nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2010‒04‒24
nine papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950–2010 By Robert J. Barro; Jong-Wha Lee
  2. The Effects of School Quality on Long-Term Health By Sansani, Shahar
  3. “Brand” and performance in a new environment: Analysis of the law school market in Japan. By Yamamura, Eiji
  4. Evaluation des Projekts "Abschlussquote erhöhen - Berufsfähigkeit steigern" By Solga, Heike; Kohlrausch, Bettina; Kretschmann, Claudia; Fromm, Sabine
  5. The Effects of Macroeconomic Conditions on the Education and Employment Outcomes of Youth. By Nicolas Herault; Weiping Kostenko; Gary Marks; Rezida Zakirova
  6. Education Impact Study: The Global Recession and the Capacity of Colleges and Universities to Serve Vulnerable Populations in Asia By Gerard Postiglione
  7. Matching the supply of and demand for young people graduating from the vocational track in Spain By Oscar Marcenaro-Gutierrez; Anna Vignoles
  8. Life-Cycle, Effort and Academic Deadwood By Yu-Fu Chen; Gylfi Zoega

  1. By: Robert J. Barro; Jong-Wha Lee
    Abstract: Our panel data set on educational attainment has been updated for 146 countries from 1950 to 2010. The data are disaggregated by sex and by 5-year age intervals. We have improved the accuracy of estimation by using information from consistent census data, disaggregated by age group, along with new estimates of mortality rates and completion rates by age and education level. We use these new data to investigate how output relates to the stock of human capital, measured by overall years of schooling as well as by the composition of educational attainment of workers at various levels of education. We find schooling has a significantly positive effect on output. After controlling for the simultaneous determination of human capital and output, by using the 10-year lag of parents‘ education as an instrument variable (IV) for the current level of education, the estimated rate-of-return to an additional year of schooling ranges from 5% to 12%, close to typical Mincerian return estimates found in the labor literature.
    JEL: F43 I21 O11 O4
    Date: 2010–04
  2. By: Sansani, Shahar
    Abstract: In this paper I estimate the relationship between school quality and mortality. Although many studies have linked the quantity of education to health outcomes, the effect of school quality on health has yet to be examined. I construct synthetic birth cohorts and relate the quality of education they attained to their mortality rates. I find that there is a statistically significant relationship between the mortality-schooling gradients, which depict the return to a year of schooling, and the length of school term and relative teacher wage. For instance, increasing the relative teacher wage by one standard deviation results in about 1.9 less deaths per 1,000 people per extra year of education. My results suggest that one way to improve the health of the population is to improve school quality.
    Keywords: quality of education; health production
    JEL: I0 I12
    Date: 2009–08
  3. By: Yamamura, Eiji
    Abstract: Using Japanese panel data for 2006-2009, this study attempts to examine how the pass rate of law school student taking the new bar examination influences the number of applicants for the law school in the following years. The major finding is that the higher the law school student pass rate, the greater the number of applicants for the law school becomes. Furthermore, the positive effect of the pass rate is larger for a prestigious university’s law school than for other schools. It follows that the “brand” and the school’s current performance are complementary in increasing demand for places in the law school.
    Keywords: brand; law school; Japan; demand
    JEL: K40 A23
    Date: 2010–04–05
  4. By: Solga, Heike; Kohlrausch, Bettina; Kretschmann, Claudia; Fromm, Sabine
    Abstract: "The present research report is based on the evaluation of the project 'increasing graduation quota - enhancing occupational capacities'. The model project is an attempt to increase chances on a successful transition from school to occupational training of low qualified young people. The project seeks to increase the occupational orientation, the learning motivation and practical relevance of education by establishing so called 'career starting classes', in which the students are tough separately, supervised by 'career start tutors' and attend two days of practical training a week. With regard to the two main objectives of the project - a successful graduation and transition into occupational training - the project in general has been successful. 92 per cent of the students, who have been attending the whole project have graduated from school successfully. Focusing on young people who left school after the 9th grade - which means after the project period has ended - 47 per cent of the project's participants (compared to 38 per cent of students attending a control class) have started with occupational training, which is a great success. However, the success of the project is limited by a high turn over rate. An even more important limitation results from the fact that the project has not been successful for particular groups of students: for students with good school achievements and for female students the participation in the project has been negative with respect of their chances to obtain an apprenticeship place after leaving school." (author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Berufseinmündung, benachteiligte Jugendliche, Hauptschüler, Berufsorientierung, Lernmotivation, Hauptschulabschluss, betriebliche Berufsausbildung, Wirkungsforschung
    Date: 2010–04–16
  5. By: Nicolas Herault (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Weiping Kostenko (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Gary Marks (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Rezida Zakirova (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of macroeconomic conditions on the education and employment outcomes of youths in school-to-work transition. The dataset is based on five different cohorts from the Youth in Transition surveys (YIT) and the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) and covers the period from 1985 to 2006, which is long enough to control explicitly for both poor and positive macroeconomic conditions. The multivariate analyses show that both the unemployment rates, and to a lesser extent economic growth rates, have an impact on youths’ education and employment outcomes. Although the effects vary significantly by gender an education level, overall the results reveal that poor macroeconomic conditions tend to drive young people out of full-time work and into inactivity or part-time work. In addition, poor macroeconomic conditions tend to discourage further education. A result worth noticing is that males who did not complete secondary school suffer the largest increase in unemployment risks as the unemployment rate increases.
    Date: 2010–03
  6. By: Gerard Postiglione
    Abstract: This paper reviews the capacity of colleges and universities to serve poor and vulnerable populations during past and present economic shocks. The main argument is that the environment of the global recession—an Asia far more economically integrated than during past economic shocks, with more unified aspirations to be globally competitive and socially responsible—need not delay reforms in higher education. [ADBI WP 208].
    Keywords: colleges, universities, poor, vulnerable, population, environemnt, global, recession, Asia, education, economic, socially responsible,
    Date: 2010
  7. By: Oscar Marcenaro-Gutierrez (Centro de Estudios Andaluces); Anna Vignoles (Centre for the Economics of Education at the Institute of Education)
    Abstract: Existe gran interés, tanto desde la perspectiva social como política, por conocer en qué medida la inversión en capital humano puede afectar a la facilidad de los jóvenes para encontrar un trabajo de ‘calidad. En esta aportación se analizan los factores que condicionan la probabilidad, y retardo en el tiempo, de encontrar trabajo y el salario diferencial que obtienen los jóvenes procedentes de diferentes ramas de la formación profesional.
    Keywords: Vocational education, vocational track, job search, interval earnings regression
    JEL: J64 J24 I21 J31
    Date: 2010
  8. By: Yu-Fu Chen (University of Dundee); Gylfi Zoega (Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics, Birkbeck)
    Abstract: It has been observed that university professors sometimes become less research active in their mature years. This paper models the decision to become inactive as a utility maximising problem under conditions of uncertainty and derives an age-dependent inactivity condition for the level of research productivity. The economic analysis is applicable to other professions as well were work effort is difficult to observe along some dimensions.
    Date: 2010–04
  9. By: Jennifer Hunt
    Abstract: I use the 1993 and 2003 National Surveys of College Graduates to examine the higher exit rate of women compared to men from science and engineering relative to other fields. I find that the higher relative exit rate is driven by engineering rather than science, and show that 60\% of the gap can be explained by the relatively greater exit rate from engineering of women dissatisfied with pay and promotion opportunities. Contrary to the existing literature, I find that family--related constraints and dissatisfaction with working conditions are only secondary factors. My results differ due to my use of non--science and engineering fields as a comparison group. The relative exit rate by gender from engineering does not differ from that of other fields once women's relatively high exit rates from male fields generally are taken into account.
    JEL: J16 J62 J71
    Date: 2010–03

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