nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2010‒11‒27
seven papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Family Background and Economic Outcomes in Japan By Ken Yamada
  2. Barriers to Expansion of Mass Literacy and Primary Schooling in West Bengal: Study Based on Primary Data from Selected Villages By V. K. Ramachandran; Madhura Swaminathan; Vikas Rawal
  3. The role of schools in the production of achievement By Maria E. Canon
  4. Beyond Bologna: The Bologna process as a global template for higher education reform efforts By Vögtle, Eva Maria
  5. Incentives, resources and the organization of the school system By Fernando Albornoz; Samuel Berlinski; Antonio Cabrales
  6. Governance by comparison: How ratings & rankings impact national policy-making in education By Martens, Kerstin; Niemann, Dennis
  7. Taking on the Completion Challenge: A Literature Review on Policies to Prevent Dropout and Early School Leaving By Cecilia S. Lyche

  1. By: Ken Yamada (School of Economics, Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: The difference in family background is an important source of economic inequality. This paper examines the effects on educational attainment, labor market outcomes, and family formation of family background, such as sibship size, gender composition of siblings, birth order, parental education, maternal age at birth, and parental income, for Japanese women. We nd that family background affects years of education, the completion of university degrees, participation in private tutoring school and enrichment courses, wages, occupational prestige, marriage, and fertility. We also show that the impact of family background on educational attainment has increased for recent decades.
    Keywords: Turnout, sibling composition, family background, intergenerational transmission
    JEL: J12 J13 J24 J31
    Date: 2010–11
  2. By: V. K. Ramachandran; Madhura Swaminathan; Vikas Rawal
    Abstract: This paper examines factors affecting literacy and access to school education in West Bengal, India, and reports the results of a binomial probit model estimated with primary data from ten villages of West Bengal. In the analysis of adult literacy, the significant variables were sex, caste and occupational status and village location. In the probit results for educational achievements of children of ages 6 to 16 years in the same villages, however, occupational status was not statistically significant. In contemporary West Bengal, we argue, class barriers to school attendance have become less significant; other features of educational deprivation persist. [Working Paper 345]
    Keywords: Education, literacy, India, West Bengal
    Date: 2010
  3. By: Maria E. Canon
    Abstract: What explains differences in pre-market factors? Three types of inputs are believed to determine the skills agents take to the labor market: ability, family inputs and school inputs. Therefore to answer the previous question it is crucial to understand first the importance of each of those inputs. The literature on the production of achievement has not been able to provide an estimation that can take the three factors into account simultaneously at the student level. This paper intends to fill this gap by providing an estimation of the production function of achievement where both types of investments (families and schools) are considered in a framework where the inputs are allowed to be correlated with the unobserved term, ability to learn. I do that by applying Olley and Pakes’ (1996) algorithm which accommodates for endogeneity problems in the choice of inputs for the production of achievement and by using parents’ saving for their child’s postsecondary education to control for the unobserved component (i.e. ability to learn) in the production of skills. The estimates for the role of family inputs are in line to previous findings. Additionally, the estimates of school inputs show that they are also important for the formation of students’ skills even after controlling for ability to learn.>
    Keywords: Education - Economic aspects ; Education
    Date: 2010
  4. By: Vögtle, Eva Maria
    Abstract: This paper investigates recent regional higher education reform initiatives in non-European regions. It studies which non-European regions have launched Bologna style reform initiatives and analyses these initiatives by means of case studies. The regions where such initiatives were launched are the Asia-Pacific region, parts of Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. In a nutshell, cultural and institutional similarities among countries participating in these regional initiatives as well as between these countries and Bologna participants can account for the adoption of Bologna style policies. Additionally, dependence on and competition for resources, such as students and academic reputation, determine the non-European universities' responses to the Bologna Process. In more general terms, the Bologna Process has a major impact even on non-European regions. All the initiatives have in common that they have similar goals as the Bologna Process. Moreover, they have emulated the governance mode of the Bologna Process to a large extent. -- Die vorliegende Studie untersucht jüngste hochschulpolitische Reforminitiativen nicht-europäischer Regionen. Dabei fokussiert die Studie darauf, welche nicht-europäischen Regionen dem Bologna-Prozess ähnliche Reforminitiativen initiiert haben und analysiert die einzelnen Initiativen anhand von Fallstudien. Die Regionen, in denen solche Initiativen initiiert wurden, sind der Asien-Pazifik-Raum, Teile von Afrika sowie Lateinamerika und die Karibik. Zusammenfassend bedingen kulturelle und institutionelle Ähnlichkeiten dieser Länder untereinander sowie zwischen diesen Ländern und Bologna-Teilnahmestaaten die Übernahme von Bologna ähnlichen Policies. Des Weiteren determiniert die Abhängigkeit von und der Wettbewerb um Ressourcen, wie Studenten und wissenschaftliche Reputation, die Reaktion nicht-europäischer Universitäten auf den Bologna-Prozess. Insgesamt lässt sich feststellen, dass der Bologna-Prozess bedeutenden Einfluss selbst auf nicht-europäische Regionen ausübt. Nicht nur gleichen die Policies aller untersuchten Initiativen denen des Bologna-Prozesses, auch die Steuerungsstrukturen des Bologna-Prozesses wurden in diesen Initiativen nachgeahmt.
    Date: 2010
  5. By: Fernando Albornoz; Samuel Berlinski; Antonio Cabrales
    Abstract: We study a model where student effort and talent interact with parental and teachers' investments, as well as with school system resources. The model is rich, yet sufficiently stylized to provide novel implications. We can show, for example, that an improvement in parental outside options will reduce parental and school effort, which are partially compensated through school resources. In this way we provide a rationale for the ambiguous existing empirical evidence on the effect of school resources. We also provide a novel microfoundation for peer effects, with empirical implications on welfare and on preferences for sorting across schools.
    Date: 2010–11
  6. By: Martens, Kerstin; Niemann, Dennis
    Abstract: How can international comparisons have an impact on one country while others are not affected at all? This paper examines the power of ratings & rakings (R&R) using the example of the OECD's PISA study (Programme for International Student Assessment) and its differential impact on national education policy making. We argue that R&R have an impact if the evaluated topic is framed as crucial for national objectives and if, at the same time, a substantial gap between national self-perception and the empirical results can be observed. After assessing the media impact of PISA on 22 OECD countries, we illustrate our theoretical argument through the use of examples of two poorly performing countries who demonstrated entirely opposite reactions: Germany and the U.S. While the German system of secondary education was strongly affected by the international comparison and underwent comprehensive changes, the U.S. did not respond to its below-average ranking at all. The theoretical concepts of self-perception and framing offer explanatory power to delineate the different reaction patterns. -- Wie kommt es, dass internationale Vergleichsstudien bestimmte Staaten substantiell beeinflussen andere jedoch nicht? Am Beispiel der OECD PISA-Studie untersucht dieses Arbeitspapier den Einfluss von Rankings und Ratings (R&R) auf nationale Bildungspolitiken. Wir argumentieren, dass R&R besonders dann einen Einfluss entfalten, wenn der evaluierte Gegenstand zum einen als entscheidender Politikbereich verstanden wird und wenn gleichzeitig eine Diskrepanz zwischen nationaler Selbstwahrnehmung und empirisch erzieltem Ergebnis besteht. Nach Darstellung der Medienreaktionen in 22 OECD-Ländern wird unsere Argumentation am Beispiel von zwei gegensätzlich reagierenden Ländern illustriert: Deutschland und den USA. Während in Deutschland die negativen PISA-Ergebnisse zu einem umfassenden Bildungsdiskurs und zu massiven Bildungsreformen geführt haben, zeigten die USA keine öffentliche oder gar politische Reaktion auf ihre ebenfalls negativen Resultate.
    Date: 2010
  7. By: Cecilia S. Lyche
    Abstract: This paper reviews international research in the field of dropout from upper secondary education and training in OECD countries in order to present possible solutions to policymakers faced with the completion challenge. The paper begins by presenting existing definitions of dropout and upper secondary completion and states that dropout must be understood as the final step in a process of disengagement that begins early. Causes that lead to dropout in OECD countries are then studied, and the paper illustrates that causes of dropout are highly complex and intertwined. Finally, to address these causes or risk factors, the paper reviews research that had been carried out on piloted or implemented measures across OECD countries. It finds that successful measures address several risk factors and involve action both within school, outside school and at systemic level simultaneously. The paper concludes by presenting a set of solutions according to educational level and emphasizes that preventive measures to reduce dropout should start early. Early identification enables broader, less costly measures to be set up earlier and leaves the more costly one-on-one measures for later stages of education to the remaining at risk students that have not yet been picked up. Overcoming the completion challenge requires a close cooperation between educational authorities and many other parts of government such as social and labour services, health services and justice system in some countries.<BR>Ce rapport étudie la recherche internationale dans le domaine du décrochage scolaire dans l'enseignement secondaire au sein des pays de l'OCDE afin de suggérer aux décideurs confrontés à ce défit des solutions possibles. Dans un premier temps, le document présente les définitions existantes et affirme que le décrochage scolaire doit être compris comme la dernière étape d'un processus de désengagement commençant tôt dans la vie éducative de l’élève. Les causes conduisant au décrochage scolaire dans les pays de l'OCDE sont ensuite étudiées, et le rapport montre qu’elles sont non-seulement complexes, mais qu’elles sont étroitement liées. Enfin, pour remédier à ces causes ou facteurs de risque, le rapport étudie la recherche qui porte sur les mesures préventives mises en oeuvre ou mises à l'essai dans les pays de l'OCDE. Il constate que les mesures fructueuses aborde plusieurs facteurs de risque et impliquent une action simultanée au sein de l'école, en dehors de l'école et au niveau systémique. Le rapport conclut en présentant un ensemble de solutions selon le niveau d'éducation et souligne que les mesures préventives pour réduire le décrochage scolaire doivent être prises de bonne heure. L'identification précoce permet la mise en place de mesures globales, moins coûteuses aux premiers stades de l’éducation et relègue la mise en place de mesures individuelles plus coûteuses aux étapes ultérieures. Ces dernières concernent les élèves à risque n’ayant pas encore été identifiés. Surmonter le défi du décrochage scolaire exige une coopération étroite entre les autorités éducatives et de nombreux autres secteurs du gouvernement tels que les services sociaux et de l’emploi, les services de santé et, dans certains pays, le système judiciaire.
    Keywords: accès préférentiel au marché
    Date: 2010–11–09

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