nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2013‒07‒15
twenty papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. The Effects of Resources Across School Phases: A Summary of Recent Evidence By Stephen Gibbons; Sandra McNally
  2. Ethnic composition of schools and school performances in secondary education of Turkish migrant students in 7 countries and 19 European educational systems By Gert-Jan Veerman; Jaap Dronkers
  3. Age-Specific Education Inequality, Education Mobility and Income Growth By Jesus Crespo Cuaresma; Samir K.C.; Petra Sauer
  4. Education and Literacy in Andhra Pradesh (Pre-School, School, Higher and Technical Education and Adult Literacy and Skills) By Motkuri, Venkatanarayana
  5. Doubly Robust Estimation of Causal Effects with Multivalued Treatments By Uysal, S. Derya
  6. The Consequences of Using One Assessment System To Pursue Two Objectives By Derek Neal
  8. Education Reform in Korea By Randall S. Jones
  9. Access to Schooling and Staying in School in Sub-Saharan Africa By KUEPIE Mathias; SHAPIRO David; TENIKUE Michel
  10. Resisting Education By Carvalho, Jean-Paul; Koyama, Mark
  11. A framework for analyzing performance in higher education By Lola C. Duque
  12. Review and Assessment of Programs Offered by State Universities and Colleges By Manasan, Rosario G.
  13. The Legacy of Conflict – Regional Deprivation and School Performance in Northern Ireland By Neil T.N. Ferguson; Maren M. Michaelsen
  14. Causal Effects of Educational Mismatch in the Labor Market By Jan Kleibrink
  15. Right Peer, Right Now? Endogenous Peer Effects and Achievement in Victorian Primary Schools By Duncan McVicar; Julie Moschion; Chris Ryan
  16. "Genere e scelte formative” By Chiara Noè
  17. Understanding Social Interactions: Evidence from the Classroom By Giacomo De Giorgi; Michele Pellizzari
  18. The Effect of College Education on Health By Kasey Buckles; Andreas Hagemann; Ofer Malamud; Melinda S. Morrill; Abigail K. Wozniak
  19. The effects of research grants on scientific productivity and utilisation By Debby Lanser; Ryanne van Dalen
  20. Explaining entrepreneurial performance of solo self-employed from a motivational perspective By André van Stel; Werner Liebregts; Nardo de Vries

  1. By: Stephen Gibbons; Sandra McNally
    Abstract: This report provides analyses of recent academic evidence on the causal effects of resources in schooling on students' outcomes.
    Keywords: education, school resources, government policy, pupil premium, education funding, inequality, OECD
    Date: 2013–06
  2. By: Gert-Jan Veerman (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Jaap Dronkers (Maastricht University, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: This article examines the effect of the ethnic school composition on school performances in secondary education for Turkish students, using both cross-national PISA 2009 and Swiss national PISA 2009 data. We argue how social capital theory beside other theories can explain a part of the ethnic composition effect. We employ three indicators of the ethnic composition of a school: the native share, the share of co-ethnics and the ethnic diversity (we employ a residualized score of diversity on the proportion of migrants). Our results show no effect of the proportion of natives on math performances. Furthermore, we show a negative association between ethnic diversity and math performances. Nevertheless, we find a positive association between ethnic diversity and reading performances in The Netherlands. Children of Turkish decent have higher math performances if they are in an educational system with a larger community of co-ethnics and if they are in an educational system with native students with average higher school performances. Finally we find no association between an early comprehensive labor agreement and math performances.
    Keywords: ethnic composition, Turkish migrant students, ethnic diversity, social capital
    Date: 2013–07
  3. By: Jesus Crespo Cuaresma; Samir K.C.; Petra Sauer
    Abstract: We construct a new dataset of inequality in educational attainment by age and sex at the global level. The comparison of education inequality measures across age groups allows us to assess the effect of inter-generational education attainment trends on economic growth. Our results indicate that countries which are able to reduce the inequality of educational attainment of young cohorts over time tend to have higher growth rates of income per capita. This effect is additional to that implied by the accumulation of human capital and implies that policies aiming at providing broad-based access to schooling have returns in terms of economic growth that go beyond those achieved by increasing average educational attainment.
    Keywords: human capital, education inequality, age structure, economic growth
    JEL: I24 I25 O50
    Date: 2013–06
  4. By: Motkuri, Venkatanarayana
    Abstract: The present background paper reviews the progress of education including K12, vocational and higher education, skill development and literacy particularly during the last two decades in Andhra Pradesh and an attempt is made to identify gaps. It is observed that pre-primary education in the state, as is the case of all over India, still neglected and needs a strong policy intervention. With respect to school education, although the quantitative expansion is remarkable in the state as well as in India thanks to DPEP and SSA initiatives, the quality of education is still cause of concern. Besides, the progress in school education is the still short of meeting the goal of universal elementary education. The higher education too is suffering with the quantity-quality trade-off. The expansion of vocational education is inadequate and there is a lacuna skill development programmes in the state. Again, despite the progress in expansion of education in the state literacy rate is one of the lowest in Andhra Pradesh when compared with rest of the states in India. Simulation exercise has shown that unless there is a strong policy intervention, Andhra Pradesh will never achieve universal adult literacy in the near future. All these are pertinent issues particularly in the context of harnessing demographic dividend in the state as well as all over India.
    Keywords: Andhra Pradesh, School Education, K12, Pre-Primary, Primary, Secondary, Higher Education, Vocational Education, Literacy, Adult Literacy, Skill Development
    JEL: I20 I21 I22 I23 I24 I25 I28
    Date: 2013–07–09
  5. By: Uysal, S. Derya (Department of Economics and Finance, Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna, Austria)
    Abstract: This paper provides doubly robust estimators for treatment effect parameters which are defined in multivalued treatment effect framework. We apply this method on a unique data set of British Cohort Study (BCS) to estimate returns to different levels of schooling. Average returns are estimated for entire population, as well as conditional on having a specific educational achievement. The analysis is carried out for female and male samples separately to capture possible gender differences. The results indicate that, on average, the percentage wage gain due to higher education versus any other lower educational attainment is higher for highly educated females than highly educated males.
    Keywords: Multivalued treatment, returns to schooling, doubly robust estimation
    JEL: C21 J24 I2
    Date: 2013–06
  6. By: Derek Neal
    Abstract: Education officials often use one assessment system both to create measures of student achievement and to create performance metrics for educators. However, modern standardized testing systems are not designed to produce performance metrics for teachers or principals. They are designed to produce reliable measures of individual student achievement in a low-stakes testing environment. The design features that promote reliable measurement provide opportunities for teachers to profitably coach students on test taking skills, and educators typically exploit these opportunities whenever modern assessments are used in high-stakes settings as vehicles for gathering information about their performance. Because these coaching responses often contaminate measures of both student achievement and educator performance, it is likely possible to acquire more accurate measures of both student achievement and education performance by developing separate assessment systems that are designed specifically for each measurement task.
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2013–07
  7. By: Laura Crespo (CEMFI, Centro de Estudios Monetarios y Financieros); Borja López-Nodal (Universidad de Cantabria); Pedro Mira (CEMFI, Centro de Estudios Monetarios y Financieros)
    Abstract: In this paper we provide new evidence on the causal effect of education on adult depression and cognition. Using SHARE data, we use schooling reforms in several European countries as instruments for educational attainment. We find that an extra year of education has a large and significant protective effect on mental health: the probability of suffering depression decreases by 6.5 percent. We find a large and significant protective effect on cognition as measured by word recall. We also explore whether heterogeneity and selection play a part in the large discrepancy between OLS and IV (LATE) estimates of the effect of education on depression and cognition. Using the data available in SHARELIFE on early life conditions of the respondents such as the individuals’ socioeconomic status, health, and performance at school, we identify subgroups particularly affected by the reforms and with high marginal health returns to education.
    Keywords: Health-SES gradient, education reforms, instrumental variables treatment effects, SHARELIFE.
    JEL: I1 I2 C3
    Date: 2013–04
  8. By: Randall S. Jones
    Abstract: The rapid expansion of education in Korea is exceptional and has played a key role in its economic development. Sustaining Korea’s growth potential in the face of demographic headwinds requires further improving the education system to boost productivity growth. One priority is to upgrade early childhood education and care (ECEC). Korea also needs to address the overemphasis on tertiary education, in part by improving vocational education, to reduce the mismatch problem that limits labour participation of youth. Tertiary education needs restructuring to improve quality. In addition, the large share of private spending in education increases the impact of socio-economic factors on educational outcomes. Education reforms are thus needed to promote inclusive growth, notably by: i) improving the access of low-income children to high-quality ECEC; ii) reducing reliance on private tutoring, notably at hagwons, by improving university admission procedures, expanding the quality and diversity of schools and upgrading vocational education; and iii) expanding loans to university students with repayment contingent on income after graduation. This Working Paper relates to the 2012 OECD Economic Survey of Korea (<P>La réforme de l'enseignement en Corée<BR>L'expansion rapide de l'enseignement en Corée est exceptionnelle et elle a joué un rôle clé dans son développement économique. Maintenir le potentiel de croissance de la Corée face à l’obstacle démographique nécessite la poursuite de l’amélioration du système éducatif dans l’optique de stimuler la croissance de la productivité. Une priorité est d’améliorer l’éducation et l’accueil des jeunes enfants (EAJE). La Corée doit aussi s’attaquer au problème de la survalorisation de l'enseignement supérieur, notamment sur le front de l’enseignement professionnel, et remédier ainsi à l’inadéquation entre l’offre et la demande de travail qui bride le taux d’activité des jeunes. L’enseignement supérieur doit être restructuré pour gagner en qualité. De plus, le pourcentage élevé des dépenses privées d’éducation accroît l’impact des facteurs socio-économiques sur les résultats des Coréens en termes d’instruction. Des réformes de l’éducation sont ainsi nécessaires pour promouvoir une croissance solidaire, en particulier : i) améliorer l’accès des enfants de familles défavorisées à des services d’EAJE de qualité ; ii) moins recourir aux cours de soutien privés, en particulier dans le cadre des hagwons, en faisant évoluer les procédures d’admission à l’université, en rehaussant la qualité et la diversité des écoles et en améliorant l’enseignement professionnel ; et iii) accorder davantage de prêts aux étudiants dont le remboursement est fonction du revenu perçu après l’obtention du diplôme. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE de la Corée, 2012 (ée).
    Keywords: Korea, child care, tertiary education, secondary schools, vocational education, tuition fees, primary schools, universities, ECEC, hagwons, student loans, Korean education, kindergarten, pre-primary education, Meister schools, after-school tutoring, Corée, enseignement supérieur, éducation préscolaire, école primaire, EAJE, hagwons, enseignement professionnel, enseignement coréen, services de garde d’enfants, maternelle, école secondaire, écoles Meister, cours de soutien privés extrascolaires, droits d’inscription
    JEL: I21 I22 I23 I24
    Date: 2013–06–27
  9. By: KUEPIE Mathias; SHAPIRO David; TENIKUE Michel
    Abstract: This study jointly investigates factors driving the processes of accessing and staying in school in sub-Saharan Africa. We explicitly account for the fact that staying in school or its converse, dropping out, is observed only among children who ever attend school. We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 12 countries. We find that access to school is typically lower for females, rural youth, and those from poorer households. Conditional on having ever attended school, these factors, as well as age in grade ? an indicator of performance in school ? typically help account for staying in school. We also find that, keeping girls at school is very sensitive to school performance: girls with comparatively weak performance in school are more likely than their male counterparts to drop out of school, while girls who do relatively well in school are more likely to remain in school than boys, other things equal.
    Keywords: Access to education; ; school dropout; ; sub-Saharan Africa; ; school delay
    JEL: I20 I21 O15
    Date: 2013–07
  10. By: Carvalho, Jean-Paul; Koyama, Mark
    Abstract: We develop a model in which individuals choose education to improve their earnings and regulate the cultural traits they acquire via social transmission. When education makes individuals more receptive to mainstream culture, minority groups underinvest in education as a form of cultural resistance. Economic and cultural incentives interact in surprising ways that increase income inequality. An increase in the skill premium induces low-ability minority types to reduce education-a phenomenon we call resisting education. The model links technological progress, globalization and anti-discrimination policies (e.g. affirmative action, Jewish emancipation) to oppositional attitudes toward education.
    Keywords: Education; identity; inequality; cultural transmission; oppositional behavior;
    JEL: D10 D63 D71 I24 J24 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2013–07–02
  11. By: Lola C. Duque
    Abstract: Drawing on Tinto’s dropout intentions model (1975), Bean’s socialization model (1985), Astin’s involvement theory (1999), and the service marketing literature, this research presents a conceptual framework for analyzing students’ satisfaction, perceived learning outcomes, and dropout intentions. This framework allows for a better understanding of how students assess the university experience and how these perceptions affect future intentions. This article presents four studies testing fragments of the framework using data sets come from three countries and various undergraduate programs (business, economics, geography, and nursing). The models are tested using structural equation modeling with data collected using a questionnaire adapted to the specific contexts. The models have the ability to explain the studies’ dependent variables and offer practical utility for decision making. Applicability of the conceptual framework is evaluated in various contexts and with different student populations. One important finding is that student co-creation can be as important as perceived service quality in explaining students’ cognitive learning outcomes, which in turn explain a high percentage of satisfaction and affective learning outcomes. The studies also shed light on the roles of variables such as emotional exhaustion and dropout intentions
    Keywords: Subjective measures, Satisfaction, Perceived quality, Performance, Higher education
    Date: 2013–07
  12. By: Manasan, Rosario G.
    Abstract: Given the importance of tertiary education in promoting human development and improving the economy`s competitiveness, the state universities and colleges (SUCs) in the Philippines have always faced issues on the quality of education, management, and access. This study aims (i) to review and assess the programs being offered by SUCs vis-à-vis their mandates, the courses being offered by other SUCs in the region, and the quality of graduates produced; and (ii) given the findings, to recommend courses of action to improve the relevance and quality of course offerings of the SUCs. A review of the mandates of the various SUCs in the selected regions covered by this study (Regions IV-A, VII, XI, and VI, respectively) indicates that the mandates of a number of SUCs are fairly broad to start with. Also, many SUCs offer programs outside of their core mandates because the charters of most SUCs allow them to. Given these broad mandates, it is expected that there is substantial duplication in their program offerings relative to those of private higher education institutions (HEIs) and other SUCs in the same region. Moreover, high rates of program duplication appeared to be associated by an increase in the number of programs offered by SUCs. Program duplication may be considered a problem because of its tendency to increase per student cost of SUCs and the issue of SUCs crowding out private higher education institutions (PHEIs). Many PHEI officials also report that while the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) strictly enforces its Policies, Standards and Guidelines (PSGs) on PHEIs, the same rules are not applied as strictly on SUCs. Furthermore, the low quality of instruction is evident in the poor performance in the professional board examinations (PBEs). The median passing rate for 36 PBEs for 2005-2010 ranged from 40 percent to 45 percent during the period. Additionally, only 7 out of these 36 PBEs had average passing rates above 60 percent and only two have passing rates above 70 percent. There is also a preponderance of SUCs/PHEIs with zero passing rate in many PBEs and passing rates that are below the national average passing rate in 2005-2010. Given these findings, it is recommended that (i) the CHED enforces more vigorously its policy of closing existing programs of SUCs and PHEIs alike where these HEIs` performance is under par year after year; (ii) the CHED ensures that SUCs` program offerings comply with its PSGs; (iii) the CHED weighs the advantages/disadvantages of centralization over decentralization with respect to the monitoring of SUCs; (iv) the CHED regional director becomes a regular member of the SUC Board; (v) the normative funding formula is adjusted so that SUCs do not get an additional subsidy from the national government for the additional enrollment resulting from their offering popular programs (i.e., SUCs may be allowed to offer popular programs provided they meet CHED standards and shoulder the full cost of doing so); and (vi) in order to uplift the overall quality of instruction, the more effective measures, such as faculty development and facilities upgrading, be considered.
    Keywords: Philippines, state universities and colleges (SUCs), private higher education institutions (PHEIs), program offerings, mandates, duplication, board exam, passing rates, quality, budget
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Neil T.N. Ferguson; Maren M. Michaelsen
    Abstract: The relationship between deprivation and educational outcomes has been the subject of a long-running and deep debate in the economic literature. Recent discussions have focused on causality, with experimental and quasi-experimental approaches taken, yet, predominantly, the literature continues to proxy deprivation with measures of wealth. This paper explores a much wider measure and identifi es a causal relationship between regional deprivation and school performance in Northern Ireland. Combining panel data on Key Stage II results from each of Northern Ireland's primary schools with the 2005 Northern Ireland Multiple Deprivation Measure, we show the net negative impact of this wider measure, whilst an extension explores the impacts of each single domain. Using an error-component two-stage least squares model, we account for school and neighbourhood selection and the potential endogeneity of our deprivation measure, showing spatial variation in historical violence, which occurred during The Troubles, to be a valid instrument for deprivation. Our results confirm the negative impact of deprivation frequently found in the literature but also that, when the impacts of other deprivation domains are accounted for, education and crime deprivation, and not financial deprivation, play a significant role in determining outcomes. This confirms the limitations of using wealth as a proxy for neighbourhood deprivation, whilst suggesting that policies focusing only on income redistribution will be unsuccessful in improving education outcomes of those exposed to deprivation.
    Keywords: Violent conflict; regional deprivation; human capital accumulation; Northern Ireland
    JEL: I24 R23
    Date: 2013–06
  14. By: Jan Kleibrink
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of educational mismatch on wages in Germany, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. Educational mismatch has been discussed extensively, mostly by applying OLS wage regressions which are prone to an unobserved heterogeneity bias. This problem is approached by using FE and IV models. As a stability check, the regressions are rerun using data from the International Adult Literacy Survey, allowing for an explicit control of skills as proxy of abilities. Results show that unobserved heterogeneity does not explain the wage differences between actual years of education and years of required education. This rejects the hypothesis that mismatched workers compensate for heterogeneity in innate abilities. The results suggest a structural problem in the German educational system as skill demand and supply are not in long-term equilibrium.
    Keywords: Wages; educational mismatch
    JEL: I14 I21 J31
    Date: 2013–07
  15. By: Duncan McVicar (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Julie Moschion (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Chris Ryan (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This paper presents estimates of endogenous peer effects in pupils’ school achievement using data on national test scores, across multiple subjects and cohorts, for the population of primary school pupils in Years 3 and 5 (aged 7/8 and 9/10 years) in the Australian state of Victoria. Identification is achieved via school-grade fixed effects and instrumental variables (IV), exploiting plausibly random differences in the age distribution of peers and their gender mix across cohorts. The results provide strong evidence for the existence of endogenous peer effects across all subjects, with the IV estimates close in magnitude to the corresponding fixed-effects estimates, although less precisely estimated. In reading, for example, a one point increase in peers’ average test scores leads to between a .14 and .39 point increase in own test score, with similar ranges across other subjects.
    Keywords: Endogenous peer effects, school achievement, education, Australia
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2013–06
  16. By: Chiara Noè (CCA-CHILD, University of Sciences Po, PRESAGE)
    Abstract: The article aims at investigating university educational choices in terms of gender. In most industrialized countries girls and boys have made very different choices giving rise to strong segregation, often reflected in worse positions in the labor market. After a brief review of explanations behind the choice of university faculty based on gender differences, the article aims to evaluate one of the factors that strongly influence the choices, the levels and educational outcomes of individuals, namely the family background.
    Keywords: gender, educational choices, universities.
    Date: 2012–04
  17. By: Giacomo De Giorgi; Michele Pellizzari
    Abstract: Little is known about the economic mechanisms leading to the high level of clustering in behavior commonly observed in the data. We present a model where agents can interact according to three distinct mechanisms, and we derive testable implications which allow us to distinguish between the proposed mechanisms. In our application we study students’ performance and we find that a mutual insurance mechanism is consistent with the data. Such a result bears important policy implications for all those situations in which social interactions are important, from teamwork to class formation in education and co-authorship in academic research.
    JEL: I21 J0
    Date: 2013–07
  18. By: Kasey Buckles; Andreas Hagemann; Ofer Malamud; Melinda S. Morrill; Abigail K. Wozniak
    Abstract: We exploit exogenous variation in college completion induced by draft-avoidance behavior during the Vietnam War to examine the impact of college completion on adult mortality. Our preferred estimates imply that increasing college completion rates from the level of the state with the lowest induced rate to the highest would decrease cumulative mortality by 28 percent relative to the mean. Most of the reduction in mortality is from deaths due to cancer and heart disease. We also explore potential mechanisms, including differential earnings, health insurance, and health behaviors, using data from the Census, ACS, and NHIS.
    JEL: I12 I23 J24
    Date: 2013–07
  19. By: Debby Lanser; Ryanne van Dalen
    Abstract: This CPB Discussion Paper investigates the effect of receiving a grant from the Dutch Technology Foundation STW on the research output of an individual researcher. <strong>We find no evidence that STW grant receipt increases research output for the general funding programme (OTP) whereas the results indicate an increase in the number of scientific publications for the thematic programmes.</strong> <strong>Read also: <a href="">CPB Discussion Paper 249</a></strong> STW funds application-oriented research by equally weighting academic quality and utilisation of submitted research proposals. Research output is therefore measured along these two criteria, that is, publications and citations for scientific productivity and publications with industry and patent applications for utilisation. STW roughly distinguishes two types of funding instruments, i.e. the Open Technology Programme (OTP) in which research proposals from different disciplines compete against each other and the thematic programmes on specific research themes with more prominent industrial involvement. We are able to identify causal effects of such a grant on research output by exploiting the discontinuity in the relationship between the priority scores assigned to each proposal and receiving an STW grant. We find no evidence that an STW grant has a positive effect on scientific productivity or utilisation for the OTP. However, we do find significantly positive effects of an STW grant on publication rates within the thematic programmes. Grant receipt in thematic programmes leads to six additional publications including one co-authored by industry professionals over the next four years. This academic discussion paper is an example of the CPB’s work on science policy. Another discussion paper is published simultaneously on the effects of individual research grants (NWO Vernieuwingsimpuls or IRI-grants) on academic careers (<a href="">CPB Discussion Paper 249</a>).
    JEL: I23 J24 O38
    Date: 2013–07
  20. By: André van Stel; Werner Liebregts; Nardo de Vries
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether start-up motivation (opportunity versus necessity) influences entrepreneurial performance of an important subset of entrepreneurs, viz. the solo self-employed. We also explore to what extent human capital measures mediate this relation. We use a unique individual-level panel data set of solo self-employed in the Netherlands for three consecutive years (2009-2011) and construct three separate measures to identify necessitydriven solo self-employment. Our main finding confirms that necessity-driven solo self-employed perform worse than opportunity-driven solo self-employed. Furthermore, start-up motivation seems to have an isolated effect on entrepreneurial performance, considering that we also find that formal education and practical learning hardly mediate the relation. Our results imply that it is important to distinguish between different motivations within the population of solo self-employed in order to understand their entrepreneurial performance.
    Date: 2013–05–30

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