nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2012‒05‒02
fourteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Positive but also negative effects of ethnic diversity in schools on educational performance? An empirical test using PISA data By Jaap Dronkers; Rolf van der Velden
  2. The effect of team learning on student profile and student performance in accounting education By E. OPDECAM; P. EVERAERT; H. VAN KEER; F. BUYSSCHAERT
  3. EDUCATION AND LABOUR MARKET OUTCOMES: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA By Geraint Johnes; A Aggarwal; R Freguglia; G Spricigo
  4. The Educational Performance of Children of Immigrants in Sixteen OECD Countries By Jaap Dronkers; Manon de Heus
  5. Measuring Test Measurement Error: A General Approach By Donald Boyd; Hamilton Lankford; Susanna Loeb; James Wyckoff
  6. Equal opportunity in educational contexts: Comparing the feasibility of divergent conceptualizations By Kappius, Robert
  7. Vertical and Horizontal Education-Job Mismatches in the Korean Youth Labor Market : A Quantile Regression Approach By Hong-Kyun Kim; Seung C. Ahn; Jihye Kim
  8. Why women are progressive in education?: Gender disparities in human capital, labor markets, and family arrangement in the Philippines By Yamauchi, Futoshi; Tiongco, Marites
  9. Effects of credit scores on consumer payment choice By Fumiko Hayashi; Joanna Stavins
  10. The relative importance of social and cultural capital for educational performance: Eastern versus Western Europe By Prokic-Breuer, Tijana
  11. The Two Faces of R&D and Human Capital: Evidence from Western European Regions By Johanna Vogel
  12. Virtual R&D Teams: A potential growth of education-industry collaboration By Nader Ale Ebrahim; Shamsuddin Ahmed; Zahari Taha
  13. Educación y Participación Económica de los Jóvenes en Argentina. Un análisis de sus determinantes (2004-2009) By Groisman, Fernando; Calero, Analía V.
  14. Education, Gender, Religion, Politics: What Priorities for Cultural Integration Policies in Switzerland? By Pierre Kohler

  1. By: Jaap Dronkers (Maastricht University); Rolf van der Velden (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: In this chapter, we will estimate the effects on language skills of two characteristics of school populations: average/share and diversity, on both the ethnic and the sociocultural dimensions. We will use the cross-national Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data for native students and students with an immigrant background, in which both cohorts are 15 years old. A greater ethnic diversity of school populations in secondary education hampers the educational performance of students with an immigrant background but does not significantly affect that of native students. The sociocultural diversity of schools has no effect on educational performance. However, the level of the curriculum attended by the students and the average parental sociocultural status of schools are important variables that explain the educational performance of children. A higher share of students of non-Islamic Asian origin in a school increases the educational performance of both native and immigrant students of other origins in that school. Students from non-Islamic Asian countries in schools with higher shares of students of non-Islamic Asian origin perform better than do comparable students originating from other regions. Students originating from Islamic countries have substantially lower language scores than do equivalent students with an immigrant background from other regions. This cannot be explained by individual socioeconomic backgrounds, school characteristics, or educational systems.
    Date: 2012–04
    Abstract: The first objective of this study is to investigate students’ preferences for learning methods in relation to their learning strategy, motivation, gender, and ability. Two learning methods are considered: team learning and lecture-based learning. The second objective is to explore the effectiveness of the chosen learning method by comparing academic achievement between the lecture-based and team-learning groups. A quasi-experiment was administered, consisting of an untreated control group with a pre-test and a post-test, for a first-year undergraduate accounting class. Students choose one of the two learning paths and subsequently follow their chosen learning path. The results show that female students had a higher preference for team learning than male students. Furthermore, team-learning students were more intrinsically motivated, had a lower ability level, and had less control of their learning beliefs, but they were more willing to share their knowledge with peers. The teamlearning approach also resulted in increased performance in an advanced accounting course while controlling for the differences in gender and ability. This beneficial impact of team learning on performance was not found for other courses, leading to the conclusion that team learning offers an appropriate learning method at the university level for a first-year accounting course.
    Keywords: Team learning, cooperative learning, academic performance, MSLQ, instructional preferences
    Date: 2012–02
  3. By: Geraint Johnes; A Aggarwal; R Freguglia; G Spricigo
    Abstract: The impact of education on labour market outcomes is analysed using data from various rounds of the National Sample Survey of India. Occupational destination is examined using both multinomial logit analyses and structural dynamic discrete choice modelling. The latter approach involves the use of a novel approach to constructing a pseudo-panel from repeated cross-section data, and is particularly useful as a means of evaluating policy impacts over time. We find that policy to expand educational provision leads initially to an increased takeup of education, and in the longer term leads to an increased propensity for workers to enter non-manual employment.
    Date: 2011
  4. By: Jaap Dronkers (Maastricht University); Manon de Heus
    Abstract: Using Program for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2006 data, we examine the science performance of 9.279 15-year-old children of immigrants, originating from 35 different countries, living in 16 Western countries of destination. Whereas former research has mainly paid attention to the influence of individual-level characteristics on the educational performance of immigrants, this study’s focus is on macro-level characteristics. Using a cross-classified multilevel approach, we examine the impact of educational systems and political, economic, and religious features of both countries of origin and destination. The results show that at the destination level the degree of teacher shortage has a negative, and a longer history of migration has a positive, effect on science performance. Moreover, comprehensive educational systems have a positive influence on immigrant children’s performance, but this is only the case for higher class children. At the origin level, the compulsory period of education has a positive effect on immigrants’ science performance. Moreover, whereas immigrants from countries with an Eastern religious affiliation perform better than immigrants from Christian countries, immigrants from Islamic countries perform worse.
    Keywords: immigrants, educational performance, PISA, origin countries, destinationcountries, educational systems.
    Date: 2012–04
  5. By: Donald Boyd; Hamilton Lankford; Susanna Loeb; James Wyckoff
    Abstract: Test-based accountability including value-added assessments and experimental and quasi-experimental research in education rely on achievement tests to measure student skills and knowledge. Yet we know little regarding important properties of these tests, an important example being the extent of test measurement error and its implications for educational policy and practice. While test vendors provide estimates of split-test reliability, these measures do not account for potentially important day-to-day differences in student performance. We show there is a credible, low-cost approach for estimating the total test measurement error that can be applied when one or more cohorts of students take three or more tests in the subject of interest (e.g., state assessments in three consecutive grades). Our method generalizes the test-retest framework allowing for either growth or decay in knowledge and skills between tests as well as variation in the degree of measurement error across tests. The approach maintains relatively unrestrictive, testable assumptions regarding the structure of student achievement growth. Estimation only requires descriptive statistics (e.g., correlations) for the tests. When student-level test-score data are available, the extent and pattern of measurement error heteroskedasticity also can be estimated. Utilizing math and ELA test data from New York City, we estimate the overall extent of test measurement error is more than twice as large as that reported by the test vendor and demonstrate how using estimates of the total measurement error and the degree of heteroskedasticity along with observed scores can yield meaningful improvements in the precision of student achievement and achievement-gain estimates.
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2012–04
  6. By: Kappius, Robert
    Abstract: For political advice towards equal opportunities in educational policy fields, different conceptualizations of the term coexist. While e.g. Roemer and Van de Gaer focused on outcome opportunities, but differed with respect to individual versus group perspective, other scholars like Sen and Thomson interpreted the norm to reflect equal initial choice sets, but differed in their interpretation of relevant choice alternatives. Normative content being partly delegated to political debate, those concepts still incorporate different framings for interpreting equality of opportunity and consequently trigger biased policies. To address this shortcoming, I propose a multidimensional scope of equal opportunity interpretations and distinguish feasibility issues of different perspectives toward equal opportunities in educational contexts. Contextual characteristics concerning elementary and vocational schooling as well as decentralized education are shown to enable more precise recommendations in terms of feasibility of equal opportunity concepts. Inclusion of divergent conceptualizations may thus prove helpful to overcome feasibility issues. --
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Hong-Kyun Kim (Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul); Seung C. Ahn (Department of Economics, Arizona State University and Sogang University); Jihye Kim (Department of education policy and social analysis, Columbia University, U.S.A)
    Abstract: In an analysis based on a cohort of Korean college graduates, there was a positive relationship between over-education and horizontal mismatches, and in a subsequent regression analysis disregarding horizontal education-job mismatches (over-education), the wage penalty for over-education (horizontal mismatches) was overestimated. Low-ability groups showed significant overestimation, ranging from 8.3% to 89.5%. According to the quantile regression results, the level of wage penalties for over-education and horizontal mismatches varied according to the worker¡¯s ability. The relative importance of these penalties varied according to the worker¡¯s ability and gender. Specifically, the wage penalty for horizontal mismatches exceeded that for over-education for low-ability male workers, whereas the wage penalty for over-education exceeded that for horizontal mismatches for female workers regardless of their ability.
    Keywords: Horizontal Mismatch, Over-Education, Wage Penalty, Quantile Regression, Ability Bias
    JEL: I20 J20 J21 J23 J24
    Date: 2012
  8. By: Yamauchi, Futoshi; Tiongco, Marites
    Abstract: This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market behaviors for females and males. Our evidence from unique sibling data of schooling and work history and from the Philippine Labor Force Survey support that family arrangement to tighten commitment between daughters and parents keeps a high level of schooling investments in daughters. Because wage penalty to females in labor markets means that education is relatively important as a determinant of their earnings, parental investments in their daughters' education has larger impacts on the income of their daughters than on their sons. Parents expect larger income shared from better-educated adult daughters. In contrast, males stay in an equilibrium, with low levels of schooling investment and income sharing.
    Keywords: Education, Family, Gender, Labor market,
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Fumiko Hayashi; Joanna Stavins
    Abstract: Anecdotally, a negative relationship between the use of debit cards and credit scores has been reported: Consumers with lower credit scores use debit cards more intensively than those with higher credit scores. However, it is not clear whether credit scores have real effects on consumer payment choice or whether the negative relationship is caused by other factors, such as education or income. ; If credit scores have real effects, a negative relationship between debit card use and credit scores could imply supply-side effects, demand-side effects, or a combination of both. If credit scores significantly influence consumer access to credit cards, credit limit, or the cost of credit cards, then the negative relationship likely results from supply-side constraints. If a lower credit score is associated with differences in underlying consumer tastes and preferences for payment methods, then the negative relationship is likely due to demand-side effects. ; In this paper, we investigate the effects of credit scores on consumer payment behavior, especially on debit and credit card use. Because we find that credit scores have real effects, we investigate what credit scores imply. Preliminary evidence strongly suggests that supply-side factors play an important role in the cost of credit and in access to credit.
    Date: 2012
  10. By: Prokic-Breuer, Tijana
    Abstract: --
    Date: 2011
  11. By: Johanna Vogel
    Abstract: This paper investigates two channels through which research and development (R&D) and human capital may affect regional total factor productivity growth in the manufacturing sector, using panel data on 159 EU-15 regions from 1992 to 2005. Based on the endogenous growth model of Griffith, Redding and Van Reenen (2003), we allow R&D and human capital to influence productivity growth both directly, reflecting own innovation, and indirectly, reflecting imitation of frontier technology. Further, the model allows for conditional convergence to a long-run level of TFP relative to the frontier. We also develop an extension that captures geographically localised technology spillovers. Our preferred system-GMM estimates provide evidence of a positive and significant direct effect of human capital, and a positive and significant indirect effect of R&D on productivity growth. This may be interpreted as lending support to the recent focus of EU regional policy on raising educational attainment and R&D expenditures, although their channels of influence appear to differ. Our results also suggest that TFP convergence has taken place over our sample period and that geographic distance to the technology frontier matters.
    Keywords: Total factor productivity, Convergence, Human capital, Research and development, European regions
    JEL: O30 O47 I25 C23
    Date: 2012
  12. By: Nader Ale Ebrahim (UM - University of Malaya - Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya); Shamsuddin Ahmed (UM - University of Malaya - Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya); Zahari Taha (UMP - Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering and Management Technology, University Malaysia Pahang - Education)
    Abstract: Introduction: With the advent of the global economy and high-speed Internet, online collaboration is fast becoming the norm in education and industry [1]. Information technology (IT) creates many new inter-relationships among businesses, expands the scope of industries in which a company must compete to achieve the competitive advantage. Information systems and technology allow companies to coordinate their activities in distant geographic locations [2]. IT is providing the infrastructure necessary to support the development of new collaboration forms among industry and education. Virtual research and development (R&D) teams represent one such relational form, one that could revolutionize the workplace and provide organizations with unprecedented levels of flexibility and responsiveness [3-4].
    Keywords: Virtual R&D teams, Collaboration, virtual teams, SMEs, Education
    Date: 2011
  13. By: Groisman, Fernando; Calero, Analía V.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the determinants of school attendance and labor participation of young people between 15 and 18 years old in Argentina. The empirical analysis is based on bivariate probit models for the period 2004-2009 with data coming from the Permanent Household Survey –INDEC–. The results show the positive impact associated to the presence of a household member in a registered job on both the school attendance and the economic inactivity of youth.
    Keywords: labor market; youth; education
    JEL: I2 J2
    Date: 2012–08
  14. By: Pierre Kohler (Graduate Institute of International Studies)
    Abstract: This paper explores cultural integration paths of eight migrant groups in Switzerland. It specifically analyzes the evolution of objective behaviors and subjective attitudes of migrants from the first to the second generation. In order to deepen the analysis, the cultural integration of migrants is further examined from different perspectives: across cohorts (older vs. younger migrants) and across types of couples (individuals in endogamous vs. mixed couples). Gender differences are also paid attention to. First, behaviors are examined by looking at performances of migrants at school (educational attainment and gender gap). As women play a key role in the transmission of cultural traits and the socialization of the second generation, the focus then turns to their position in the couple (marriage, intermarriage, age and education gap between partners, early marriage, cohabitation, fertility, divorce) and in the labor market (labor force participation). Finally, this paper proposes to look at migrants' use of language, their feelings towards Switzerland, as well as their attitudes towards gender, religious and political issues. Evidence points to overall convergence. As the most striking and lasting differences across groups do not pertain to educational achievement, religious or political attitudes but to gender-related attitudes and, even more, to gender-related behaviors in endogamous couples, it appears that migration-related gender issues and migration-specific household dynamics" should be taken into account in the design of future cultural integration policies.
    Keywords: immigration, migration, culture, integration, Switzerland
    JEL: F22 Z10 Z13
    Date: 2012–04–22

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