nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2011‒10‒22
seven papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Interruptions and failure in higher education: evidence from ISEG-UTL By CHAGAS LOPES, MARGARIDA; LEAO FERNANDES , GRAÇA
  2. More Schooling, More Children: Compulsory Schooling Reforms and Fertility in Europe By Fort, Margherita; Schneeweis, Nicole; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf
  3. Teaching Practices and Social Capital By Yann Algan; Pierre Cahuc; Andrei Shleifer
  4. The Service Quality Undergraduate - A Case of Public Education By Onusic, Luciana
  5. General Education, Vocational Education, and Labor-Market Outcomes over the Life-Cycle By Eric A. Hanushek; Ludger Woessmann; Lei Zhang
  6. Parents as stakeholders: Their expectations in individualized education plan for special education By Nora Mislan, Nora, M.; Azlina Mohd Kosnin, Azlina, M.K.; Yeo Kee Jiar, Yeo, K.J.; Rio Sumarni Shariffudin, Rio Sumarni, S.
  7. Teachers in action: delivering individualized education plan By Nora Mislan, Nora, M.; Azlina Mohd Kosnin, Azlina, M. K.; Yeo Kee Jiar, Yeo, K. J.; Rio Sumarni Shariffudin, Rio Sumarni, S.

    Abstract: Abstract Failure in Higher Education (HE) is the outcome of multiple time-dependent determinants. Interruptions in student’s individual school trajectories are one of them and that’s why research on this topic has been attracting much attention these days. From an individual point of view, it is expected that interruptions in school trajectory, whatever the reason, influence success in undergraduate programs either this success is measured by time required to obtain a degree, the scores obtained in some more “critical” subjects in these programs or the number of enrolment registrations. Nevertheless, performing a paid job during interruption may in given circumstances positively affect academic success on account of the combination between learning and occupational experience The study of interruptions’ impact on failure in HE is also important to help Education institutions at all grades to think about changes in organisational procedures, class timetables, syllabuses contents or teachers recruitment and training in order to fight this problem. From a social and political point of view, interruptions are also a matter of concern since failure in HE affects individual’s lifelong learning opportunities, distort public funding allocation efficiency to HE institutions and create lag effects in the desired/planned outcomes of HE production functions. So, research on the impact of interruptions on failure in HE is important to support policy measures definition related to the articulation between Upper Secondary and HE programs. In previous research we have shed some light into the determinants of failure in 1st year of HE studies using longitudinal data on ISEG’s undergraduate students. A further insight into this database revealed the existence of a meaningful number of students with interruptions in their school trajectories either in the transition from Upper Secondary to HE or within HE programs. In this paper our major concern is to find some evidence on interruptions effects on HE failure among ISEG students using a life cycle approach with control group. We are interested in knowing whether the above mentioned effects are gender and/or specific graduation program neutral. We also want to search if work experience may counter balance the effect of interruption on academic success. We hope to be able to derive some useful recommendations to address policy making in the fields of pedagogic methodologies in HE, articulation between academic and occupational learning in the framework of Bologna Chart and public funding/fellowship policies in HE.
    Keywords: Key words: Portuguese Higher Education; Interruption; Failure; Adult Students; Bologna Chart; Policy Implications
    JEL: A23 I23
    Date: 2011–10–17
  2. By: Fort, Margherita; Schneeweis, Nicole; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf
    Abstract: We study the relationship between education and fertility, exploiting compulsory schooling reforms in Europe as source of exogenous variation in education. Using data from 8 European countries, we assess the causal effect of education on the number of biological kids and the incidence of childlessness. We find that more education causes a substantial decrease in childlessness and an increase in the average number of children per woman. Our findings are robust to a number of falsification checks and we can provide complementary empirical evidence on the mechanisms leading to these surprising results.
    Keywords: education; fertility; instrumental variables
    JEL: I2 J13
    Date: 2011–10
  3. By: Yann Algan; Pierre Cahuc; Andrei Shleifer
    Abstract: We use several data sets to consider the effect of teaching practices on student beliefs, as well as on organization of firms and institutions. In cross-country data, we show that teaching practices (such as copying from the board versus working on projects together) are strongly related to various dimensions of social capital, from beliefs in cooperation to institutional outcomes. We then use micro-data to investigate the influence of teaching practices on student beliefs about cooperation both with each other and with teachers, and students’ involvement in civic life. A two-stage least square strategy provides evidence that teaching practices have an independent sizeable effect on student social capital. The relationship between teaching practices and student test performance is nonlinear. The evidence supports the idea that progressive education promotes social capital.
    JEL: I2 Z1
    Date: 2011–10
  4. By: Onusic, Luciana
    Abstract: A growing number of courses have been created lately in higher education in Brazil. The quality of these courses must be maintained to ensure that professionals are prepared for the labour market. The present work aims to identify, through a case study, the factors that contribute so that the student does not abandon the course s/he chose in a public higher education institution, FEA/USP. The students who participated in this study are those who started the courses in Management, Accountancy, Actuarial Science and Economics in 2007. In order to develop this work, some steps were followed: review of relevant literature and development of a model used in the research. Then a quantitative study was structured to conducted with the students from FEA/USP, and finally, a quantitative analysis was performed using quantitative analysis techniques in order to examine the results obtained. The model chosen to frame this study was the one proposed by Bloemer (1998), which was previously applied to financial institutions. In the present study, the model was used in a higher education institution with constructs of quality, image, satisfaction and loyalty. To assess the relationship among the above-mentioned constructs, structural equations technique were used. As a result of the analysis, it could be observed that student’s loyalty comes directly from his or her general satisfaction with the course, which is influenced by the course’s perceived quality. It is important to observe that the aspects that most distinguish loyal students from non-loyal ones are satisfaction with professors,, administrative processes and with administration in general.
    Keywords: Higher education; Varied Analysis; Loyalty and Quality
    JEL: A22 I23 I21
    Date: 2011–04–28
  5. By: Eric A. Hanushek; Ludger Woessmann; Lei Zhang
    Abstract: Policy debates about the balance of vocational and general education programs focus on the school-to-work transition. But with rapid technological change, gains in youth employment from vocational education may be offset by less adaptability and thus diminished employment later in life. To test our main hypothesis that any relative labor-market advantage of vocational education decreases with age, we employ a difference-in-differences approach that compares employment rates across different ages for people with general and vocational education. Using micro data for 18 countries from the International Adult Literacy Survey, we find strong support for the existence of such a trade-off, which is most pronounced in countries emphasizing apprenticeship programs. Results are robust to accounting for ability patterns and to propensity-score matching.
    JEL: I20 J24 J31 J64
    Date: 2011–10
  6. By: Nora Mislan, Nora, M.; Azlina Mohd Kosnin, Azlina, M.K.; Yeo Kee Jiar, Yeo, K.J.; Rio Sumarni Shariffudin, Rio Sumarni, S.
    Abstract: The importance of equality among people cannot be over-stressed as it is already now which includes children with disabilities. Hence, the Individualised Education Plan (IEP) for special education was born. The objective of this research is to investigate parents' expectations towards the implementation. To gather data, semi-structured interviews are deployed to seven teaches and five parents while questionnaires are given to 17 teachers and 26 parents. The findings show that parents are satisfied with the services that teachers gave and showed in the IEP implementation. They also have high expectations towards the teachers and other issues such as the placement of specialists to provide more support and better understanding from the teachers. These results mean that misunderstanding could surface between both the teachers and parents. Therefore, collaboration between both parties should be worked out so that the IEP process could take place smoothly. Also, the schools should look into hiring specialist into the program as teachers would be able to learn from them.
    Keywords: Parents; expectations; individualized education plan
    JEL: H75 D83
    Date: 2010–06–01
  7. By: Nora Mislan, Nora, M.; Azlina Mohd Kosnin, Azlina, M. K.; Yeo Kee Jiar, Yeo, K. J.; Rio Sumarni Shariffudin, Rio Sumarni, S.
    Abstract: The role of teachers involved is very important for an individualised education plan (IEP) to serve its purpose to children with special needs. This is because they are engaged directly in the programme's implementation and in determining the children's learning. Additionally, the role would require them to forge collaboration with the parents for a successful programme. The objective of this research is to investigate the teachers' perceived role in the IEP. Two types of instruments were used; semi-structured interview on seven teachers and questionnaires on 17. Results indicate that the teachers believe they understood their roles and have met them. They also feel that involving parents in the programme is important. Planning and reporting on activities carried out is also important, but they should be receptive and sensitive in the process. Furthermore, they admit that they could improve further become more effective. To this, it is concluded that the school plays and important role in support of the teachers' growth and competency in the field.
    Keywords: Teachers; individualized education plan; collaboration
    JEL: L84 J24
    Date: 2010–06–01

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