nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2011‒04‒30
fifteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  2. The Effect of Education on Religion: Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Laws By Daniel M. Hungerman
  3. School Access, Resources, and Learning Outcomes: Evidence from a Non-formal School Program in Bangladesh By Dang, Hai-Anh; Sarr, Leopold; Asadullah, Niaz
  4. Impact of Education on Lifestyles: What Do Longitudinal Data Show? By Shah Danyal; Bichaka Fayissa; Jung-Sung Lee
  5. Exploring Access and Equity in Malaysia’s Private Higher Education By Tham, Siew Yean
  6. What did the Maoists ever do for us? Education and marriage of women exposed to civil conflict in Nepal By Christine Valente
  7. Measuring the Total Economic Value of State-Funded Higher Education in Iowa By Swenson, David A.
  8. Great expectations: The determinants of female university enrolment in Europe By Alessandra Casarico; Paola Profeta; Chiara Pronzato
  9. Convergence through communication and competition? The internationalization of secondary and higher education policies in Switzerland By Bieber, Tonia
  10. Heterogeneity in Schooling Rates of Return By Henderson, Daniel J.; Polachek, Solomon; Wang, Le
  11. Educational loans and attitudes towards risk By Sarah Brown; Aurora Ortiz-Núñez; Karl Taylor
  12. Advancing adult learning in Eastern Europe and Central Asia By Bodewig, Christian; Hirshleifer, Sarojini
  13. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates By Chevalier, Arnaud
  14. Education in Russia: The evolution of theory and practice By Natalia Kuznetsova; Irina Peaucelle
  15. China's Latent Human Capital Investment: Achieving Milestones and Competing for the Top By Constant, Amelie F.; Tien, Bienvenue; Zimmermann, Klaus F.; Meng, Jingzhou

  1. By: Aleksander Aristovnik; Alka Obadic
    Abstract: The paper applies a non-parametric approach, i.e. data envelopment analysis (DEA), to assess the relative technical efficiency of higher education across countries, with a particular focus on Croatia and Slovenia. When estimating the efficiency frontier we focus on measures of quantities outputs/outcomes. The results show that the relatively high public expenditure per student in Croatia should have resulted in a better performance regarding the outputs/outcomes, i.e. a higher rate of higher education school enrolment, a greater rate of labor force with a higher education and a lower rate of the unemployed who have a tertiary education. On the other hand, regardless of the input-output/outcome mix, the higher education system in Slovenia is shown to have a much higher level of efficiency compared to both Croatia and many other comparable EU and OECD countries.
    Keywords: higher education, funding, efficiency, DEA, Croatia, Slovenia, EU, OECD
    JEL: I21 J24 H52
    Date: 2011–01–01
  2. By: Daniel M. Hungerman
    Abstract: For over a century, social scientists have debated how educational attainment impacts religious belief. In this paper, I use Canadian compulsory schooling laws to identify the relationship between completed schooling and later religiosity. I find that higher levels of education lead to lower levels of religious participation later in life. An additional year of education leads to a 4-percentage-point decline in the likelihood that an individual identifies with any religious tradition; the estimates suggest that increases in schooling can explain most of the large rise in non-affiliation in Canada in recent decades.
    JEL: I20 I28 Z12
    Date: 2011–04
  3. By: Dang, Hai-Anh (World Bank); Sarr, Leopold (World Bank); Asadullah, Niaz (University of Reading)
    Abstract: This study reports evidence from an unusual policy intervention – The Reaching Out of School Children (ROSC) project – in Bangladesh where school grants and education allowances are offered to attract hard-to-reach children to schools comprised of a single teacher and a classroom. The operating unit cost of these schools is a fraction of that of formal primary schools. We use panel data to investigate whether ROSC schools are effective in raising enrolment and learning outcomes. Our findings suggest that there is a modest impact on school participation: ROSC schools increase enrolment probability between 9 and 18% for children in the two age cohorts 6-8 and 6-10. They perform as well as non-ROSC schools in terms of raising test scores, and even have positive impacts on academically stronger students. There is also strong evidence of positive externalities on non-ROSC schools in program areas. These results point to the effectiveness of a new model of non-formal primary schools that can be replicated in similar settings.
    Keywords: non-formal school, impact evaluation, multiple treatments, learning outcomes
    JEL: I21 O10
    Date: 2011–04
  4. By: Shah Danyal; Bichaka Fayissa; Jung-Sung Lee
    Abstract: This essay investigates the effect of education on different lifestyle variables using NLSY79 panels for 1992, 1994, and 1998. The lifestyle variables are smoking, drinking, marijuana use, and cocaine use. The analysis addresses the joint determination of lifestyle variables within the framework of the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) model. Unobserved heterogeneity is controlled by the robust fixed-effects model extended to SUR model. It is found that educational attainment has no significant effect on the lifestyle choices of individuals.
    Keywords: Education, Smoking, Drinking, Marijuana and Cocaine Use, Fixed-Effects Model, SUR Model
    JEL: I1 I2 I10 I12 C30
    Date: 2011–04
  5. By: Tham, Siew Yean (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Private higher education institutions (PrHEIs) are utilized to complement public provision due to financial constraints faced in public provision. However, increasing private provision has raised interesting questions as to who gets educated in these PrHEIs. Is increasing private supply enlarging the circle of opportunity to reach those who might otherwise have been unable to enter university or college? In other words, has the explosion in private supply translated into greater inclusion or increased exclusion? This paper explores access and equity issues in Malaysia’s private higher education system. Malaysia is an interesting case study due to the significant presence of PrHEIs in the country and their contribution toward student enrolment. The findings show that the Malaysian government has provided considerable financial support for the development of PrHEIs in the country, through the provision of incentives, subsidized loans, and scholarships. Quality assurance efforts further enhance the development of private provision, as student loans and scholarships are only provided for students on accredited programs. Therefore, PrHEIs have widened access and equity in the country with the help of government support. Despite this, Malaysia’s model of providing access and equity through private provision may be unsustainable, due to the poor repayment record of student loans and the economic need to reduce the fiscal deficit of the government.
    Keywords: malaysia education; higher education; private higher education
    JEL: H44 H52 I23
    Date: 2011–04–19
  6. By: Christine Valente (Department of Economics, The University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: Between 1996 and 2006, Nepal experienced violent civil conflict as a consequence of a Maoist insurgency, which many argue also brought about an increase in female empowerment. In this paper, I exploit within- and between- district variation in the intensity of violence to estimate the impact of conflict intensity on two key areas of the life of women in Nepal, namely education and marriage. Overall conflict intensity had a small, positive effect on female educational attainment, whereas abductions by Maoists had the reverse effect. Male schooling was not significantly affected by either conflict measure. Conflict intensity and Maoist abductions during school age both increased the probability of early female marriage, but exposure to conflict during marriageable age does not appear to have affected women’s long-term marriage probability.
    Keywords: Civil conflict, Education, Marriage, Gender, Nepal
    JEL: I20 J12 O12
    Date: 2011–04
  7. By: Swenson, David A.
    Abstract: This is an evaluation of the statewide total economic value of state-funded higher education in Iowa.  The analysis is based on Fiscal Year 2010 final budgeted values for Iowa’s three Board of Regents universities and their teaching hospital, as well as the state’s 15 community colleges.  Final budget year data were obtained from the respective state universities’ web sites, from the Board of Regents, and from the Annual Condition of Iowa’s Community Colleges, 2010, report published by the Iowa Department of Education.  Additional information on employment was obtained from the Iowa Board of Regents using October 2009 employment levels as the official employment basis for FY ‘10. The evaluation has three distinct components.  It first looks at all Board of Regent’s higher education spending, which includes all university institutes, centers, extension activities, and other services.  The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) are separately evaluated.  While it is a teaching hospital, and an important educational institution to the state of Iowa, it is most properly measured primarily as a public hospital for the purposes of this study, not as an educational facility.  Last, Iowa’s 15 community colleges are evaluated as a combined, albeit distributed group of higher education providers.
    Keywords: economic impact; input output analysis; university
    Date: 2011–04–20
  8. By: Alessandra Casarico; Paola Profeta; Chiara Pronzato
    Abstract: We empirically investigate the determinants of the female decision of investing in post-secondary education, focusing on the role played by the context where young women take their education decision. We first develop a stylized two-period model to analyze the female decision of investing in education and highlight two main determinants: the time to be devoted to child care and the probability of working in a skilled job. We then use data on educational decisions of women in the 17-21 age group drawn from EU-Silc, available for the years 2004-2008. From the same survey we construct context indicators at the regional level, and exploit regional variability to identify how women’s educational investment reacts to changes in the surrounding context. We find that the share of working women with children below 5 and the share of women with managerial positions or self-employed positively affect the probability that women enrol in post-secondary education. The same does not hold for men.
    Keywords: post-secondary education, women, university, child care time requirement, managerial positions, self-employment, context, EU-Silc, repeated cross section
    JEL: J16 J24
    Date: 2011–03
  9. By: Bieber, Tonia
    Abstract: Far-reaching transformations in Swiss education were pushed in the last decade by two prominent international initiatives, namely the 1999 Bologna process and the OECD's PISA study starting in 2000. To what extent and in which way were these soft governance initiatives able to trigger Swiss policy convergence towards their policy models? Drawing on convergence approaches, it is assumed that mechanisms of transnational communication and regulatory competition acted as driving forces of the Swiss reform wave in the last decade. Results show that Swiss secondary education policy exhibits a considerable level of convergence towards the OECD recommendations based on the PISA results, and that reforms in Swiss higher education highly conformed to the Bologna aims. While different communicative mechanisms furthered policy convergence in Swiss secondary and higher education towards the international models of the PISA study and the Bologna process, in both cases regulatory competition was highly effective in promoting domestic reforms. Applying qualitative methods of expert interviews and document analysis, this paper contributes to research on policy convergence. It fills the research gap concerning the role of the newly emerged, but ever more influential education-political actors of the OECD and the EU as promoters and of domestic actors as both supporters and antagonists of convergence. --
    Keywords: Bologna process,EU,OECD,PISA study,policy convergence,Switzerland
    Date: 2011
  10. By: Henderson, Daniel J. (Binghamton University, New York); Polachek, Solomon (Binghamton University, New York); Wang, Le (University of New Hampshire)
    Abstract: This paper relaxes the assumption of homogeneous rates of return to schooling by employing nonparametric kernel regression. This approach allows us to examine the differences in rates of return to education both across and within groups. Similar to previous studies we find that on average blacks have higher returns to education than whites, natives have higher returns than immigrants and younger workers have higher returns than older workers. Contrary to previous studies we find that the average gap of the rate of return between white and black workers is larger than previously thought and the gap is smaller between immigrants and natives. We also uncover significant heterogeneity, the extent of which differs both across and within groups. The estimated densities of returns vary across groups and time periods and are often skewed. For example, during the period 1950-1990, at least 5% of whites have negative returns. Finally, we uncover the characteristics common amongst those with the smallest and largest returns to education. For example, we find that immigrants, aged 50-59, are most likely to have rates of return in the bottom 5% of the population.
    Keywords: Mincer regressions, nonparametric, rate of return to education
    JEL: C14 J24
    Date: 2011–04
  11. By: Sarah Brown (Department of Economics, The University of Sheffield); Aurora Ortiz-Núñez (Department of Economics, The University of Sheffield); Karl Taylor (Department of Economics, The University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: We explore the relationship between willingness to take financial risk and the probability of taking out a loan for educational purposes as well as the influence of risk attitudes on the size of the loan using data drawn from the U.S. Survey of Consumer Finances. The findings suggest a positive relationship between individuals’ willingness to take financial risk and the probability of taking out a loan for educational purposes. Similarly, individuals’ willingness to take financial risk appears to be an important determinant of the size of the educational loan. The findings suggest that non-white individuals and individuals from less wealthy backgrounds are less likely to finance education through loans which could potentially increase inequalities in education and income if such individuals are deterred from investing in human capital.
    Keywords: Educational loan, Risk aversiob
    JEL: I22 I23
    Date: 2011–04
  12. By: Bodewig, Christian; Hirshleifer, Sarojini
    Abstract: This report presents available evidence on adult education and training in Europe and Central Asia (ECA), differentiating two separate types: continuing vocational education and training (CVET) for the employed, sought either by employers or individuals, and retraining and second chance education for the non?employed. This paper presents available evidence on the extent and patterns of lifelong learning in ECA. It argues that advancing adult education and training in ECA is important not only to meet the new skills demands but also to respond to a rapidly worsening demographic outlook across most of the region. While it is not equally important for all ECA countries, adult education and training should be high on the agenda of those ECA economies that are closest to the technological frontier and facing a demographic decline, such as the new European Union (EU) member States and Russia. The paper lays out a framework for government action to advance adult learning in ECA through a mix consisting of policy coordination between government and the enterprise sector, a sound regulatory regime and appropriate financial incentives.
    Keywords: Access&Equity in Basic Education,Education For All,Primary Education,Teaching and Learning,Gender and Education
    Date: 2011–04–01
  13. By: Chevalier, Arnaud (Royal Holloway, University of London)
    Abstract: Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with individuals with the most favourable unobserved characteristics obtaining wages almost twice as large as those with the worst. Moreover, gender differences in wages within subjects are also large. We then simulate a graduate tax to calculate a willingness to pay – in form of tuition fees – to capture these subject wage premia.
    Keywords: graduate earnings, tuition fees
    JEL: I22 J31
    Date: 2011–04
  14. By: Natalia Kuznetsova (Saint-Petersburg State University - Saint-Petersburg State University); Irina Peaucelle (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)
    Abstract: This article investigates the relationships between the evolution of Russian social psychology and the transformations of the modes of education in Russia. Social psychology is a science born the last century and also a status of the social conscience of people, forged historically on the basis of proper cultural artifacts. In Russia education is mainly the process of human development and, like wherever, it is the institution of knowledge transmission. We show on the case of Russian history that the scientifically proven educational practice can contribute enriching development of social conscience after ideological and economic shocks.
    Keywords: analysis of education ; cultural economics ; Russia
    Date: 2011–04–18
  15. By: Constant, Amelie F. (DIW DC, George Washington University); Tien, Bienvenue (DIW DC); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (IZA and University of Bonn); Meng, Jingzhou (George Washington University)
    Abstract: In this paper we provide an overview of China’s human capital strategy and educational achievements over the last two decades. While every one acknowledges China as an economic superpower, very few are aware of or realize China’s notable achievements in education as well as its internationalization of education. Since 1978, the landmark for the foundation of the Chinese modern higher education system China has made tremendous strides in education both domestically and internationally. While China maintains 10% growth in GDP, albeit with a GDP per capita at the low level of a developing country, it is also producing serious scholars and a tremendous amount of scholarly output; more and more Chinese students seek higher education abroad; and international students find a rising interest in receiving education in China.
    Keywords: China, human capital, brain drain, higher education
    JEL: F22 J24 N35 O15 O24 O53
    Date: 2011–04

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