nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2012‒11‒03
thirteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Impacts of an early stage education intervention on students'learning achievement : evidence from the Philippines By Yamauchi, Futoshi; Liu, Yanyan
  2. School quality, labor markets and human capital investments : long-term impacts of an early stage education intervention in the Philippines By Yamauchi, Futoshi; Liu, Yanyan
  3. Primary Education: Barriers to Entry and Bottlenecks to Completion By Albert, Jose Ramon G.; David, Clarissa
  4. Impact of College Library on Student’s Academic Achievements By Basheer, S; Razzaq, A
  5. (How) Do research and administrative duties affect university professors’ teaching? By Aurora García-Gallego; Nikolaos Georgantzís; Joan Martín-Montaner; Teodosio Pérez-Amaral
  6. University Quality and Labour Market Outcomes of Canadian Youth By Joniada Milla
  7. Mesure de la production economique du secteur de l'education dans les comptes nationaux By Gu, Wulong<br /> Wong, Ambrose
  8. Measuring the Economic Output of the Education Sector in the National Accounts By Gu, Wulong<br /> Wong, Ambrose
  9. Regional Cooperation in Education: Issues for Developing Countries in the Asia-Pacific By Yap, Josef T.
  10. Organization Commitment of Public Primary School Senior Head Teachers By Ahmad, AR; Yunus, NKY; Norwani, NM; Musa, K
  11. The Effect of Fair Trade Affiliation on Child Schooling: Evidence from a Sample of Chilean Honey Producers By Leonardo Becchetti; Stefano Castriota; Melania Michetti
  12. Do collaborations enhance the high-quality output of scientific institutions? Evidence from the Italian Research Assessment Exercise (2001-2003) By Maria Rosaria Carillo; Erasmo Papagni; Alessandro Sapio
  13. An Assessment of TESDA Scholarship Programs By Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Abrigo, Michael Ralph M.

  1. By: Yamauchi, Futoshi; Liu, Yanyan
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of a large supply-side education intervention in the Philippines, the Third Elementary Education Project, on students'national achievement test scores. It finds that the program significantly increased student test scores at grades 4 to 6. The estimation indicates that two-year exposure to the program increases test scores by about 4.5 to 5 score points. Interestingly, the mathematics score is more responsive to the education reform than are other subjects. The analysis also finds that textbooks, instructional training of teachers, and new classroom construction particularly contributed to these outcomes. The empirical results imply that early-stage investment improves student performance at later stages in the elementary school cycle, which suggests that social returns to such an investment are greater than what the current study demonstrates.
    Keywords: Education For All,Tertiary Education,Primary Education,Teaching and Learning,Secondary Education
    Date: 2012–10–01
  2. By: Yamauchi, Futoshi; Liu, Yanyan
    Abstract: This paper examines the long-term impacts of improved school quality at the elementary school stage on subsequent schooling investments and labor market outcomes using unique data from a recent survey that tracked students in the Philippines. The empirical results, which are based on a comparison of students who graduated from schools located in adjacent treatment and control areas before and after a school intervention, show significant differences in subsequent schooling investments, migration, and labor market earnings between females and males. That is, females study more (relative to males) and tend to migrate and earn more if they receive high-quality educational investments at an early stage. The above results are consistent with females'greater incentives to study, driven by their higher returns to schooling, especially after high school completion, observed in the labor market.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Education For All,Secondary Education,Primary Education,Access to Finance
    Date: 2012–10–01
  3. By: Albert, Jose Ramon G.; David, Clarissa
    Abstract: To improve the country`s standing on achieving the Millennium Development Goals on Education and Education for All targets, it is important to examine various economic and sociocultural demand-side factors that hinder children from attending and completing primary school, as well as maximizing their learning when they are in school. In this report, we look into two major issues regarding universal primary education, viz., late school entry and dropping out before completion of elementary, which are tied to a variety of factors related to demand for education. This paper focuses on a select few that appear to have substantial consequences on school attendance: perceptions about school readiness of children, economic factors (poverty and costs of education), differences in expectations between boys and girls, and education of mothers. Supply barriers also exacerbate these problems, particularly in a system that suffers continuous shortages of various education inputs. The examination in this paper includes reports using available national survey data and primary observations made during field visits and interviews in various areas of the country. This paper identifies and discusses the most pertinent factors related to why preprimary-aged children not in school are viewed as being too young for schooling, why primary-aged children not in school reportedly lack interest in schooling, and what puts some primary-aged students more at risk of dropping out than others.
    Keywords: poverty, Philippines, out-of-school children,dropouts, primary education, school readiness, gender disparities, input deficits
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Basheer, S; Razzaq, A
    Abstract: economics has created a need for competent commerce graduates. Provision of talented and intelligent professionals in these fields is the responsibility of Governmental Institutions, (colleges & Universities). In the process of developing highly qualified , confident , and academically up rated professionals, roll played by commerce colleges and other educational institutions can never be denied. To increase economic strengths of the country and to reduce its weaknesses, it is also necessary to have a better understanding of available environmental opportunities and alarming external threats, and to build competent young professionals to face all such challenges. One of the urgent needs of Government Premier Girls College is how to improve the learning of commerce students especially at degree level. It was observed in the year 2009 and 2010 that students’ performance in examinations has been consistently low, and students’ academic achievement in degree classes is generally poor. Therefore, the problem of low performance of students in the commerce subjects should be given priority attention.
    Keywords: College Library; Student’s Academic Achievements
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Aurora García-Gallego (LEE & Economics Department-Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.); Nikolaos Georgantzís (Economics Department, Universidad de Granada & LEE-Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.); Joan Martín-Montaner (IEI & Economics Department-Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain.); Teodosio Pérez-Amaral (Departamento de Economía Cuantitativa (Department of Quantitative Economics), Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales (Faculty of Economics and Business), Universidad Complutense de Madrid.)
    Abstract: We analyze the interaction between university professors’ teaching quality and their research and administrative activities. Our sample is a high-quality individual panel data set from a medium size public Spanish university. Although, researchers teach roughly 20% more than non-researchers, their teaching quality is also 20% higher. Over much of the relevant range, we find a nonlinear and positive effect of research output and teaching quantity on teaching quality. Instructors with no research are 5 times more likely than the rest to be among the worst teachers and up to two-thirds of the professors could improve their teaching by increasing research.
    Keywords: University professors'; Teaching quality; Public Spanish university; Research and administrative activities.
    Date: 2012–09
  6. By: Joniada Milla (Department of Economics, University of Guelph)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the wage returns to the Canadian university reputation and quality by using the Maclean's magazine Best Overall Reputation ranking and a quality ranking based on an index constructed by the Principal Component Analysis of a set of university characteristics. The main data source is Youth in Transition Survey and the outcome of interest is the hourly wage rate of Canadian youth between 2003-2005. Using matching methods we draw some main results from this analysis. First, we find that returns to having a Bachelor's degree from a higher versus lower ranking university is 10.3% for women and 13.4% for men. The returns are higher when comparing the wages in the top and bottom tails of the reputation ranking distribution. Second, there are returns to university quality but the results are mixed. Third, the ranking premiums are higher for men than women. The results are robust through different specifications, sample exclusions and estimators.
    Keywords: Returns to Education, University Quality, Reputation, Wage Rates
    JEL: C21 I21 J16 J30
    Date: 2012
  7. By: Gu, Wulong<br /> Wong, Ambrose
    Abstract: Dans le present document, on construit deux mesures experimentales de la production economique du secteur de l'education au Canada : une mesure fondee sur le revenu et une autre fondee sur les couts. Les mesures different de la mesure utilisee actuellement dans les comptes nationaux, qui est basee sur le volume total des entrees, et peuvent etre utilisees pour examiner le rendement en matiere de productivite du secteur de l'education. Les deux approches reposent sur la notion que la production du secteur de l'education represente un investissement en capital humain. L'approche fondee sur le revenu mesure l'investissement dans l'education comme les echelons d'augmentation dans le flux a venir de revenus decoulant du niveau de scolarite. L'approche fondee sur les couts mesure l'investissement comme les depenses totales liees a l'education.
    Keywords: Education, formation et apprentissage, Comptes economiques, Indicateurs de l'education, Resultats educationnels, Comptes de la productivite
    Date: 2012–10–18
  8. By: Gu, Wulong<br /> Wong, Ambrose
    Abstract: This research paper constructs two experimental measures of the economic output of the education sector for Canada: an income-based measure and a cost-based measure. The measures differ from the existing measure currently used in the National Accounts, which is based on the volume of total input, and can be used to examine the productivity performance of the education sector. Both approaches are predicated on the notion that the output of the education sector represents investment in human capital. The income-based approach measures investment in education as increments in the future stream of earnings arising from education. The cost-based approach measures investment as total expenditures related to education.
    Keywords: Education, training and learning, Economic accounts, Education indicators, Outcomes of education, Productivity accounts
    Date: 2012–10–18
  9. By: Yap, Josef T.
    Abstract: Human capital development is important for economic growth. The main channel by which human capital can be enhanced is education, which is characterized by the issues of availability, access, and quality. Domestic reforms can be complemented by regional cooperation in education. The main mechanisms for regional cooperation are: People Exchange, Transnational Education, Information Exchange, Regulatory Reform, and Development Partnerships. The main argument in this paper is that the relevant mechanism for a particular economy--including what should be prioritized--depends on its position in the development ladder and history with regard to education attainment. The experience of Malaysia and the Philippines with regard to these mechanisms and education in general are compared with the expectation that other developing countries can draw lessons from this comparison. Malaysia`s high economic growth in the past three decades has enabled it to implement an effective program in transnational education while the Philippines has failed to exploit its competency in the English language largely due to its poor record with regard to infrastructure development. What would be useful for the Philippines is to harness regional cooperation in order to effect regulatory reform. In particular, accreditation of colleges and universities in the Philippines is still voluntary while Malaysia has opened its universities to international standards. A long-run goal would be a regional agreement on education standards somewhat akin to a Free Trade Agreement. Meanwhile, developing countries can benefit from existing institutions like the ASEAN Universities Network and the ASEAN Quality Assurance Network in order to improve the quality of their education systems.
    Keywords: education, human capital, regional cooperation, regulatory reform, transnational education, accreditation
    Date: 2012
  10. By: Ahmad, AR; Yunus, NKY; Norwani, NM; Musa, K
    Abstract: Commitment to organization is important and plays key role in the formation of an integrated human effort in an organization. The importance of organizational commitment has attracted consideration over recent years and has been reflected in many management studies. Specifically, the objective of this study was to identify the significant difference between the selected demographic variables and organizational commitment. A quantitative cross sectional research design with purposive sampling was employed in collecting data. The cross sectional survey design was used to determine the demographic variables of gender and ethnicity. The questionnaires for Organizational Commitment was originated by Mowday et al., (2003). The respondents for this study were senior public primary school head teachers who attended the three years intensive program of Bachelor Degree in Education Management. Two cohorts comprised of 107 students were chosen from 600 students who enrolled for the Head Teacher Degree Program. They were purposively selected because they represented almost equal numbers of respondents based on gender and ethnicity of the ratio of people in Malaysia. The results of the analysis revealed that organizational commitment showed no significant different between male and female. There was significant difference for organizational commitment related to ethnic of Malay, Chinese and Indian. In conclusion, the degree of commitment of the organization among senior teacher has shown the differences between the ethnics but no different between the gender. Therefore, organization need to build up the necessary efforts to encourage and enable the different ethnics to strive their strong commitment to the organization. This will enable the organization to meet future challenges and at the same time maintain employee’s attachment to the organization.
    Keywords: Public school; commitment; organizational commitment; ethnicity
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2012
  11. By: Leonardo Becchetti (Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy); Stefano Castriota (Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy); Melania Michetti (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Centro-Euro Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy)
    Abstract: We evaluate the impact of fair trade (FT) affiliation on child schooling within a sample of Chilean honey producers with a retrospective panel data approach. From a theoretical point of view we argue that FT should have a positive effect on child schooling since it generates a short run pure income effect together with a medium run productivity effect on both adult and child wages. On the other hand, because of the higher productivity generated by the medium run effect, the opportunity cost of child education increases if they work with their parents. The direction of the impact of FT affiliation on child schooling is therefore uncertain and requires empirical testing. Our econometric findings document a positive and significant impact of affiliation years on child schooling after controlling for endogeneity and heterogeneity between the treatment and control sample.
    Keywords: Fair Trade, Child Schooling, Impact Study
    JEL: O19 O22 D64 J22
    Date: 2012–09
  12. By: Maria Rosaria Carillo; Erasmo Papagni; Alessandro Sapio (-)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyse the effects of research collaborations on the scientific output of academic institutions, drawing on data from the first official Italian research assessment exercise. We measure the scientific performance of a research unit as the number of publications that received an excellent grade in the evaluation process. Different aspects of scientific collaboration are taken into account, such as the degree of openness of a research team towards other institutions and/or other countries, the frequency of co-authorships, and the average size of a collaborating team. Using econometric models for count data, we find that collaborations are more effective when they imply knowledge exchange resulting from collaboration with external or foreign colleagues, are very frequent, and the collaborating teams have a small size.
    Keywords: Academic departments; Productivity; Knowledge externalities
    JEL: I21 D2
    Date: 2012–06–15
  13. By: Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Abrigo, Michael Ralph M.
    Abstract: <p>This paper reports on the results of the review of the two major scholarship programs of TESDA, namely: (a) the Training for Work Scholarship Program (TWSP); and (b) the Private Education Student Financial Assistance (PESFA). The two scholarship programs account for 73 percent of the number of scholars among the TVET graduates in 2007 (TESDA 2010a). The paper was commissioned by the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) to be an input to the current effort of the Philippine government to improve the policy-basis and result orientation of the budgeting process.</p><p>The primary objectives of the study are to determine (a) the internal efficiency (through the drop-out rate); and (b) the external efficiency (through the rate of employment) of scholars of the TESDA technical-vocational scholarship programs. Given the limited time and resources, the study had to rely on data generated by TESDA. In particular, it did a re-analysis of the 2008 Impact Evaluation Study (IES) survey data to generate empirical evidence on the various issues of the study. It also used data from reports regularly submitted by the technical-vocational institutions (TVIs) to TESDA for one region--the National Capital Region (NCR). This data set is the primary source of official TVET statistics. Administrative data from the implementing units of the scholarship programs were also used. In addition to these data sets, three separate focused group discussions (FGDs) involving relevant decisionmakers were also done. One was with national TESDA officials, another with the regional TESDA officials, and third was with the officials of the TVIs and TVI employers.</p><p>The assessment shows that the scholarship programs are performing well in terms of internal efficiency as indicated by the high graduation rates particularly in recent years. They are not performing well though in terms of external efficiency as indicated by low employment rate. It is important to emphasize, however, that compared to general TVET graduates, the scholars, particularly PESFA scholars, but not TWSP scholars, are performing slightly better compared to nonscholars in terms of employment. It appears that the low external efficiency performance is a general TVET sector problem and not a problem specific to the scholarship programs.</p>
    Keywords: Philippines, vocational and technical education and training, TVET scholarships
    Date: 2012

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