nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2009‒07‒28
24 papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Teacher Qualifications and Middle School Student Achievement By Richard Buddin; Gema Zamarro
  2. Postsecondary Education Structure and Human Capital Production By Cory Koedel
  3. Data in the Domain of School Education – Secondary School: Present situation, New Developments, and Future Requirements By Petra Stanat; Hans Döbert
  4. Pro-Poor Progress in Education in Developing Countries? By Kenneth Hartgen; Stephan Klasen; Mark Misselhorn
  5. Education Across the Life Course By Hans-Peter Blossfeld
  6. Peer Effect and Competition in Higher Education By Andrade, Eduardo de C.; Moita, Rodrigo M.
  7. Equity in Student Achievement Across OECD Countries: An Investigation of the Role of Policies By Orsetta Causa; Catherine Chapuis
  8. Past and Future of Human Capital in Southeast Asia: From 1970 to 2030 By Anne Goujon; Samir K.C.
  9. Assessment and Innovation in Education By Janet Looney
  10. On the spatial diffusion of knowledge by universities located in small and medium sized towns By Rego, Conceição; Caleiro, António
  11. A Commercial Education for 'the midling Sort of People' in Mercantilist Britain By Edwards, John Richard
  12. On the robustness of brain gain estimates By Michel, BEINE; FrŽdŽric, DOCQUIER; Hillel, RAPOPORT
  13. Teaching "Merchants' accompts" in Britain during the early modern period By Edwards, John Richard
  14. The Effect of Child Weight on Academic Performance: Evidence using Genetic Markers By von Hinke Kessler, Scholder, S
  15. Empirics on the Origins of Preferences: The Case of College Major and Religiosity By Miles S. Kimball; Colter M. Mitchell; Arland D. Thornton; Linda C. Young-Demarco
  16. The Relationship Between Higher Education and Labour Market in Greece: the Weakest Link? By Livanos, Ilias
  17. Teaching and Statistical Training By Ulrich Rendtel
  18. Constrained School Choice: An Experimental Study By Guillaume Haeringer; Caterina Calsamiglia; Flip Klijn
  19. Teacher Evaluation: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review By Marlène Isoré
  20. Improvements and Future Challenges for the Research Infrastructure in the Field of “Preschool Education” By C. Katharina Spiess
  21. Education, Reputation or Network? Evidence from Italy on Migrant Workers Employability By Massimiliano Mazzanti; Susanna Mancinelli; Giovanni Ponti; Nora Piva
  22. University-owned Patents in West and East Germany and the Abolition of the Professors' Privilege By Sidonia von Ledebur
  23. Individual earnings and educational externalities in the European Union By Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Vassilis Tselios
  24. Information asymmetry, education signals and the case of ethnic and native Germans By Hornig, Stephan O.; Rottmann, Horst; Wapler, Rüdiger

  1. By: Richard Buddin; Gema Zamarro
    Abstract: This research examines whether teacher licensure test scores and other teacher qualifications affect middle school student achievement. The results are based on longitudinal student-level data from Los Angeles. The achievement analysis uses a value-added approach that adjusts for both student and teacher fixed effects. The results show little relationship between traditional measures of teacher quality (e.g., experience and education level) and student achievement in reading or math. Similarly, licensure test scores in general aptitude, subject-matter knowledge, and reading pedagogy had no significant effects on student achievement. Teachers with elementary school credentials had slightly better success in the classroom than did teachers with secondary school credentials.
    Keywords: teacher quality, teacher licensure, student achievement, middle school, two-level fixed effects, education production function
    JEL: J44 J45 H0 H75 I21
    Date: 2009–06
  2. By: Cory Koedel (Department of Economics, University of Missouri-Columbia)
    Abstract: States differ substantially in the structures of their public four-year university systems. This paper uses micro-level data to evaluate the effects of postsecondary education structure on individuals’ educational and labor-market outcomes. Postsecondary education structure affects whether individuals attend universities at all, whether they attend public or private universities, and whether they attend large or small universities. Individuals who are exposed to more-fractionalized structures are adversely affected in the labor market. In conjunction with evidence that it is more expensive to educate students at smaller universities, this latter result suggests that states with more-fractionalized postsecondary education structures should look to consolidate their resources into fewer, larger universities.
    Keywords: postsecondary education structure, higher education structure, small university, large university, postsecondary education costs
    JEL: I20 I23 J24
    Date: 2009–07–03
  3. By: Petra Stanat; Hans Döbert
    Abstract: Research on school education is exceptionally active at present. This heightened level of activity is partly due to the realization that, compared to other countries, Germany knows very little about its school system. Before the results from the first cycle of PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) were published at the end of 2001, for example, even the proportion of immigrant students attending German schools was largely unknown (Baumert and Schümer 2001). Although the situation has changed tremendously over the last 10 years, many questions remain open. One of the major research gaps pertains to how students’ competencies and other aspects of educational success develop over time and across different stages of the education system. Similarly, information on factors shaping these developments is lacking. This is particularly the case for process factors within schools, classrooms, and families that affect student learning. Although considerable progress has been made in capturing cognitive competencies and skills, moreover, little is known about how they unfold over time. Also, the role “soft-skills,” such as social competencies, play as determinants and outcomes of educational processes is largely unclear. To provide a basis for exploring these and other issues, it is necessary to make existing data sets available to researchers and to generate additional data sets with improved research designs and instrumentation.
    Date: 2009
  4. By: Kenneth Hartgen (University of Göttingen); Stephan Klasen (University of Göttingen); Mark Misselhorn (University of Göttingen)
    Abstract: Spurred by international commitments and expanded funding at the national and international level, attendance in education and associated years of schooling have expanded substantially in developing countries in recent years. But has this expansion in enrolments reduced existing inequalities in educational access and achievements? This paper analyzes differences in improvements in the access to the education system and in educational outcomes across the welfare distribution between and within countries, and also by gender and regions for a sample of 37 developing countries using Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). For the analysis, the toolbox of pro-poor growth analysis is applied to several educational indicators. We find drastic inequalities in educational attendance across the income distribution. Interestingly, inequalities in attendance declines with rising average attendance, while inequality in completion rates or schooling years increases with rising completion rates or schooling years. We find great heterogeneity in the distribution of progress of education, with very little pro-poor progress in educational achievement indicators. Also, progress appears to be less pro-poor in countries with low initial educational achievement and high overall educational progress. We find no correlation between pro-poor progress and free education policies or initial inequality in education. At the regional level, educational progress was generally more pro-poor in Asia and Latin America, while in Africa the experience is very heterogeneous. While gender inequality has decreased slightly, large differences by region tend to persist over time.
    Keywords: education; human capital; inequality; pro-poor growth
    JEL: I20 I29 I31 I32
    Date: 2009–07–15
  5. By: Hans-Peter Blossfeld
    Abstract: There is a huge demand for high-quality longitudinal educational research in Germany. In particular, there is a clear need for both analytical and methodological progress in order to understand educational pathways through the life course and how they lead to different outcomes. This paper identifies the theoretical and methodological challenges of studying education across the life course and describes the structure of the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) in Germany.
    Keywords: competence development, educational decisions, formal, informal and non-formal educational environments, returns to education, educational trajectories, life course research, longitudinal analysis, panel data
    Date: 2009
  6. By: Andrade, Eduardo de C.; Moita, Rodrigo M.
    Date: 2009–10
  7. By: Orsetta Causa; Catherine Chapuis
    Abstract: This paper focuses on inequalities in learning opportunities for individuals coming from different socioeconomic backgrounds as a measure of (in) equality of opportunity in OECD countries and looks at the role played by policies and institutions in shaping countries’ relative positions. Based on harmonised 15- year old students’ achievement data collected at the individual level, the empirical analysis shows that while Nordic European countries exhibit relatively low levels of inequality, continental Europe is characterised by high levels of inequality - in particular of schooling segregation along socio-economic lines - while Anglo-Saxon countries occupy a somewhat intermediate position. Policies allowing increasing social mix are found to reduce school socio-economic segregation without affecting overall performance. Countries that emphasise childcare and pre-school institutions exhibit lower levels of inequality of opportunity, suggesting the effectiveness of early intervention policies in reducing persistence of education outcomes across generations. There is also a positive association between inequality of opportunities and income inequality. As a consequence, cross-country regressions suggest that redistributive policies can help to reduce inequalities of educational opportunities associated with socioeconomic background and, hence, persistence of education outcomes across generations.<P>Équité et compétences scolaires dans les pays de l'OCDE : examen du rôle des politiques publiques<BR>Cet article analyse les inégalités de compétences scolaires pour des individus d’origine sociale différente comme une mesure d’(in)égalité des chances dans les pays de l’OCDE et étudie le rôle joué par les politiques publiques dans ce contexte. Le travail empirique est basé sur l’analyse de données individuelles harmonisées entre pays mesurant les compétences scolaires d’étudiants âgés de 15 ans. Les résultats montrent que les pays d’Europe du Nord sont caractérises par des niveaux relativement faibles d’inégalités, tandis que les pays d’Europe continentale sont caractérises par des niveaux relativement élevés d’inégalités, en particulier en termes de ségrégation socio-économique a l’école; enfin, les pays anglosaxons occupent a ce titre une position intermédiaire. Les politiques favorables à la mixité sociale à l’école réduisent la ségrégation scolaire sans en affecter la performance générale. Les pays qui mettent l’accent sur les services à la petite enfance et sur les institutions préscolaires sont caractérisés par des niveaux relativement faibles d’inégalités des chances, ce qui suggère l’efficacité potentielle des interventions éducatives précoces dans la promotion de la mobilité intergénérationnelle. L’analyse empirique suggere l’existence d’une association positive entre inégalités de compétences scolaires et inégalités de revenu. Par conséquent, les régressions inter-pays suggerent que les politiques redistributives peuvent aider à réduire les inégalités de compétences scolaires associées a l’origine sociale, et, ce faisant, les phénomènes de persistance éducative entre les générations.
    Keywords: education, éducation, public policy, politique publique, equality of education opportunity, égalité des chances scolaires, equity in student achievement, school socio-economic segregation, ségrégation socioéconomique à l'école, équité et compétences scolaires
    JEL: H23 I20 I21 I28 I38
    Date: 2009–07–07
  8. By: Anne Goujon; Samir K.C.
    Abstract: This paper examines levels of educational attainment in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam for the period 1970-2030 through the reconstruction and projection of levels of educational attainment. While the study of the past shows that the determination to invest in education has been strong in the six countries, the investments were implemented at different pace and intensity, the projections show the legacy of past investments. In Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand, there will be tangible increases in the proportion of the working age population with a tertiary education. The Philippines will have a dichotomous society where large proportions will either have a tertiary education or only a primary education. In Indonesia, the bulk of the working age population will shift from primary in 2000 to secondary by 2030. The projection horizon and the trend type of scenario do not allow Vietnam to catch up with the other countries.
    Keywords: Southeast Asia, education, human capital
    Date: 2009–05
  9. By: Janet Looney
    Abstract: Do some forms of student (and school) assessment hinder the introduction of innovative educational practices and the development of innovation skills in education systems? This report focuses on the impact of high-stake summative assessment on innovation and argues that it is possible to reconcile high-stakes assessments and examinations through innovative approaches to testing. While necessary, assessment based on high-stake examinations often acts as an incentive to teach or study “to the test”. It may thus limit risk-taking by teachers, students and parents, for instance. The problem may be amplified if a system of accountability and incentives uses the results of these examinations and tests to assess teachers and schools. What should be done to ensure that the systems used to assess education systems do not stifle the risk-taking inherent to innovation – and that they foster innovation skills in students? This study proposes three main ways of combining assessment and innovation: 1) developing a wide range of performance measurements for both students and schools; 2) rethinking the alignment of standards and assessment; 3) measuring the impact of assessments on teaching and learning. One way of influencing teaching and learning might be to modify high-stake testing. Systems will adapt to this, and both teaching and learning will focus on acquiring the right skills. Rather than testing the content of learning, standards could relate to cognitive skills such as problem-solving, communicating and reasoning – with test/examination developers adapting those skills to subjects such as mathematics, science or literary analysis. Similarly, more use might be made of innovative assessment methods based on information and communication technologies, inasmuch as these may feature simulation or interactivity, for instance, at a reasonable cost. Focusing the assessment on cognitive processes rather than content would leave more scope for teachers to put in place innovative teaching/learning strategies. This does, however, assume a high standard of professionalism in teachers and an adequate system of continuing training and knowledge management. As a single type of assessment cannot fully capture student learning, one effective strategy might also be to multiply the number of measurements and thus relieve the pressure on students and teachers to perform well in a single, high-visibility, high-stake test. At the same time, this larger number of measurements could provide the necessary input for systems based on accountability, diagnosis and assessment of the effectiveness of innovative practice. Finally, assessing the technical standard of tests and examinations is an integral part of their development, but it is less common to address the impact they have on teaching/learning or the validity of how their results are used. Since assessment is an integral part of the education process, it is just as important to assess tests and examinations as it is other educational practices in order to achieve improvements and innovation in educational assessment, but also in educational practice.<BR>Certaines formes d’évaluation des élèves (et des écoles) font-elles barrière à l’introduction de pratiques pédagogiques innovantes et au développement des compétences individuelles pour l’innovation au sein des systèmes éducatifs ? Ce rapport se concentre sur l’impact de l’évaluation à fort enjeu (« high-stake summative assessment ») sur l’innovation et argue qu’il est possible de réconcilier ce type d’évaluation et d’examens grâce à des approches innovantes de l’évaluation. Bien que nécessaire, l’évaluation reposant sur des examens à forts enjeux donne souvent des incitations à enseigner et à étudier dans le but premier de réussir à l’examen. Elle peut ainsi limiter la prise de risque des enseignants, des étudiants, des parents, etc. Ce problème peut être amplifié si un système de responsabilisation et d’incitations utilise les résultats de ces examens et tests pour évaluer les enseignants et les écoles. Comment faire pour que les systèmes d’évaluation des systèmes éducatifs n’empêchent pas la prise de risque inhérente à l’innovation et permettent le développement des compétences pour l’innovation des étudiants ? Cet examen propose trois pistes principales pour combiner évaluation et innovation : 1) développer une multiplicité de mesures de la performance des étudiants et des écoles ; 2) repenser l’alignement entre objectifs (standards) et évaluation ; 3) évaluer l’impact des évaluations sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage. Une manière d’influencer l’enseignement et l’apprentissage pourrait consister à modifier les examens à forts enjeux. Les systèmes vont s’y adapter, et l’on étudiera et l’on enseignera pour acquérir les bonnes compétences. Plutôt que de tester les contenus d’apprentissage, les objectifs pourraient porter sur des compétences cognitives telles que la résolution de problèmes, la communication et le raisonnement – avec une adaptation par les développeurs de tests et examens de ces compétences aux mathématiques, à la science, à l’analyse littéraire, etc. On pourrait de même davantage tirer profit des méthodes innovantes d’évaluation basées sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication, dans la mesure où celles-ci peuvent intégrer des simulations, de l’interactivité, etc., à un coût raisonnable. Axer l’évaluation sur des processus cognitifs plutôt que sur les contenus laisserait davantage de liberté aux enseignants pour mettre en place des stratégies innovantes d’enseignement et d’apprentissage. Cela suppose cependant un haut niveau de professionnalisme des enseignants et un système de formation continue et de gestion des connaissances adéquats. Dans la mesure où un type d’évaluation ne peut pas capturer pleinement l’apprentissage des étudiants, une stratégie efficace pourrait aussi être de multiplier les mesures afin de baisser la pression qui pèse sur les étudiants et les enseignants de bien réussir un seul test à haute visibilité et fort enjeu. Cette multiplicité de mesures pourrait dans le même temps fournir l’information nécessaire à des systèmes de responsabilisation, de diagnostic et d’évaluation de l’efficacité des pratiques innovantes. Enfin, alors que l’évaluation de la qualité technique des évaluations et examens fait partie intégrante de leur développement, l’impact qu’ils ont sur l’enseignement et l’apprentissage ou la validité des usages que l’on fait de leurs résultats sont plus rarement examinés. Dans la mesure où l’évaluation fait partie intégrante du processus pédagogique, l’évaluation des tests et examens est tout aussi importante que celle des autres pratiques pédagogiques pour le perfectionnement et l’innovation de l’évaluation dans l’éducation, et aussi des pratiques pédagogiques.
    Date: 2009–07–16
  10. By: Rego, Conceição; Caleiro, António
    Abstract: Many studies, provided by diverse authors and institutions, demonstrate that, at a territorial level, development is directly related to the level of education and R&D. Territories with higher development levels are, generally, those that have a higher level of education and R&D. The relationship between the acquisition of knowledge and institutional education is therefore decisive. In this area, the role of universities is fundamental. The retention of university graduates is one of the main ways that the cities and the regions can adopt to retain those endowed with higher propensity to innovation, enterprise spirit and management capacity. Given that higher education institutions, in general, and universities, in particular, are obviously crucial in the process of knowledge increase, it becomes important to analyse how can these institutions act as ways of spatial diffusion of knowledge given that their graduates may migrate to other regions of the country (or for another country). The alleged increased probability of this migration to occur when the university is located in a small or medium sized town makes that analysis also interesting from the viewpoint of the development role that this kind of cities can perform, not only in the adjacent rural areas, but also across all the urban areas of the territory. The focus of our work consists in this analysis, which complements a theoretical approach with an empirical part based upon the results that can be observed for the influence of one university located in a small/medium sized town (the University of Évora) in the spatial diffusion of knowledge through its graduates.
    Keywords: Human capital; Small towns; Spatial diffusion of knowledge; Universities
    JEL: O15 I23 J24 R11
    Date: 2009–07–13
  11. By: Edwards, John Richard (Cardiff Business School)
    Abstract: The early modern period, which covers the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, saw England transformed from a relatively insignificant European nation to one of the world's leading economies. During this era a transformation in educational provision was designed to meet the needs of a changing occupational landscape. The continued focus of grammar schools and the universities on the supply of clerics and scholars ignored the educational requirements of those involved in the administration and management of entities located within both the commercial and non-profit making sectors. Against a background of increased literacy, this paper reveals that the private schools and academies of the early modern period responded to the information requirements of larger scale entities by developing a unified commercial education based on the intertwining of writing, arithmetic and double entry bookkeeping.
    Keywords: accounting history; business education; writing master
    Date: 2009–03
  12. By: Michel, BEINE (UNIVERSITY OF LUXEMBURG and CES-Ifo); FrŽdŽric, DOCQUIER (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES) and FNRS); Hillel, RAPOPORT (Department of Economics, BAR-ILAN UNIVERSITY, EQUIPPE (UniversitŽs de Lille))
    Abstract: Recent theoretical studies suggest that migration prospects can raise the expected return to human capital and thus foster education investment at home or, in other words, induce a brain gain. In a recent paper (Beine, Docquier and Rapoport, Economic Journal, 2008) we used the Docquier and Marfouk (2006) data set on emigration rates by education level to examine the impact of brain drain migration on gross (pre-migration) human capital formation in developing countries. We found a positive effect of skilled migration prospects on human capital growth in a cross-section of 127 developing countries, with an elasticity of about 5 percent. In this paper we assess the robustness of our results to the use of alternative brain drain measures, definitions of human capital, and functional forms. We find that the results hold using the Beine et al. (2007) alternative brain drain measures controlling for whether migrants acquired their skills in the home or in the host country. We also regress other indicators of human capital investment on skilled migration rates and find a positive effect on youth literacy while the effect on school enrolment depends on the exact specification chosen.
    Date: 2009–06
  13. By: Edwards, John Richard (Cardiff Business School)
    Abstract: British-based studies of the education of aspiring accountants have confined attention to developments following the formation of professional bodies. This paper examines educational provision during the early modern period which broadly coincides with the rapid commercial expansion that occurred in mercantilist Britain 1550-1800. We reveal institutional and pedagogic innovations designed to meet the training requirements of aspirant accountants and bookkeepers. We also show how the gendered male orientation of teaching institutions and instructional texts in accounting did not entirely exclude young women from acquiring desired knowledge of the accounting craft.
    Keywords: accounting history; accounting literature; education; women
    Date: 2009–03
  14. By: von Hinke Kessler, Scholder, S
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between children’s weight and academic outcomes using genetic markers as instruments to account for the possible endogeneity of body size. We use medically assessed measures of body size which are more appropriate than the generally used BMI measures. OLS results indicate that leaner children perform better in school tests compared to their heavier counterparts, but the IV results, using genetic markers as instruments, show no evidence that fat mass affects academic outcomes. We compare these IV results to those using the instruments generally adopted in this literature. We show that the results are sensitive to the instrument set and argue that several of the commonly used instruments do not meet the exclusion restrictions required of a valid instrument.
    Keywords: Child weight; Academic Performance; Educational Outcomes; Instrumental Variables; Mendelian Randomization; Genetic Markers; DXA; Body Mass Index; ALSPAC
    JEL: I1 I2 J24
    Date: 2009–07
  15. By: Miles S. Kimball; Colter M. Mitchell; Arland D. Thornton; Linda C. Young-Demarco
    Abstract: Early life experiences are likely to be important for the formation of preferences. Religiosity is a key dimension of preferences, affecting many economic outcomes. This paper examines the effect of college major on religiosity, and the converse effect of religiosity on college major, using panel data from the Monitoring the Future survey as a way of gauging the extent to which various streams of thought, as taught in college, affect religiosity. Two key questions, based on the differences in college experience across majors, are whether either (a) the Scientific worldview or (b) Postmodernism has negative effects on religiosity as these streams of thought are actually transmitted at the college level. The results show a decline in religiosity of students majoring in the social sciences and humanities, but a rise in religiosity for those in education and business. After initial choices, those respondents with high levels of religiosity are more likely to enter college. Of those who are in college, people with high levels of religiosity tend to go into the humanities and education over other majors.
    JEL: I2 J1 Z11 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2009–07
  16. By: Livanos, Ilias
    Abstract: The high level of graduate unemployment, even though has been acknowledged as one of the most distinctive characteristics of the Greek labour market, has not attracted enough attention in the academic literature. This paper utilizes the recently available micro-data from the Greek Labour Force Survey in order to investigate how the employment situation of young (aged 35 and below) graduates varies according to their field of study. The findings suggest that graduates of disciplines that have high levels of private sector employment, such as Polytechnics and Computer Science, are in general better off in the Greek labour market. On the other hand, graduates of disciplines that are traditionally related to the needs of the public sector, such as Sociology and Humanities face poor employment prospects. The findings of this study highlight the need for drastic reforms of the Higher Education system.
    Keywords: graduate unemployment; Greece; higher education; field of study; labour market
    JEL: A23 C31
    Date: 2009–07–13
  17. By: Ulrich Rendtel
    Abstract: The availability of well-educated researchers is necessary for the fruitful analysis of social and economic data. The increased data offer made possible by the creation of the Research Data Centers (RDCs) has resulted in an increased demand for PhD students at the master’s or Diplom levels. Especially in economics, where we find intense competition among the various individual subjects within the course of study, survey statistics has not been very successful in laying claim to a substantial proportion of the coursework and training. The situation is more favorable in sociology faculties. This article argues that the creation of new CAMPUS Files would help foster statistical education by providing public use files covering a wider range of subjects. It also presents some suggestions for new CAMPUS Files along these lines. Additionally, it argues for the establishment of master’s programs in survey statistics to increase the availability of well-trained statisticians. An outline of such a master’s program is presented and current PhD programs are evaluated with respect to training in survey statistics. Training courses are also offered outside the university that promote the use of new data sets as well as expanding the knowledge of new statistical methods or methods that lie outside standard education. These training courses are organized by the RDCs, (i.e. the data producers), the Data Service Centers, or by GESIS (Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences). The current tendency to strengthen ties and collaborate with universities should be supported by making it possible to earn academic credit for such courses.
    Keywords: master’s programs, survey statistics, campus files, statistical training
    Date: 2009
  18. By: Guillaume Haeringer (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona); Caterina Calsamiglia (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona); Flip Klijn (Institute for Economic Analysis (CSIC))
    Abstract: The literature on school choice assumes that families can submit a preference list over all the schools they want to be assigned to. However, in many real-life instances families are only allowed to submit a list containing a limited number of schools. Subjects' incentives are drastically affected, as more individuals manipulate their preferentes. Including a safety school in the constrained list explains most manipulations. Competitiveness across schools plays an important role. Constraining choices increases segregation and affects the stability and efficiency of the final allocation. Remarkably, the constraint reduces significantly the proportion of subjects playing a dominated strategy.
    Keywords: School Choice, Matching, Experiment, Gale-Shapley, Top Trading Cycles, Boston Mechanism, Efficiency, Stability, Truncation, Truthtelling, Safety School
    JEL: C72 C78 D78 I20
    Date: 2009–05
  19. By: Marlène Isoré
    Abstract: This paper discusses the most relevant issues concerning teacher evaluation in primary and secondary education by reviewing the recent literature and analysing current practices within the OECD countries. First, it provides a conceptual framework highlighting key features of teacher evaluation schemes. In particular, it emphasises the importance of clarifying the purposes of teacher appraisal, whether summative when designed to assure that the practices enhancing student learning are undertaken or formative when conducted for further professional development objectives. It also encompasses the diverse criteria and instruments commonly used to assess teachers as well as the actors generally involved in the process and potential consequences for teachers’ professional life. Second, it deals with a number of contentious points, including the question of the use of student outcomes to measure teaching performance, the advantages and drawbacks of different approaches given the purpose emphasised and resource restrictions, the implementation difficulties resulting from different stakeholders’ interests and possible ways to overcome these obstacles. Finally, it provides an account of current empirical evidence, pointing out mixed results stemming from difficulties in assessing the effects of such evaluation schemes on teaching quality, teachers’ motivation and student learning. It concludes by considering the circumstances under which teacher evaluation systems seem to be more effective, fair and reliable. Developing a comprehensive approach to evaluate teachers is critical to make demands for educational best practice compatible with teachers’ appropriation of the process as well as to enhance the decisive attractiveness and recognition of the teaching profession.<BR>Ce document examine les principales questions relatives à l’évaluation des enseignants du primaire et du secondaire en passant en revue la littérature récente et en analysant des pratiques actuelles au sein des pays de l’OCDE. Premièrement, il fournit un cadre conceptuel mettant en évidence les éléments clés entrant dans les processus d’évaluation des enseignants. En particulier, il souligne l’importance de clarifier les objectifs de l’évaluation, qu’ils soient de nature sommative lorsqu’ils visent à assurer que les pratiques favorisant l’apprentissage des élèves sont à l’oeuvre ou de nature formative lorsqu’ils sont conduits à des fins de formation professionnelle continue. Il comprend également les différents critères et instruments communément utilisés pour évaluer les enseignants ainsi que les acteurs généralement impliqués dans le processus et les conséquences potentielles sur la vie professionnelle des enseignants. Deuxièmement, il traite d’un certain nombre de points conflictuels, parmi lesquels la question de l’utilisation des résultats des élèves pour mesurer la performance des enseignants, les avantages et inconvénients de différentes approches compte tenu de l’objectif mis en exergue et de ressources limitées, ou encore les difficultés de mise en place résultant de divergence d’intérêts et les moyens possibles d’y remédier. Enfin, il examine l’évidence empirique sur le sujet et explique en quoi ses résultats nuancés tiennent aux difficultés d’estimer les effets de tels processus sur la qualité de l’enseignement, la motivation des personnels et l’apprentissage des élèves. Pour conclure, il considère les circonstances dans lesquelles l’évaluation des enseignants semble plus efficace, équitable et fiable. Développer une approche d’évaluation compréhensive est cruciale pour concilier les exigences d’enseignement et l’appropriation du processus par les enseignants, tout en recherchant une nécessaire amélioration de l’attractivité et de la reconnaissance du métier d’enseignant.
    Date: 2009–07–07
  20. By: C. Katharina Spiess
    Abstract: Given the importance of the early stage of a child`s life and taking into account that there various initiatives underway to improve preschool programs in German, it is remarkable that there are only a few microdatasets covering the field of preschool education in Germany - even less if the focus is on nationally representative datasets. The majority of these at least provide information on attendance of preschool programs. In principle there are two main groups of data: data that comprise part of the official statistics and survey data. However, there are hardly any data which allow a linkage between preschool program information and child outcome data. Furthermore, better data for children up to three years are needed, as well as data for children from migrant families. In particular, there is a need for good panel data allowing to match individual data and institutional information Given the developments in the German data infrastructure, the potentials for preschool education research will certainly improve. Nevertheless there remain a number of gaps. Among the mentioned recommendations the paper recommend improvements in fields, such as better data on the quality of preschool programs, better data on the family context and the costs of preschool education and finally the paper addresses the need for detailed intervention studies (on a representative (generalizable) level, which help to learn more about the most effective and efficient parameters of preschool programs.
    Keywords: preschool education, day care, child outcomes
    Date: 2009
  21. By: Massimiliano Mazzanti (University of Ferrara); Susanna Mancinelli (University of Ferrara); Giovanni Ponti (University of Ferrara); Nora Piva (University of Ferrara)
    Abstract: The strong adverse selection that immigrants face in hosting labour markets may induce them to adopt some behaviours or signals to modify employers’ beliefs. Relevant mechanisms for reaching this purpose are personal reputation; exploiting ethnic networks deeply-rooted in the hosting country; and high educational levels used as an indirect signal of productivity. On this last point, the immigrant status needs a stronger signal compared to that necessary for a local worker, and this may lead the immigrant to accept job qualifications which are lower than those achievable through the embodied educational level. This could explain the over education problem that characterizes many countries, Italy included. The aim of the paper is to investigate whether the above mentioned mechanisms are adopted by immigrants in Italy, a crucial country for EU immigration flows, and if they are useful in increasing immigrants’ likelihood of employment. The empirical analysis has been conducted using the dataset from a national Labour Force Survey which provides information on 6,860 documented immigrants. We estimate a logit model for immigrants’ likelihood of being employed, focusing on the above mentioned mechanisms: reputation, ethnic networks and educational level. Moreover we concentrate on the interaction effects of the mechanisms and investigate whether one of them wins on the others. Results show that each of the three mechanisms is statistically and economically significant and exerts positive influence: all factors contribute to increasing the immigrant’s probability of being employed. Anyway, a high level of education increases the probability of being employed more than the belonging to ethnic networks deeply-rooted in Italy. The specific embodied capital of workers matter relatively more. This is relevant for labour public policies in this specific realm since the human capital lever is a possible direct target of various public policies and private human capital investments.
    Keywords: Educational Qualifications, Migrant Networks, Immigrant Employability, Reputation, Segmented Labour Markets
    JEL: D82 J24 I2 F22
    Date: 2009–06
  22. By: Sidonia von Ledebur (Department of Geography, Philipps University Marburg)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the development of universities' patent applications in Germany before and after the abolition of the 'professors' privilege' in 2002. By means of a database with all patent applications of German universities with professors among the inventors (1990-2006), systematic changes in the trend are investigated. There are contrasts in the patenting patterns of universities with or without long patenting experience. A structural break at the point of the new legislation is found only for universities without patent activities in the past. This indicates the importance of collecting patenting experience and that the amount of patents is path-dependent.
    Keywords: university patenting, Germany, technology transfer, professors' privilege
    JEL: O34 O38 L31
    Date: 2009
  23. By: Andrés Rodríguez-Pose (London School of Economics); Vassilis Tselios (Newcastle University)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether differences in educational externalities affect individual earnings across regions in the EU. Using microeconomic data from the European Community Household Panel, the analysis relies on spatial economic analysis in order to determine to what extent differences in individual earnings are the result of (a) the educational attainment of the individual, (b) the educational attainment of the other members of the household he/she lives in, (c) the educational endowment of the region where the individual lives, or (d) the educational endowment of the neighbouring regions. The results highlight that, in addition to the expected positive returns of personal educational attainment, place-based regional and supra-regional educational externalities generate significant pecuniary benefits for workers. These findings are robust to the inclusion of different individual, household, and regional control variables.
    Keywords: individual earnings; educational attainment; externalities; households; regions; Europe
    Date: 2009–07–23
  24. By: Hornig, Stephan O.; Rottmann, Horst; Wapler, Rüdiger (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "This paper analyses the effects of education signals for Ethnic Germans and Germans without a migration background ('Native Germans'). We base our analysis on a sorting model with productivity enhancing effects of education. We compare whether the signalling value differs between the migrants and non-migrants in the German labour market. Starting from the theoretical result that only a separating equilibrium can exist, we find substantial empirical differences between Ethnic and Native Germans with the same formal education level. This empirical analysis is done with a completely new dataset based on administrative data from the German Federal Employment Agency." (author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: J24 J31 F22
    Date: 2009–07–17

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