nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2013‒07‒20
fifteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Does it Matter Which School a Student Attends? By OECD
  2. What Makes Urban Schools Different? By OECD
  3. Turning a Shove into a Nudge? A “Labeled Cash Transfer” for Education By Najy Benhassine; Florencia Devoto; Esther Duflo; Pascaline Dupas; Victor Pouliquen
  4. The Black-White Education-Scaled Test-Score Gap in Grades K-7 By Timothy N. Bond; Kevin Lang
  5. The Legacy of Conflict: Regional Deprivation and School Performance in Northern Ireland By Neil T.N. Ferguson; Maren M. Michaelsen
  6. Impacts of Five Expeditionary Learning Middle Schools on Academic Achievement. By Ira Nichols-Barrer; Joshua Haimson
  7. Funding Special Education by Total District Enrollment: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Policy Considerations. By Elizabeth Dhuey; Stephen Lipscomb
  8. Persistent Classmates: How Familiarity with Peers Protects from Disruptive School Transitions By Son Thierry Ly; Arnaud Riegert
  9. Grade Expectations By OECD
  10. Displacement and Education of the Next Generation: Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina By Christoph Eder
  11. Are Some Degrees Worth More than Others? Evidence from college admission cutoffs in Chile By Justine S. Hastings; Christopher A. Neilson; Seth D. Zimmerman
  12. Industry-academic partnerships in finance programmes. Cast of CFA-partnered programmes. By Alexandr Akimov; Robert Bianchi; Michael Drew
  13. An expansion of a global data set on educational quality : a focus on achievement in developing countries By Angrist, Noam; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Schlotter, Martin
  14. Development in Education Sector: Are the Poor Catching Up? By Mohamad Fahmi; Ben Satriatna
  15. How is international student mobility shaping up? By OECD

  1. By: OECD
    Abstract: <UL> <LI>Successful education systems are able to guarantee that all students succeed at high levels. </LI> <LI>Across OECD countries, around 60% of the overall, country-level variation in student performance can be traced to differences in how well students who attend the same school can be expected to perform. </LI> <LI>About 40% of the variation in student performance in OECD countries is observed between schools; but among high-performing countries, differences in performance are generally smaller than those in the average OECD country. </LI></UL>
    Date: 2013–04
  2. By: OECD
    Abstract: <UL> <LI>In most countries and economies, students who attend schools in urban areas tend to perform at higher levels than other students. </LI> <LI>Socio-economic status explains only part of the performance difference between students who attend urban schools and other students. </LI> <LI>Schools in urban settings are larger, tend to benefit from better educational resources, and often enjoy greater autonomy in how they can allocate those resources. </LI></UL>
    Date: 2013–05
  3. By: Najy Benhassine; Florencia Devoto; Esther Duflo; Pascaline Dupas; Victor Pouliquen
    Abstract: Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs) have been shown to increase human capital investments, but their standard features make them expensive. We use a large randomized experiment in Morocco to estimate an alternative government-run program, a “labeled cash transfer” (LCT): a small cash transfer made to fathers of school-aged children in poor rural communities, not conditional on school attendance but explicitly labeled as an education support program. We document large gains in school participation. Adding conditionality and targeting mothers make almost no difference. The program increased parents’ belief that education was a worthwhile investment, a likely pathway for the results.
    JEL: H52 I21 I38 O15
    Date: 2013–07
  4. By: Timothy N. Bond; Kevin Lang
    Abstract: We address the ordinality of test scores by rescaling them by the average eventual educational attainment of students with a given test score in a given grade. We show that measurement error in test scores causes this approach to underestimate the black-white test score gap and use an instrumental variables procedure to adjust the gap. While the unadjusted gap grows rapidly in the early school years, particularly in reading, after correction for measurement error, the education-scaled gap is large, exceeds the actual black-white education gap and is roughly constant. Strikingly, the gap in all grades is largely explained by a small number of measures of socioeconomic background. We discuss the interpretation of scales tied to adult outcomes.
    JEL: C18 I24 J15
    Date: 2013–07
  5. By: Neil T.N. Ferguson (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute); Maren M. Michaelsen (Ruhr University Bochum)
    Abstract: The relationship between deprivation and educational outcomes has been the subject of a long-running and deep debate in the economic literature. Recent discussions have focused on causality, with experimental and quasi-experimental approaches taken, yet, predominantly, the literature continues to proxy deprivation with measures of wealth. This paper explores a much wider measure and identifies a causal relationship between regional deprivation and school performance in Northern Ireland. Combining panel data on Key Stage II results from each of Northern Ireland's primary schools with the 2005 Northern Ireland Multiple Deprivation Measure, we show the net negative impact of this wider measure, whilst an extension explores the impacts of each single domain. Using an error-component two-stage least squares model, we account for school and neighbourhood selection and the potential endogeneity of our deprivation measure, showing spatial variation in historical violence, which occurred during “The Troubles”, to be a valid instrument for deprivation. Our results confirm the negative impact of deprivation frequently found in the literature but also that, when the impacts of other deprivation domains are accounted for, education and crime deprivation, and not financial deprivation, play a significant role in determining outcomes. This confirms the limitations of using wealth as a proxy for neighbourhood deprivation, whilst suggesting that policies focusing only on income redistribution will be unsuccessful in improving education outcomes of those exposed to deprivation.
    Keywords: Violent Conflict, Regional Deprivation, Human Capital Accumulation, Northern Ireland
    JEL: I24 R23
    Date: 2013–07
  6. By: Ira Nichols-Barrer; Joshua Haimson
    Keywords: Expeditionary Learning, Middle Schools, Academic Achievement, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2013–07–08
  7. By: Elizabeth Dhuey; Stephen Lipscomb
    Keywords: Special Education, Enrollment, Education Policy, Education
    Date: 2013–06–30
  8. By: Son Thierry Ly (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole normale supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Arnaud Riegert (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole normale supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, INSEE - Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques - INSEE)
    Abstract: Students' social networks are deeply disrupted during school transitions and students start in a classroom environment where almost all their peers are new. In this study, we investigate the consequences of keeping partly the same classmates during the transition to high school. To overcome the issue of endogenous selection across classes, we exploit rare natural experiment settings in which students are plausibly randomly allocated to classes within high schools. Two estimation strategies are presented and provide the same results. We find that each classmate who was already in a student's class in the last grade of middle school reduces substantially the risk of grade retention in 10th grade, but also in following grades. For low-ability students, the effect amounts to minus 1 percentage point per "persistent classmate", without increasing the risk of dropping out. A number of robustness checks are provided. By analyzing the distribution of the effect, we show that it is the strongest for students who are the most likely to experience a difficult transition, i.e. low-ability, low-SES students from low-quality middle schools. The underlying mechanisms are examined. Our results suggest that grouping students who already know each other during school transitions would constitute an efficient, no-cost policy lever to improve overall achievement and equality in high schools.
    Keywords: Friendships ; Social Networks ; High schools ; Class composition ; Peer effects
    Date: 2013–07
  9. By: OECD
    Abstract: <UL> <LI>Countries vary in the way they use marks, but they all tend to reward the mastery of skills and attitudes that promote learning. </LI> <LI>Teachers tend to give girls and socio-economically advantaged students better school marks, even if they don’t have better performance and attitudes than boys and socio-economically disadvantaged students.</LI> <LI>It seems that marks not only measure students’ progress in school, they also indicate the skills, behaviours, habits and attitudes that are valued in school. </LI></UL>
    Date: 2013–03
  10. By: Christoph Eder (Simon Fraser University)
    Abstract: In this paper, I study how displacement of parents during a violent conflict affects investment in their children’s' education years later. Using ethnic division during the Bosnian War as a natural experiment, I can identify exogenously displaced households and compare them to households who did not have to move because of the war. I find that displaced households spend significantly less on the education of their children in primary and secondary school (20 to 35 %), while their children are equally likely to be enrolled. The result also holds for expenditure positions like textbooks, school materials and annual tuition in secondary school. A decomposition of the causal effect shows that differences in income and the stock of durable goods can at most explain one third of the finding. Some evidence points towards increased uncertainty about the future of displaced parents. The finding implies that the disadvantage of displacement might be carried on to the next generation through the quality of education.
    Keywords: Displacement, Conflict, Education
    JEL: I25 J15 O15
    Date: 2013–07
  11. By: Justine S. Hastings; Christopher A. Neilson; Seth D. Zimmerman
    Abstract: We use administrative data from Chile from 1985 through 2011 to estimate the returns to postsecondary admission as a function of field of study, course requirements, selectivity, and student socioeconomic status. Our data link high school and college records to labor market earnings from federal tax forms. We exploit hundreds of regression discontinuities from the centralized, score-based admissions system to estimate the causal impacts of interest. Returns are positive and significant only among more-selective degrees. Returns are highly heterogeneous by field of study, with large returns in health, law and social science, as well as selective technology and business degrees. We find small to negative returns in arts, humanities and education degrees. We do not find evidence that vocational curriculum focus increases returns for less selective degrees. We do not find differential outcomes for students coming from low- versus high-socioeconomic backgrounds admitted to selective degrees.
    JEL: H52 I23 I24 I25 I28 J24 J31
    Date: 2013–07
  12. By: Alexandr Akimov; Robert Bianchi; Michael Drew
    Keywords: Accreditation, Chartered Financial Analyst, Higher Education
    JEL: I23 A23 A22
    Date: 2013–08
  13. By: Angrist, Noam; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Schlotter, Martin
    Abstract: This paper assembles a panel data set that measures cognitive achievement for 128 countries around the world from 1965 to 2010 in 5-year intervals. The data set is constructed from international achievement tests, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, which have become increasingly available since the late 1990s. These international assessments are linked to regional ones, such as the South and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring of Educational Quality, the Programme d'Analyse des Systemes Educatifs de la Confemen, and the Laboratorio Latinoamericano de Evaluacion de la Calidad de la Educacion, in order to produce one of the first globally comparable data sets on student achievement. In particular, the data set is one of the first to include achievement in developing countries, including 29 African countries and 19 Latin American countries. The paper also provides a first attempt at using the data set to identify causal factors that boost achievement. The results show that key drivers of global achievement are civil rights and economic freedom across all countries, and democracy and economic freedom in a subset of African and Latin American countries.
    Keywords: Teaching and Learning,Secondary Education,Country Strategy&Performance,Primary Education,E-Business
    Date: 2013–07–01
  14. By: Mohamad Fahmi (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University); Ben Satriatna (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: We use The National Socioeconomic Survey (SUSENAS) data from 1992 to 2012, to describe the condition of education development in Indonesia before and after the Reform Era. Historical data on education of Indonesia shows that this country has made a remarkable achievement in education development, which is indicated by a significant improvement on several education indicators. However, 1997-1998 Asian crisis is believed had slowed down the development of education sector in Indonesia. Three indicators areused in this study to measure the performance of education development, which are yearly schooling, net enrollment rate, and literacy rate. We found the gap of years of school between gender, region and income group is getting narrowed in the reform era. The net enrollment rate of all level of education also improved between 1992 and 2012. The gap between gender, region and income group also tends to be narrowed. However, we find that in several conditions the gap tends to be widened after the crisis. First case is between urban and rural people at elementary school. Second case is between income groups at elementary school. Third is between male and female at senior high school. Finally, the case is between income groups at tertiary education level. Literacy rate indicator also shows an improvement. The gap between different groups of people is also getting narrowed, except the gap between the rich and the poor. It tends to be widened after the crisis. The last indicator which is dropout rate also shows an improvement without interrupted by crisis. However, this is only happened at elementary school level. For the other level, the condition happened in different way. The gap between different groups of people is also narrowed after the reform era.
    Keywords: Education, Poverty, Indonesia
    JEL: I24 I28
    Date: 2013–07
  15. By: OECD
    Abstract: Between 2000 and 2011, the number of international students has more than doubled. Today, almost 4.5 million tertiary students are enrolled outside their country of citizenship. The largest numbers of international students are from China, India and Korea. Asian students account for 53% of all students studying abroad worldwide. New players have emerged on the international education market in the past decades, such as Australia, New Zealand, Spain, the Russian Federation and, more recently, Korea. By contrast, the share of international students in some of the most attractive countries – Germany and the United States, for instance – has declined. As countries increasingly benefit from student mobility, the competition to attract and retain students has diversified the map of destinations over the past decade.
    Date: 2013–07

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