nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2010‒04‒11
eight papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of Beira Interior and Technical University of Lisbon

  1. School Grades: Identifying Alberta's Best Schools, an Update By David Johnson
  2. Gender-targeted conditional cash transfers : enrollment, spillover effects and instructional quality By Hasan, Amer
  3. Education Impact Study: The Global Recession and the Capacity of Colleges and Universities to Serve Vulnerable Populations in Asia By Postiglione, Gerard
  4. Does Education Reduce the Risk of Hypertension? Estimating the Biomarker Effect of Compulsory Schooling in England By Powdthavee, Nattavudh
  5. On the Historical Process of the Institutionalizing Technical Education: The Case of Weaving Districts in the Meiji Japan By Tomoko Hashino
  6. Technology transfer from universities and public research institutes to firms in Brazil: what is transferred and how the transfer is carried out. By Luciano Martins Costa Póvoa; Márcia Siqueira Rapini
  7. The determinants of scientific research agenda: Why do academic inventors choose to perform patentable versus non-patentable research? By Hussler Caroline; Pénin Julien
  8. Economic Benefits of Lifelong Learning By Richard Dorsett; Silvia Lui; Martin Weale

  1. By: David Johnson (Wilfrid Laurier University)
    Abstract: This study compares student outcomes at Alberta elementary schools where students come from similar socio-economic backgrounds, thus revealing “good” schools where principals, teachers and staff are making a positive difference in student performance. The study screens out the influence of socio-economic factors on how a school’s students perform on Alberta’s Provincial Achievement Tests for grades 3, 6 and 9. This identifies those schools that perform better or worse than other schools with students of similar backgrounds.
    Keywords: Education Papers, Alberta elementary schools, Provincial Achievements Tests (PATs), socio-economic factors
    JEL: I21 L33 I28 H75
    Date: 2010–03
  2. By: Hasan, Amer
    Abstract: This paper considers the effects of a gender-targeted conditional cash transfer program for girls in classes 6 to 8. It finds that the program is successful in increasing the enrollment of girls in classes 6 to 8 as intended. It also finds evidence to suggest that the program generated positive spillover effects on the enrollment of boys. This success does, however, appear to be poised to come at a cost. The student-teacher ratio in treated districts is also climbing. This suggests that in the absence of active steps to address these increasing student-teacher ratios, instructional quality is likely to suffer. The success of the program appears to be driven by enrollment increases in urban schools. This suggests the need for a reassessment of the targeting criteria in rural schools.
    Keywords: Primary Education,Tertiary Education,Education For All,Teaching and Learning,Education Reform and Management
    Date: 2010–03–01
  3. By: Postiglione, Gerard (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the capacity of colleges and universities to serve poor and vulnerable populations during past and present economic shocks. The main argument is that the environment of the global recession-an Asia far more economically integrated than during past economic shocks, with more unified aspirations to be globally competitive and socially responsible-need not delay reforms in higher education. In fact, the global recession is an opportune time for higher education in the Asia and Pacific region to continue reforming governance and administration, access and equity, internal and external efficiency, and regional collaboration. This paper proposes a series of measures to increase the resilience of higher education systems in serving poor and vulnerable populations during the economic recession. These measures include: (i) tuition assistance, subsidies, and loans; (ii) information and guidance for first-generation college students on choosing appropriate programs of study; (iii) community-based vocational and technical higher education that provides jobs in a rapidly changing labor market; (iv) innovative forms of cost sharing between public and private institutions of higher education; (v) resource decisions made on the basis of performance-based objectives; (vi) intensification of philanthropic culture that provides scholarships for poor students; (vii) upgrading of research about problems confronting poor communities; and (viii) regional strategies across the Asia and Pacific region for closer instructional program collaboration among colleges and universities
    Keywords: colleges universities serve poor; education vulnerable economic shocks; education impact study
    JEL: I20 I20 I21 I22 I23 I28 I29
    Date: 2010–03–29
  4. By: Powdthavee, Nattavudh (University of York)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the exogenous effect of schooling on reduced incidence of hypertension. Using the changes in the minimum school-leaving age law in the United Kingdom from age 14 to 15 in 1947, and from age 15 to 16 in 1973, as sources of exogenous variation in schooling, the regression discontinuity and IV-probit estimates imply that completing an extra year of schooling reduces the probability of developing subsequent hypertension by approximately 7-12% points; the result which holds only for men and not for women. The correct IV-probit estimates of the LATE for schooling indicate the presence of a large and negative bias in the probit estimates of schooling-hypertension relationship for the male subsample.
    Keywords: hypertension, compulsory schooling, biomarker, regression discontinuity, health
    JEL: H1 I1 I2
    Date: 2010–03
  5. By: Tomoko Hashino (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: This paper explores the process of the institutionalizing technical education in modern Japan. In particular, this research attempts to elucidate why people in local weaving districts needed such educational institutions and how it is related with the introduction of western technology. This process is found to be much different from the government-led introduction of modern industries through establishment of technical high schools and universities to nurture engineers. In the case of traditional Japanese weaving districts, it was trade associations that voluntarily and actively established institutes for training, which were later supported by prefectural governments and the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce and finally institutionalized as public technical schools by the Ministry of Education.
    Date: 2010–03
  6. By: Luciano Martins Costa Póvoa (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas); Márcia Siqueira Rapini (UFRJ and CEDEPLAR/UFMG)
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the technology transfer process from universities and public research institutes to firms in Brazil. In particular, this study is concerned with the role of patents in this process. Although there is a certain enthusiasm in promoting technology transfer offices to manage university patents, the importance of patents to the technology transfer process is not yet well understood in literature. We conducted a survey with leaders of research groups from universities and public research institutes that developed and transferred technology to firms. The results show that patents are one of the least used channels of technology transfer by universities and public research institutes. But the importance of the channels varies according to the type of technology transferred and to the firms' industry.
    Keywords: Technology transfer; university; public research institutions, patent.
    JEL: O31 O34
    Date: 2010–03
  7. By: Hussler Caroline; Pénin Julien
    Abstract: This paper explores the determinants of scientific research agenda. By using an original dataset that includes extensive information about 269 French academic inventors, we analyze why scientists choose to perform patentable versus non-patentable research. Usually economic studies tackle this problem by using the number of invented patents as a proxy of researchers’ willingness to perform patentable research. The originality of the paper is that, in addition to the number of invented patents, we rely on a survey-base dependant variable that indicates whether or not scientists acknowledge orienting deliberately their research towards patentable areas. Our results indicate that past experience with respect to patenting activity matters: academic inventors who have already experienced a successful technology transfer are more inclined to orient their research towards patentable domains. Similarly, the institutional environment plays an explanatory role, whereas conversely, scientific discipline, age and individual research performance do not seem to affect the decision to orient research towards patentable areas. Yet, age and scientific performance positively influence the number of patents scholars effectively invent.
    Keywords: University, patent, scientific agenda, technology transfer, academic inventors.
    JEL: O3
    Date: 2010
  8. By: Richard Dorsett; Silvia Lui; Martin Weale
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of lifelong learning on men’s employment and wages. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey, a variant of the mover-stayer model is developed in which hourly wages are either taken from a stationary distribution (movers) or are closely related to the hourly wage one year earlier (stayers). Mover-stayer status is not observed and we therefore model wages using an endogenous switching regression, extended to take account of non random selection into employment. The model is estimated by maximum likelihood, using generalised residuals to correct for possible endogeneity of lifelong learning decisions. The results show modest effects significant at a 10% level for men who undertake life-long learning without upgrading their educational status and more powerful and significant effects for those who do upgrade their status. For the latter, the influence of lifelong learning on employment prospects is an important influence on the overall return.
    Date: 2010–03

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