nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2012‒12‒10
eleven papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. A Longitudinal Perspective on Higher Education Participation in the UK By Javier Valbuena
  2. GINI DP 61: Expansion of Schooling and Educational Inequality in Europe: Educational Kuznets Curve Revisited By Elena Meschi; Francesco Scervini
  3. The Treatment Effect of Attending a High-Quality School and the Influence of Unobservables By Ronny Freier; Johanna Storck
  4. Higher Education in Turkey: Subsidizing the Rich or the Poor? By Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla
  5. Decentralizing university admission: Evidence from a natural experiment By Horstschräer, Julia
  6. Note sulla scuola del 21°secolo: il concetto di scuola 2.0 e una proposta di classificazione By Caterina Novella; Domenico Lembo; Massimo Mecella; Mario Vacca
  7. Kick It Like Özil? - Decomposing the Native-Migrant Education Gap By Annabelle Krause; Ulf Rinne; Simone Schüller
  8. Stratification of public universities and students's segretation By Joan Rosselló-Villalonga
  9. Entrepreneurship training and self-employment among university graduates : evidence from a randomized trial in Tunisia By Premand, Patrick; Brodmann, Stefanie; Almeida, Rita; Grun, Rebekka; Barouni, Mahdi
  10. The Long-Term Effects of Building Strong Families: A Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research By Quinn Moore; Robert G. Wood; rew Clarkwest; Alexandra Killewald; Shannon Monahan
  11. An Empirical Approach to Compare the Performance of Heterogeneous Academic Fields By Cinzia Daraio; Giancarlo Ruocco

  1. By: Javier Valbuena
    Abstract: This paper is based on the first seven waves of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) that allow us to follow a recent cohort of pupils from age 14 through to Higher Education (HE) participation at age 19/20. Therefore, our approach involves using rich individual data that have been linked to school level information and geographic markers to examine some of the factors determining HE participation for individuals who were in Year 11 in 2005/06 and who could therefore first enter HE in 2008/2009. Our results indicate that differences in HE participation (including studying a science degree and attending prestigious universities) between students coming from advantaged and disadvantaged backgrounds are large and that much of the socio-economic gap in HE participation rates is driven by particularly low participation rates for students at the bottom of the income distribution. However, when we introduce controls for prior educational attainment, student’s expectations towards university, academic results during secondary schooling and type of school attended these gaps in participation are substantially reduced. Our analysis suggests that one of the main challenges to widening participation for pupils from poorer socio-economic backgrounds is early policy interventions at, say, age 11 as they are likely to have an im portant effect in HE participation. Also, relatively later intervention (at ages 14 to 16) aiming at improving educational aspirations of teenagers and targeting better GCSEs results will further close the gap.
    Keywords: Education inequality; family background; higher education
    JEL: I21 I28 J11
    Date: 2012–11
  2. By: Elena Meschi (Institute of Education ,Room 405, University of London); Francesco Scervini (Collegio Carlo Alberto, Università degli Studi, Torino)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relationship between schooling expansion and educational inequality in a panel of developed countries over different birth cohorts. Compared to previous literature, we expand the comprehension of this relationship by exploiting the longitudinal dimension of our data and by focusing on different measures of inequality. We find evidence of a non-linear relationship between expansion and inequality of education and we argue that this evidence is complementary and not necessarily in contrast with the educational Kuznets curve found by previous studies. We also discuss how educational policies may influence educational inequality and we find that the length of compulsory education affects inequality only through its effect on average education, while school tracking shapes inequality independently of the level of education. JEL codes: I21, I24
    Keywords: education, inequality, Kuznets curve, panel data
    Date: 2012–09
  3. By: Ronny Freier; Johanna Storck
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of attending a high-quality secondary school on subsequent educational outcomes. The analysis is based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study in which we observe children when they make their secondary school choice (between ages 10-12) and later when they self-report on their intentions with regard to their further educational path (between ages 16-17). To identify the treatment effect, we use a regression-control framework as well as an instrumental variable approach (based on local supply of schools). In a second step, we carefully examine the influence of unobservable characteristics, using the new technique proposed by Altonji, Elder, and Taber (2005b). Our findings suggest that unobservable characteristics are indeed crucial to the validity of the research design. While we find large positive and significant effects of attending a high-quality school, we cannot rule out that the estimates are not in fact driven by selection on unobservables.
    Keywords: secondary school choice, school quality instrumental variable estimation, selection on unobservables
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Caner, Asena (TOBB University of Economy and Technology); Okten, Cagla (Bilkent University)
    Abstract: We investigate how the benefits of publicly financed higher education in Turkey are distributed among students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. We use a unique dataset from a nationally representative sample of university entrance exam takers together with data on government subsidies to public universities. We compare the characteristics of students who succeed in the exam to those who do not and those who enter public universities to those who go to private ones. Our econometric analyses based on a three-stage selection model reveal that students from wealthier and more educated families are more likely to be successful at university entrance. Unlike the findings in other countries, students who enroll in private universities come from higher income and more educated families. However, among those who enter public universities, students from higher income and more educated families are more likely to go to universities that receive larger subsidies from the government.
    Keywords: higher education, public finance of higher education, Turkey, education, government subsidies
    JEL: O12 I22 I24 O15 H4 J1
    Date: 2012–11
  5. By: Horstschräer, Julia
    Abstract: Applying a differences-in-differences strategy, I study the decentralization of university admission as a natural experiment. Is the centralized or decentralized procedure better suited to match prospective students to universities? The analysis uses administrative data on all students within Germany and complements the prominent theoretical literature on college admission. The results show that the matching efficiency increased in course of the decentralization. This increase is mainly driven by enabling law schools to abolish admission restrictions. The matching quality is not significantly affected by the decentralization process but suggests that abolishing admission restrictions could be associated with increasing drop-out rates. --
    Keywords: higher education,college admission problem,university admission
    JEL: I21 I23 C21
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Caterina Novella (Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione); Domenico Lembo (Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza"); Massimo Mecella (Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza"Title: Automatic and Context-Aware Cross-Site Scripting Filter Evasion); Mario Vacca (Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione & Sapienza Università di Roma)
    Abstract: In the last years the use of ICT in teaching/learning processes has helped the development of new learning environments. This process has been changing the whole organization of the school (the architecture, the services and the management) originating a new kind of schools, named 21st century schools or schools 2.0. In Europe and in the world, there are different examples of these modern and technology-based schools. Even in Italy, the Italian Ministry of Education has been fostering the action of Scuol@2.0, (in “The National Plan for Digital School”) in order to build new learning environments and to design new schools closer to the students needs. Unfortunately, there is neither a clear concept about what a school 2.0 is, nor any kind of classification of these schools. This implies also the lack of design methodologies.In this preliminary report, we will make clearer the concept of school 2.0 and we give a classification of this kind of schools concerning the ICT impact on their organization. This is important and it constitutes a first step toward the possibility to find models of school 2.0 and suitable design methodologies for them.
    Keywords: Keywords: Learning Environment, Venkatramann Classification, Planning Methodology, Schools 2.0, Organization Theories.
    Date: 2012–05
  7. By: Annabelle Krause; Ulf Rinne; Simone Schüller
    Abstract: We investigate second generation migrants and native children at several stages in the German education system to analyze the determinants of the persistent native-migrant gap. One part of the gap can be attributed to differences in socioeconomic background and another part remains unexplained. Faced with this decomposition problem, we apply linear and matching decomposition methods. Accounting for differences in socioeconomic background, we find that migrant pupils are just as likely to receive recommendations for or to enroll at any secondary school type as native children. Comparable natives, in terms of family background, thus face similar difficulties as migrant children. Our results point at more general inequalities in secondary schooling in Germany which are not migrant-specific.
    Keywords: Migration, education, human capital, Germany, tracking
    JEL: J15 J24 I21
    Date: 2012
  8. By: Joan Rosselló-Villalonga (Universitat de les Illes Balears)
    Abstract: We present a model which allows us to show that strati?cation of public universities according to the quality they o¤er and the quality of students they select is a plausible result even in a public university system where tuition fees are uniform and decided by the administration. This result is similar to that observed in private and competitive university systems. We prove that it is very unlikely that segregation and strati?cation could be avoided by subsidizing those universities that are more ine¢ cient. We show also that even if strati?cation and segregation could be removed with subsidies, it would be at the cost of ?xing quality limits at the whole university system
    Keywords: school choice, state and federal aid
    JEL: H42 I28
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Premand, Patrick; Brodmann, Stefanie; Almeida, Rita; Grun, Rebekka; Barouni, Mahdi
    Abstract: In economies characterized by low labor demand and high rates of youth unemployment, entrepreneurship training has the potential to enable youth to gain skills and create their own jobs. This paper presents experimental evidence on a new entrepreneurship track that provides business training and personalized coaching to university students in Tunisia. Undergraduates in the final year of licence appliquee were given the opportunity to graduate with a business plan instead of following the standard curriculum. This paper relies on randomized assignment of the entrepreneurship track to identify impacts on labor market outcomes one year after graduation. The analysis finds that the entrepreneurship track was effective in increasing self-employment among applicants, but that the effects are small in absolute terms. In addition, the employment rate among participants remains unchanged, pointing to a partial substitution from wage employment to self-employment. The evidence shows that the program fostered business skills, expanded networks, and affected a range of behavioral skills. Participation in the entrepreneurship track also heightened graduates’ optimism toward the future shortly after the Tunisian revolution.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Labor Markets,Primary Education,Access to Finance,Educational Sciences
    Date: 2012–12–01
  10. By: Quinn Moore; Robert G. Wood; rew Clarkwest; Alexandra Killewald; Shannon Monahan
    Keywords: BSF, Building Strong Families, Relationship Skills Education, Unmarried Parents
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–11–30
  11. By: Cinzia Daraio (Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza"); Giancarlo Ruocco (Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza")
    Abstract: In this paper we propose a “scaling-based” empirical approach to assess the scientific performance of heterogeneous academic disciplines. It relies on the idea that if we take into account for their two main sources of heterogeneity, the bibliometric distributions of different academic fields can be superimposed and collapse to a unique master curve by a single scaling parameter. By using data on the scientific production of around 2,500 scholars of the university of Rome “La Sapienza” from the Web of Science (WoS) over 2004–2008 we i) demonstrate the existence of a master curve; ii) determine the scaling factors which are the cornerstone to compare different academic fields; and iii) show that the master bibliometric distribution follows a Log-normal law.
    Keywords: Research assessment, Normalization, Scaling, Universality, Italian Universities
    Date: 2012–03

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