Policy Center)
    Abstract: Using a novel data set, we present three findings about the rankings that business schools choose to display on their websites. First, the data strongly rejects patterns predicted by classic models of voluntary disclosure. In contrast with the traditional unraveling hypothesis, top schools are least likely to display their rankings. Second, schools that do poorly in the U.S. News rankings are more likely to disclose their Princeton Review certification, suggesting that schools treat different certifications as substitutes. Third, conditional on displaying a ranking, the majority of schools coarsen information to make it seem more favorable.
    Keywords: Voluntary Disclosure, Shrouded Attributes, Information Unraveling, Rankings
    Date: 2013–07
  12. By: Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes (San Diego State University); Almudena Sevilla-Sanz (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: This paper uses several decades of US time-diary surveys to assess the impact of low-skilled immigration, through lower prices for commercial child care, on parental time investments. Using an instrumental variables approach that accounts for the endogenous location of immigrants, we find that low-skilled immigration to the United States has contributed to substantial reductions in the time allocated to basic child care by college-educated mothers of non-school age children. However, these mothers have not reduced the time allocated to more stimulating educational and recreational activities with their children. Understanding the factors driving parental time investments on children is crucial from a child development perspective.
    Keywords: Parental Time Investment, Immigration, Education Gradient, Time Use.
    JEL: J61 J22 J13
    Date: 2013–07

This nep-edu issue is ©2013 by Joao Carlos Correia Leitao. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.