nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2013‒06‒30
ten papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Who Chooses Which Private Education? Theory and International Evidence By Bertola, Giuseppe; Checchi, Daniele
  2. Charter School Authorizers and Student Achievement. By Ron Zimmer; Brian Gill; Jonathon Attridge; Kaitlin Obenauf
  4. Is Increasing Private Expenditure, Especially in Tertiary Education, Associated with Less Public Funding and Less Equitable Access? By OECD
  5. The mathematics skills of school children: how does England compare to the high performing east Asian jurisdictions? By John Jerrim; Álvaro Choi
  6. The Unintended Consequences of Education Policies on South African Participation and Unemployment By Burger, Rulof; van der Berg, Servaas; Von Fintel, Dieter
  7. Evolution of the school failure risk during the 2000 decade in Spain: analysis of Pisa results with a two-level logistic model By Juan Manuel Guío; Álvaro Choi
  8. Education, Birth Order, and Family Size By Bagger, Jesper; Birchenall, Javier A.; Mansour, Hani; Urzua, Sergio
  9. Regional Public Research, Higher Education, and Innovative Start-ups - An Empirical Investigation By Michael Fritsch; Ronney Aamoucke
  10. Higher education experiences and new venture performance By Broström, Anders; Baltzopoulos, Apostolos

  1. By: Bertola, Giuseppe (EDHEC Business School); Checchi, Daniele (University of Milan)
    Abstract: Private school students do not always perform better in standardized tests. We suggest that this may be explained by choice of private schooling by less capable students in countries where government schools are better suited to talented students. To assess the empirical relevance of this mechanism, we exploit cross-country variation in the PISA 2009 survey of differences between private and state school regarding organizational features that are differently suitable for students with different learning ability. We seek and find evidence of this mechanism's empirical relevance in controlled regressions that treat within-country variation of PISA scores as an indicator of unobserved ability to learn.
    Keywords: talent, private education, PISA survey, educational background
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2013–06
  2. By: Ron Zimmer; Brian Gill; Jonathon Attridge; Kaitlin Obenauf
    Keywords: Charter School Authorizers, Student Achievement, High-Performing Schools, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2013–06–30
  3. By: Miruna Radu Lefebvre (Audencia Recherche - Audencia); Renaud Redien-Collot (Novancia - Novancia)
    Abstract: This paper examines the legitimating process of a French higher education institution entirely dedicated to entrepreneurship. Management and entrepreneurship education strive both for academic and market legitimacies. We think entrepreneurship education is confronted with an additional challenge: building political legitimacy. We analyze the "extreme case" study of Advancia, a Paris business school. We examined the business school's legitimation process over a period of six years, from 2004 to 2010. This "extreme case" may be informative for other business schools willing to reach academic, market and political legitimacies while at the same time trying to develop a coherent and stable global strategy in a competitive higher education landscape. This is the first article dealing with the topic of legitimacy acquisition processes, with the aim of emphasizing the institutionalization of entrepreneurial mindset in French entrepreneurship higher education.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; education; legitimacy
    Date: 2012–12–01
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: <UL> <LI>Between 2000 and 2009, total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP rose by 0.88 percentage point from 5.34% to 6.22%; the increase came from both public and private sources.</LI> <LI>In OECD countries, 16.0% of total educational expenditure for all levels of education came from private sources in 2009, compared to 12.2% in 2000. The private share in expenditure increased from 22.9% to 30.0% on average at the tertiary level, whereas it increased from 7.1% to 8.8% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels.</LI> <LI>The increase in private expenditure was not tied to a decrease in public spending on education. Rather, both sources of education expenditure had different growth rates.</LI> <LI>At the country level, a higher share of private expenditure for tertiary education institutions is not associated with more limited access to tertiary education or decreasing opportunities for students from disadvantaged families to enrol in tertiary education.</LI></UL>
    Date: 2012–10
  5. By: John Jerrim (University of London); Álvaro Choi (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: English policymakers have been disappointed with children’s performance on TIMSS and PISA, particularly in comparison to the results of young people from East Asia. In this paper we provide new insight into the England – East Asia gap by considering how cross-national differences in math test scores change between ages 10 and 16. Our results suggest that, although average math test scores are higher in East Asian countries, this gap does not increase between ages 10 and 16. Thus, reforming the secondary school system may not be the most effective way for England to ‘catch up’. Rather earlier intervention, during pre-school and primary school, may be needed instead.
    Keywords: PISA, TIMSS, educational policy, primary education, secondary education
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Burger, Rulof (Stellenbosch University); van der Berg, Servaas (Stellenbosch University); Von Fintel, Dieter (Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: In the late 1990s the South African Department of Education implemented two policies that were meant to reduce the large number of over-age learners in the school system: schools were no longer allowed to accept students who were more than two years older than the correct grade-age and students could not be held back more than once in each of four schooling phases. Our analysis uses school administrative data and household survey data to show that these policies coincided with a decrease in school enrolment of at least 400,000 and possibly more than 900,000 learners. These policies appear to have pushed many students into the labour market at earlier ages than was observed for previous generations, which explains much of the sudden increase in labour force participation and unemployment during this period. However, since these individuals would probably have entered the labour market sooner if not for their poor employment prospects, we argue that the resulting increase in unemployment signifies a more accurate reflection of disguised unemployment that already existed in the mid-1990s rather than a deterioration of labour market conditions.
    Keywords: South Africa, education, unemployment, participation
    JEL: J21 I25 J64
    Date: 2013–06
  7. By: Juan Manuel Guío (Universitat de Barcelona); Álvaro Choi (Universidad de Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: School failure has been one of the principal problems of the Spanish educational system during recent decades. This paper offers a perspective of the evolution of the factors that have had a significant influence over the risk of school failure considering personal, household and school characteristics through multilevel logistic regression analyses of PISA 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009 microdata.
    Keywords: School failure, multilevel logistic regression, PISA, compulsory education
    JEL: I2 H52 C25
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Bagger, Jesper (Royal Holloway, University of London); Birchenall, Javier A. (University of California, Santa Barbara); Mansour, Hani (University of Colorado Denver); Urzua, Sergio (University of Maryland)
    Abstract: We introduce a general framework to analyze the trade-off between education and family size. Our framework incorporates parental preferences for birth order and delivers theoretically consistent birth order and family size effects on children's educational attainment. We develop an empirical strategy to identify these effects. We show that the coefficient on family size in a regression of educational attainment on birth order and family size does not identify the family size effect as defined within our framework, even when the endogeneity of both birth order and family size are properly accounted for. Using Danish administrative data we test the theoretical implications of the model. The data does not reject our theory. We find significant birth order and family size effects in individuals' years of education thereby confirming the presence of a quantity-quality trade off.
    Keywords: quantity-quality trade off, fertility models, fixed-effects, instrumental variables
    JEL: E20 E24 D52
    Date: 2013–06
  9. By: Michael Fritsch (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Ronney Aamoucke (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: Based on detailed information about the regional knowledge base, particularly about universities, we find that regional public research and education have a strong positive impact on new business formation in innovative industries but not in industries classified as non-innovative. Measures for the presence and size of public academic institutions have more of an effect on the formation of innovative new businesses than indicators that reflect the quality of these institutions. We find relatively weak evidence for interregional spillovers of these effects. Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of localized knowledge and, especially, of public research for the emergence of innovative new businesses.
    Keywords: New business formation, innovative start-ups, universities, regional knowledge
    JEL: L26 L60 L80 O18 R12 R30
    Date: 2013–06–24
  10. By: Broström, Anders (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Baltzopoulos, Apostolos (Swedish Competition Authority)
    Abstract: Human capital theory suggests that higher education, as a means of capability creation and of ability screening, is positively associated with individuals’ success as entrepreneurs. This paper argues that social capital perspectives, in particular the theory of local embeddedness and team formation theory, complement human capital theory in explaining the relationship between higher education attainment and entrepreneurial success. However, human and social capital perspectives apply to different domains. While the former is appropriate for knowledge-based entrepreneurship, the latter is primarily valid in contexts where specialized analytical knowledge plays a less accentuated role. These propositions are supported by an investigation of survival and growth of entrepreneurial ventures in Sweden.
    Keywords: Higher education; entrepreneurship; universities; entrepreneurial performance
    JEL: I23 L26 O18 R30
    Date: 2013–06–20

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