nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2012‒07‒23
nineteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Impacts of Title I Supplemental Educational Services on Student Achievement. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education By John Deke; Lisa Dragoset; Karen Bogen; Brian Gill
  2. Learning from Charter School Management Organizations: Strategies for Student Behavior and Teacher Coaching. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Bothell, The Center on Reinventing Public Education and Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research By Robin Lake; Melissa Bowen; Allison Demeritt; Moira McCullough; Joshua Haimson; Brian Gill
  3. Charter-School Management Organizations: Diverse Strategies and Diverse Student Impacts. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Bothell, The Center on Reinventing Public Education and Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research By Joshua Furgeson; Brian Gill; Joshua Haimson; Alexandra Killewald; Moira McCullough; Ira Nichols-Barrer; Bing-ru Teh; Natalya Verbitsky-Savitz; Melissa Bowen; Allison Demeritt; Paul Hill; Robin Lake
  4. Estimating Heterogeneous Returns to Education in Germany via Conditional Heteroskedasticity By Nils Saniter
  5. Examining Charter Student Achievement Effects Across Seven States. Economics of Education Review, vol. 31, issue 2 By Ron Zimmer; Brian Gill; Kevin Booker; Stéphane Lavertu; John Wittle
  6. Value-Added Estimates for Phase 1 of the Pennsylvania Teacher and Principal Evaluation Pilot. Cambridge, MA: Mathematica Policy Research By Stephen Lipscomb; Hanley Chiang; Brian Gill
  7. Moving High-Performing Teachers: Implementation of Transfer Incentives in Seven Districts. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education By Steven Glazerman; Ali Protik; Bing-ru Teh; Julie Bruch; Neil Seftor
  8. Engines of growth: Education and innovation By Stadler, Manfred
  9. Value-Added Models for the Pittsburgh Public Schools. Cambridge, MA: Mathematica Policy Research By Matthew Johnson; Stephen Lipscomb; Brian Gill; Kevin Booker; Julie Bruch
  10. The Effects of 'Girl-Friendly' Schools: Evidence from the BRIGHT School Construction Program in Burkina Faso. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research By Harounan Kazianga; Dan Levy; Leigh L. Linden; Matt Sloan
  11. Methods for Accounting for Co-Teaching in Value-Added Models. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research By Heinrich Hock; Eric Isenberg
  12. Education, Life Expectancy and Family Bargaining: The Ben-Porath Effect Revisited By Laura Leker; Grégory Ponthière
  13. Gender, Single-Sex Schooling and Maths Achievement By Aedin Doris; Donal O'Neill; Olive Sweetman
  14. Innovative Research-Based Approaches to Learning and Teaching By Gesa Sonja Elsa van den Broek
  15. The Future of Higher Education in Europe: The Case for a Stronger Base in EU Law. By Sacha Garben
  16. Assessing Technology-based Spin-offs from University Support Units By Mircea Epure; Diego Prior; Christian Serarols
  17. Spatial Knowledge Spillovers in Europe: A Meta-Analysis By Karlsson, Charlie; Warda, Peter; Gråsjö, Urban
  18. The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management By Robert G. Wood; Sheena McConnell; Quinn Moore; rew Clarkwest; JoAnn Hsueh
  19. Self-Employment after Socialism: Intergenerational Links, Entrepreneurial Values, and Human Capital By Michael Fritsch; Alina Rusakova

  1. By: John Deke; Lisa Dragoset; Karen Bogen; Brian Gill
    Keywords: Student Achievement, Educational Services, Charter Schools, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–05–30
  2. By: Robin Lake; Melissa Bowen; Allison Demeritt; Moira McCullough; Joshua Haimson; Brian Gill
    Abstract: A new Mathematica study, conducted with the Center on Reinventing Public Education, highlights approaches five successful charter school management organizations (CMOs) use to help improve student achievement. This report expands on a previous report showing that CMOs with the greatest positive impact on student achievement were most likely to establish consistent schoolwide behavior expectations for students, as well as use an intense approach to monitoring and coaching teachers. The latest report offers guidance for schools and districts looking to replicate these promising practices.
    Keywords: CMOs, Charter Management Organizations, Student Behavior, Teacher Coaching
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–03–30
  3. By: Joshua Furgeson; Brian Gill; Joshua Haimson; Alexandra Killewald; Moira McCullough; Ira Nichols-Barrer; Bing-ru Teh; Natalya Verbitsky-Savitz; Melissa Bowen; Allison Demeritt; Paul Hill; Robin Lake
    Abstract: A new analysis from the National Study of Charter Management (CMO) Effectiveness provides the first systematic evidence available on the effects of CMOs on the critical long-term outcomes of high school graduation and college entry. The study shows that some—but not all—CMOs substantially boost students' chances of graduating from high school and enrolling in postsecondary education. The study also shows that each CMO's impact on test scores is typically consistent across schools, suggesting that CMOs are having some success in promoting uniformity (whether in a positive or negative direction). Further, some CMOs have implemented policies, programs, and procedures that enable them to outperform other CMOs.
    Keywords: Charte School Management Organization, CMO, Diverse Student Impacts, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–01–30
  4. By: Nils Saniter
    Abstract: In this paper I investigate the causal returns to education for different educational groups in Germany by employing a new method by Klein and Vella (2010) that bases identification on the presence of conditional heteroskedasticity. Compared to IV methods, key advantages of this approach are unbiased estimates in the absence of instruments and parameter interpretation that is not bounded to local average treatment effects. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) I find that the causal return to education is 8.5% for the entire sample, 2.3% for graduates from the basic school track and 11% for graduates from a higher school track. Across these groups the endogeneity bias in simple OLS regressions varies significantly. This confirms recent evidence in the literature on Germany. Various robustness checks support the findings.
    Keywords: Return to education, wage equation, control function approach, second moment exclusion restriction
    JEL: C3 I21 J31
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Ron Zimmer; Brian Gill; Kevin Booker; Stéphane Lavertu; John Wittle
    Abstract: Previous charter school research has shown mixed results for student achievement, which could be the consequence of different policy environments or methodological approaches with differing assumptions across studies. This analysis discusses these approaches and assumptions and estimates effects using a consistent methodology across seven locations.
    Keywords: School Choice, Charter Schools, Student Achievement
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–04–30
  6. By: Stephen Lipscomb; Hanley Chiang; Brian Gill
    Abstract: This report describes the development of value-added models for estimating the contributions of Pennsylvania teachers and principals toward the achievement growth of their students. Estimates were obtained during the first phase of a multiyear pilot to develop new evaluation systems for teachers and principals. The report also examines whether teachers with higher classroom observation scores on specific professional practices among those who participated in the first phase tended to have greater impacts on student achievement, as measured by value-added models.
    Keywords: Value-Added, Pensylvania, Teacher, Principal, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–04–05
  7. By: Steven Glazerman; Ali Protik; Bing-ru Teh; Julie Bruch; Neil Seftor
    Abstract: By offering $20,000 per teacher, seven school districts piloting a transfer-incentive strategy, known as the Talent Transfer Initiative (TTI), filled 90 percent of their targeted vacancies in hard-to-staff schools with some of the districts' highest-performing teachers. A new study highlights the implementation experience and intermediate impacts of TTI, which is intended to expand disadvantaged students' access to the most effective teachers. Previous research conducted by Mathematica shows that, on average, low-income middle school students are significantly less likely to have access to the highest-performing teachers.
    Keywords: transfer incentives, randomized controlled trial, teacher effectiveness, value added
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–04–30
  8. By: Stadler, Manfred
    Abstract: The paper presents a dynamic general-equilibrium model of education, quality and variety innovation, and scale-invariant growth. We consider endogenous humancapital accumulation in an educational sector and quality and variety innovation in two separate R&D sectors. In the balanced growth equilibrium education and innovation appear as in-line engines of growth and government can accelerate growth by subsidizing education or by enhancing the effectiveness of the educational sector. --
    Keywords: education,quality and variety innovation,scale-invariant growth
    JEL: O2 O3
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Matthew Johnson; Stephen Lipscomb; Brian Gill; Kevin Booker; Julie Bruch
    Abstract: This report describes the value-added models (VAMs) created for the Pittsburgh Public Schools and the Pittsburgh Federation of Teachers. Pittsburgh's VAMs use not only state assessments but also course-specific assessments, student attendance, and course completion rates, aiming to produce estimates of the contributions of teachers and schools that are fair, valid, reliable, and robust.
    Keywords: Value-Added Models, Pittsburgh Public Schools, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–02–28
  10. By: Harounan Kazianga; Dan Levy; Leigh L. Linden; Matt Sloan
    Abstract: This working paper found a program that constructed high quality “girl-friendly†primary schools in Burkina Faso increased enrollment of all children between 5 and 12 years old by 20 percentage points and increased girls’ enrollment 5 percentage points more than boys’.
    Keywords: BRIGHT Program, Burkina Faso, International, Education
    JEL: F Z
    Date: 2012–05–30
  11. By: Heinrich Hock; Eric Isenberg
    Abstract: This working paper helps to address the issue of isolating the effect of each teacher on student achievement when the student is taught the same subject by more than one teacher. This paper considers and compares three methods—Partial Credit Method, Teacher Team Method, and Full Roster Method—to estimate teacher effects. Based on the analysis, the authors conclude that the latter two methods provide a more stable approach to estimating teacher effects on student achievement. Furthermore, the Full Roster Method offers the most promise for robust, practical implementation.
    Keywords: Methods, Co-Teaching, Value-Added Models, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–06–30
  12. By: Laura Leker (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - INRA, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Grégory Ponthière (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - INRA, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)
    Abstract: Following Ben-Porath (1967), the influence of life expectancy on education has attracted much attention. Whereas existing growth models rely on an education decision made either by the child or by his parent, we revisit the Ben-Porath effect when the education is the outcome of a bargaining between the parent and the child. We develop a three-period OLG model with human capital accumulation and endogenous life expectancy, and show that, as a result of the unequal life horizons faced by parents and children, the Ben-Porath effect depends on the distribution of bargaining power within the family, which in turn affects the long-run dynamics of the economy. Using data on 17 OECD countries (1940-1980), we show that the introduction of intergenerational bargaining on education helps to rationalize the observed education patterns across countries.
    Keywords: Education ; Life Expectancy ; Family Bargaining ; OLG Model
    Date: 2012–07
  13. By: Aedin Doris (Economics,Finance and Accounting National University of Ireland, Maynooth); Donal O'Neill (Economics,Finance and Accounting National University of Ireland,); Olive Sweetman (Economics,Finance and Accounting National University of Ireland,)
    Abstract: This paper uses data on 9 year old Irish children to examine the determinants of mathematical achievement among young children. We find that boys perform better in maths than girls and that this gender gap is driven by differences at the top of the achievement distribution. While there is no difference between the proportion of boys and girls in the bottom quartile of the maths distribution, boys are significantly over-represented in the top quartile. We exploit the fact that single-sex schooling is widespread in Ireland to test whether the gender composition of schools affects this gender maths gap. Contrary to suggestions in the literature, we find no evidence that single-sex schooling reduces the gap. In fact the maths gap is larger for children educated in single-sex schools than in co-educational schools.
    JEL: J24 I2
    Date: 2012
  14. By: Gesa Sonja Elsa van den Broek
    Abstract: Building on an earlier 2008 summary prepared for OECD by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter, this paper by Gesa S. E. van den Broek provides a more extensive discussion of approaches described as “research based innovation.” Fostering Communities of Learning is a constructivist approach in which teachers help students discover important curricular concepts. Learning by Design is an inquiry-based science learning programme based on case-based reasoning models. Central Conceptual Structures (CCS) theory describes developmental changes in children’s thinking and what is needed to progress through stages in specific cognitive domains. Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE) is an internet-based adaptive learning environment building on the principles of knowledge integration. Cognitive Tutors and ACT-R theory are intelligent adaptive software programmes that provide students with scaffolded instruction and feedback. Direct Instruction aims to accelerate learning through clear scripted direct instruction by the teacher and scaffolded practice aimed at student involvement and error reduction. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is for disadvantaged students especially to engage in Socratic dialogues about ideas and strategies to solve computer game-based problems. Knowledge Building is a constructivist teaching approach centred on building knowledge and creating knowledge communities.<BR>S’inspirant d’une synthèse précédente rédigée par Marlene Scardamalia et Carl Bereiter pour l’OCDE en 2008, la présente note, de Gesa S. E. van den Broek, propose une réflexion plus large sur les approches relevant de ce que l’on appelle « l’innovation fondée sur la recherche ». Encourager les communautés apprenantes s’inscrit dans une démarche constructiviste selon laquelle les enseignants aident leurs élèves à découvrir des concepts importants du programme scolaire. Learning by Design est un programme d’apprentissage des sciences à partir d’enquêtes et de modèles de raisonnement fondés sur des études de cas. La théorie des structures conceptuelles centrales décrit l’évolution développementale du raisonnement des enfants et ce qui est nécessaire pour progresser et franchir des étapes dans des domaines cognitifs particuliers. WISE (Web-based Inquiry Science Environment) est un environnement pédagogique adaptatif sur internet qui repose sur les principes de l’intégration des connaissances. Les tuteurs cognitifs et la théorie ACT-R sont des logiciels adaptatifs intelligents qui proposent aux élèves une instruction et des retours d’information étayés. L’instruction directe vise à accélérer l’apprentissage grâce à des cours clairs, structurés et directs prodigués par l’enseignant, ainsi qu’à travers une application pratique et documentée favorisant la participation des élèves et la diminution des erreurs. Le programme HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills), destiné aux élèves de milieux défavorisés, a notamment pour objectif d’organiser des échanges d’idées et de stratégies en vue de résoudre des problèmes à partir de jeux électroniques. Le renforcement des connaissances est une approche pédagogique constructiviste axée sur le développement des connaissances et la création de communautés du savoir.
    Date: 2012–06–14
  15. By: Sacha Garben
    Abstract: Under the budgetary strain of the economic crisis, many European governments have introduced spending cuts in higher education. As a consequence, universities increasingly have to rely on tuition fees and private sources of funding to sustain themselves. This development fits in with a broader tendency of treating higher education increasingly as an economic resource and commodity, which is fostered by European-level processes such as most notably the Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy. Considering the fundamental importance of these issues, touching upon the core of our views on what an equitable and egalitarian society entails, it is imperative that the decisions that are being taken are democratically legitimate and that the policy makers are accountable for the measures they enact. Therefore, it is worrying that many of the most crucial and influential decisions are taken in intergovernmental contexts and implemented by means of soft law - of which the democratic legitimacy is doubtful. The Bologna Process is an intergovernmental policy forum, participation in which is voluntary and whose decisions are non-binding, suffering from all the accountability defects inherent in international policy making - magnified by its soft law character. The Lisbon/Europe 2020 Strategy does take place within the EU's institutional framework, but is an area where the EU's democratic deficit is particularly worrisome. Therefore, as this contribution shall argue, we need to consider a stronger and more democratic basis for these important policies, if we decide to pursue them. That basis is to be found in EU law.
    Date: 2012–07
  16. By: Mircea Epure; Diego Prior; Christian Serarols
    Abstract: Literature highlights the importance of university spin-offs and their assistance mechanisms. However, there is little evidence on how to select and operationalize the appropriate variables for assessing this type of firms. This paper provides tools to estimate and interpret the efficiency of spinoffs embedded in university-based support mechanisms. We thus contribute to the literature in at least two ways. First, we identify the specific inputs and outputs that are required by both the organizational and regional development perspectives. Second, an application considers a unique sample of spin-offs created at Catalan universities within a regional support program. Main descriptive results indicate that many efficient spin-offs have formal technology transfer agreements and emerge from universities with more technological background. Second stage analyses show that higher levels of innovation and specific academic knowledge or experience related with the university of origin are associated with higher efficiency.
    Keywords: university spin-off, regional development, efficiency, entrepreneurship, technology transfer, innovation
    JEL: M1 R1
    Date: 2012–07
  17. By: Karlsson, Charlie (Jönköping International Business School); Warda, Peter (Jönköping International Business School); Gråsjö, Urban (University West)
    Abstract: In this paper we quantitatively review the empirical literature on spatial knowl¬edge spillovers in Europe by means of meta-analysis to determine the extent to which such spillovers have been empirically documented as well as the spatial reach of these spillovers. In addition, we will apply meta-regression analysis to analyze the determinants of observed heterogeneity across and between publications. To our knowledge this is the first study of its kind. Our results show that if total local R&D expenditure in a European region increases by 1%, then the number of patents in that region, on average, increases by about 0.5%. Spatial knowledge spillovers induce a positive effect on local knowledge production, however, this effect proves to be small around 0.07%. Spatial weighting regime seems to matter. If R&D expenditures in other regions are weighted by distance in kilometers or minutes (instead of a binary contiguity matrix) then the spillover effect on average will be larger. Also, public R&D expenditure is found to have a lower impact on local patent production compared to the private R&D expenditure.
    Keywords: Knowledge spillovers; knowledge externalities; meta-analysis; Europe
    JEL: O32 O33 R19
    Date: 2012–07–09
  18. By: Robert G. Wood; Sheena McConnell; Quinn Moore; rew Clarkwest; JoAnn Hsueh
    Abstract: This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Results varied across sites, with one site having a pattern of positive effects (but no effect on marriage) and another having numerous negative effects. However, when impacts are averaged across all sites, findings indicate that the program had no overall effects on couples' relationship quality or the likelihood that they remained together or got married.
    Keywords: Building Strong Families, Healthy Marriage, Relationship Skills, Unmarried Parents
    JEL: I
    Date: 2012–02–01
  19. By: Michael Fritsch; Alina Rusakova
    Abstract: Drawing on representative household data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we examine the role of an early precursor of entrepreneurial development – parental role models – for the individual decision to become self-employed in the post-unified Germany. The findings suggest that the socialist regime significantly damaged this mechanism of an intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial attitudes among East Germans with a tertiary degree that have experienced a particularly strong ideological indoctrination. However, we find a significant and positive relationship between the presence of a parental role model and the decision to become self-employed for less-educated people. For West Germans the positive relationship holds irrespective of the level of education.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, parental role models, human capital
    JEL: L26 Z1 D03
    Date: 2012

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