nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2009‒07‒11
twenty-two papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Inclusion or Diversion in Higher Education in the Republic of Ireland? By Byrne, Delma
  2. Girls, girls, girls: gender composition and female school choice By Nicole Schneeweis; Martina Zweimüller
  3. How Much Are We Willing To Pay to Send Poor Adolescents to School? Simulating Changes to Mexico`s Oportunidades in Urban Areas By Viviane Azevedo; Cesar Bouillon; Patricia Yanez-Pagans
  4. Intergenerational Progress in Educational Attainment When Institutional Change Really Matters: A Case Study of Franco-Americans vs. French-Speaking Quebecers By Parent, Daniel
  5. Conditional Cash Penalties in Education: Evidence from the Learnfare Experiment By Thomas Dee
  6. Educational and health impacts of two school feeding schemes : evidence from a randomized trial in rural Burkina Faso By Kazianga, Harounan; de Walque, Damien; Alderman, Harold
  7. Finnish University Technology Transfer in a Whirl of Changes - a Brief Summary By Antti-Jussi Tahvanainen
  8. Combating Negative Peer Effects: Evidence from Judicial and School Resource Interventions By Mark L. Hoekstra; Scott Carrell
  9. On the Role of Job Assignment in a Comparison of Education Systems By Katsuya Takii; Ryuichi Tanaka
  10. The Duration of Paid Parental Leave and Children's Scholastic Performance By Liu, Qian; Nordström Skans, Oskar
  11. The economics of teacher supply in Indonesia By Chen, Dandan
  12. Anticipatory effects of curriculum tracking By Kristian Koerselman
  13. Intergenerational Correlation of Labour Market Outcomes By Nicolas Hérault; Guyonne Kalb
  14. The Effect of Adolescent Health on Educational Outcomes: Causal Evidence using ‘Genetic Lotteries’ between Siblings By Fletcher, Jason M.; Lehrer, Steven F.
  15. Changed Labour Market Conditions for the Highly Educated? - A Study of Postgraduate Degree Holders in Finland 1990-2004 (in Finnish with an English abstract/summary) By Susanna Stén
  16. Federal Life Sciences Funding and University R&D By Margaret E. Blume-Kohout; Krishna B. Kumar; Neeraj Sood
  17. Reducing Corruption in Public Education Programs in Africa:Instruments and Capture in Madagascar By Nathalie Francken
  18. Monetary poverty, education exclusion and material deprivation amongst youth in Spain By Cecilia Albert Verdú; María A. Davia Rodríguez
  19. Intra]couple Bargaining and School Enrollment in Developing Countries: An Empirical Analysis of Microdata in Rural Kenya By Kazuya Wada
  20. Education, Inovation, and Long-Run Growth By Katsuhiko Hori; Katsunori Yamada
  21. What Affects International Migration of European Science and Engineering Graduates? By de Grip, Andries; Fouarge, Didier; Sauermann, Jan
  22. Papers or Patents: Channels of University Effect on Regional Innovation By Robin Cowan; Natalia Zinovyeva

  1. By: Byrne, Delma (ESRI)
    Abstract: In this paper I investigate the extent to which the Irish higher education system promotes inclusion or diversion in relation to social selectivity. In doing so, stratification processes are examined for two educational outcomes: inequality in the type of higher education institution attended (institutional differentiation) and the level of qualification pursued at higher education (qualification differentiation). The paper considers the individual and school level influences on these two educational outcomes and concludes that the Irish system is inclusive, but class disparities remain in terms of both institutional differentiation and qualification differentiation. Class disparities are largely mediated through educational attainment at the individual level and diversion is particularly evident in relation to the non-manual and skilled manual groups. Furthermore, school effects have a particular influence on those who do not obtain their preference of higher education course.
    Date: 2009–06
  2. By: Nicole Schneeweis; Martina Zweimüller
    Abstract: Gender segregation in the labor market may be explained by women's re- luctance to choose technical occupations, although the foundations for career choices are certainly laid earlier, during education. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose those subjects if they are in single-sex classes. Possible explanations are the lack of self-confidence of girls in male-dominated subjects, the domi- nating behavior of boys in the classroom and unequal treatment by teachers. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of gender composition in coedu- cational classes on the choice of school type for female students. We propose that girls are less likely to choose a female-dominated school type at the age of 14 after spending the previous years in classes with a higher share of female students. We address the problem of endogenous school choice by using nat- ural variation in gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools. The results are clear-cut and survive powerful falsification and sensitivity checks: Females are less likely to choose a female-dominated school type and more likely to choose the technical school type if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. Our paper contributes to the recent debate about coeducation either in certain subjects or at the school level.
    Keywords: gender segregation, coeducation, career choice
    JEL: I21 I28 J24
    Date: 2009–06
  3. By: Viviane Azevedo; Cesar Bouillon; Patricia Yanez-Pagans
    Abstract: Although Mexico’s Conditional Cash Transfer Program Oportunidades has increased overall school enrollment, many adolescents do not attend school, especially in urban areas. This paper simulates the effects of changes in program design using a simple parametric method based on a simultaneous probability model of school attendance and child labor. The paper also provides alternative non parametric simulation results by extending Todd and Wolpin’s (2006) method to incorporate changes in working hours when attending school. The results indicate that eliminating or reducing school subsidies for primary education and increasing transfer for older students is a cost-effective way to raise overall school enrollment in urban areas. Increasing school attendance of 16-year-olds to 80 percent or more, however, would require a quadrupling of scholarships. This suggests that complementary interventions are needed.
    Keywords: School attendance and work, Conditional cash transfers, Simulation, Oportunidades
    JEL: I20 J22
    Date: 2009–06
  4. By: Parent, Daniel
    Abstract: Using U.S. and Canadian census data I exploit the massive out migration of approximately 1 million French-Canadians who moved mainly to New England between 1865 and 1930 to look at how the educational attainment and enrollment patterns of their descendants compare with those of same aged French-speaking Quebeckers. Data from the 1971 (1970) Canadian (U.S.) censuses reveal that New England born residents who had French as their mother tongue enjoyed a considerable advantage in terms of educational attainment. I attribute this large discrepancy to their exposure to the U.S. public school system which had no equivalent in Quebec until the late sixties. This result is even more remarkable given the alleged negative selection out of Quebec and the fact that Franco-Americans were fairly successful in replicating the same educational institutions as the ones existing in Quebec. Turning to the 2001 (2000) Canadian (U.S.) censuses, I find strong signs that the gap has subsided for the younger aged individuals. In fact, contrary to 30 years earlier, young Quebeckers in 2001 had roughly the same number of years of schooling and were at least as likely to have some post-secondary education. However, they still trail when it comes to having at least a B.A. degree. This partial reversal reects the impact of the "reverse treatment" by which Quebec made profound changes to its educational institutions, particularly in the post-secondary system, in the mid-to-late 60's. Given the speed at which this partial catch-up occurred, it would appear that the magnitude of the intergenerational externalities that can be associated with education is at best fairly modest.
    Keywords: Educational Attainment, Institutions
    JEL: N10 I20
    Date: 2009–06–26
  5. By: Thomas Dee
    Abstract: Wisconsin’s influential Learnfare initiative is a conditional cash penalty program that sanctions a family’s welfare grant when covered teens fail to meet school attendance targets. In the presence of reference-dependent preferences, Learnfare provides uniquely powerful financial incentives for student performance. However, a 10-county random-assignment evaluation suggested that Learnfare had no sustained effects on school enrollment and attendance. This study evaluates the data from this randomized field experiment. In Milwaukee County, the Learnfare procedures were poorly implemented and the random-assignment process failed to produce balanced baseline traits. However, in the nine remaining counties, Learnfare increased school enrollment by 3.7 percent (effect size = 0.08) and attendance by 4.5 percent (effect size = 0.10). The hypothesis of a common treatment effect sustained throughout the six-semester study period could not be rejected. These effects were larger among subgroups at risk for dropping out of school (e.g., baseline dropouts, those over age for grade). For example, these heterogeneous treatment effects imply that Learnfare closed the enrollment gap between baseline dropouts and school attendees by 41 percent. These results suggest that well-designed financial incentives can be an effective mechanism for improving the school persistence of at-risk students at scale.
    JEL: I2 I3
    Date: 2009–07
  6. By: Kazianga, Harounan; de Walque, Damien; Alderman, Harold
    Abstract: This paper uses a prospective randomized trial to assess the impact of two school feeding schemes on health and education outcomes for children from low-income households in northern rural Burkina Faso. The two school feeding programs under consideration are, on the one hand, school meals where students are provided with lunch each school day, and, on the other hand, take-home rations that provide girls with 10 kg of cereal flour each month, conditional on 90 percent attendance rate. After running for one academic year, both programs increased girls’ enrollment by 5 to 6 percentage points. While there was no observable significant impact on raw scores in mathematics, the time-adjusted scores in mathematics improved slightly for girls. The interventions caused absenteeism to increase in households that were low in child labor supply while absenteeism decreased for households that had a relatively large child labor supply, consistent with the labor constraints. Finally, for younger siblings of beneficiaries, aged between 12 and 60 months, take-home rations have increased weight-for-age by .38 standard deviations and weight-for-height by .33 standard deviations. In contrast, school meals did not have any significant impact on the nutrition of younger children.
    Keywords: Youth and Governance,Primary Education,Education For All,Street Children,Adolescent Health
    Date: 2009–06–01
  7. By: Antti-Jussi Tahvanainen
    Abstract: ABSTRACT : Finnish university technology transfer is currently caught in the turbulences of major changes in the national innovation system. Three virtually simultaneous changes are of special importance. The first is the massive on-going renewal of the Universities Act governing the Finnish higher education system in its entirety. It was originally initiated to provide universities with more financial and operational flexibility and autonomy and, thus, with better premises to fulfil the three mandates (i) to educate, (ii) to conduct academic research, and (iii) to impact societal welfare. The second change is the foundation of the so-called Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation (Finnish acronym : SHOK) that aim at establishing and re-enforcing long-term research cooperation between the academia and the Industry. The final change is the enactment of the new University Inventions Act in early January 2007. The Act provided universities with the rights of ownership to inventions made in sponsored research that, according to the principle of the professor’s privilege, were considered property of the respective academic inventors prior to the change. In the beginning of 2008 Etlatieto Ltd. interviewed 11 of 20 research universities active in Finland to capture the potential impacts the three changes might have on university technology transfer activities. The set of interviewees comprised professionals conducting different tasks in the technology transfer units of universities ranging from research directors to technology transfer officers to lawyers. According to the results, the expected benefits of the renewal of the Universities Act mainly comprise of the increasing financial flexibility of universities hoped to translate into a proliferation of tools available for the transfer of university technology (support of start-ups, investments etc.), and a general increase in the profile of technology transfer functions that should alleviate their current deficiency in resources. Challenges regarding the Universities Act, on the other hand, relate to the lack of administrative and business related expertise in universities required to fulfil the up-coming tasks mandated by the Act, and the lack of commitment on part of universities’ management resulting in insufficient resources. SHOKs, in turn, are expected to enable longer project cycles, to reduce administrative burden, to encourage the setting of scientifically more ambitious research objectives, as well as to increase research collaboration and its efficiency. Challenges were identified to relate to proposed IPR-practices potentially endangering the academic freedom of university research, the incentive schemes of top researchers to participate in SHOK projects, the inefficiencies of a large participant base, and the dangers of a strongly industry driven mode of co-operation to academic values. Finally, the benefits of the University Inventions Act are expected to emerge from the gradual dismantling of the “ivory tower of academe”, an increase in the amount of received invention disclosures, and more efficient administrative practices in university technology transfer functions. Perceived challenges, in turn, include interpretational difficulties of the Act, the modest commitment of university management to university technology transfer in general, increasing administrative burdens, and strong cultural differences between researchers, industry and university administration.
    Keywords: strategic centres for science, technology and innovation, SHOK, Universities Act, University Inventions Act, university technology transfer, national innovation system, technology transfer offices
    JEL: O30 O38 O33 O34
    Date: 2009–06–03
  8. By: Mark L. Hoekstra; Scott Carrell
    Abstract: Recent empirical work on peer effects in education has primarily focused on identification. However, little is known about the extent to which social and education policy can mitigate the negative spillovers caused by disruptive children. This paper addresses this question by examining the causal effects from two different policy responses: judicial intervention following the reporting of domestic violence by a parent and additional counseling resources in the school. We find that children from homes with as-yet unreported domestic violence cause large negative classroom externalities. However, these negative peer effects disappear completely once the parent reports the violence to the court. Our results also show that one additional school counselor increases student math and reading achievement by 1.1 percentile points. Collectively, our results offer encouraging evidence that policymakers have the ability to counteract the negative peer effects caused by children from troubled families.
    JEL: J12 D62 I21
    Date: 2009–01
  9. By: Katsuya Takii (Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP),Osaka University); Ryuichi Tanaka (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper reexamines how differences in systems for financing education influence GDP by highlighting a neglected function of education policy: it affects the magnitude of gains from job assignment. When more productive jobs demand more skill, privately financed education can increase productivity gains from matching between jobs and skill by increasing the availability of highly educated people. This differs from the standard argument that publicly financed education increases the total amount of human capital by equalizing educational opportunities. It is shown that if job opportunities have large variations in productivity, education policy may face a serious efficiency--equity trade-off.
    Keywords: Job assignment, Human capital, Education system
    JEL: D31 D72 H42 I22 O11 O15
    Date: 2009–07
  10. By: Liu, Qian (Uppsala University); Nordström Skans, Oskar (IFAU)
    Abstract: We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. We use a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 to evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a result that is robust to a number of different specifications. We find no corresponding heterogeneity relative to parental earnings or fathers' education, or relative to other predictors of child performance. We find no effects on intermediate outcomes such as mothers' subsequent earnings, child health, parental fertility, divorce rates, or the mothers' mental health. Overall the results suggest positive causal interaction effects between mothers' education and the amount of time mothers spend with their children. Since the institutional context is one in which the alternative is subsidized day care, the results imply that subsidizing longer parental leave spells rather than day care reinforce the relationship between maternal education and school outcomes.
    Keywords: maternal employment, education, human capital, cognitive skills
    JEL: I21 J13 J24
    Date: 2009–06
  11. By: Chen, Dandan
    Abstract: This paper examines the phenomenon of the over-supply of teachers but shortage of qualified teachers in Indonesia. Using a theoretical framework of government-dominated market with government-set wage rate and demand for teachers, the analysis explores how teacher supply, particularly the composition of the teaching force with low or high qualification, would be determined by current and future public policies. Using 2001 to 2008 Indonesian Labor Force Survey data, the paper further estimates the potential effect of the most recent teacher law, which could give college educated teachers a significant pay increase, on the composition of the Indonesian teaching force with differentiated education backgrounds. Using a sample of workers with college education, the author finds that the relative wage rate of teachers and that of alternative occupations significantly influence the decision of college educated workers to become teachers. It is also found that the wage rate set by the most recent teacher law would increase the share of teachers approximately from 16 to 30 percent of the college-educated labor force. This increase that is due to the new government-set wage rate, would result in a pupil-teacher ratio of 24 to 25 pupils per teacher with college education, but will require a more than 31 percent increase in the wage bill for teacher salaries. The empirical approach of this paper is derived from a structural model that takes into account the endogeneity of the wage rate and corrects for sample-selection bias due to occupational choice.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Primary Education,Education For All,Teaching and Learning,Secondary Education
    Date: 2009–06–01
  12. By: Kristian Koerselman (Department of Economics and Statistics, Abo Akademi University)
    Abstract: Curriculum tracking, the separation of secondary school students into academic and vocational tracks, correlates positively with pretracking achievement in both British and international data. I argue that this correlation is caused by the incentives emanating from the track placement decision. Using test score data collected in TIMSS 1995 and 2003, and in PIRLS 2001 and 2006, I investigate the effect of tracking on the early achievement distribution empirically, amongst others by means of quantile regression. The evidence presented in this paper implicates that previous valueadded estimates of the net impact of tracking may be biased.
    Keywords: curriculum tracking, ability streaming, anticipatory effects, high-stakes testing
    JEL: I21 I28 J08 J24
    Date: 2009–05
  13. By: Nicolas Hérault (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Guyonne Kalb (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the correlation of labour market outcomes of parents and children and investigates whether education is an important factor in this correlation, allowing for its potential endogeneity. Based on the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) data, the multivariate analyses show that men’s labour market outcomes are affected by their fathers’ labour market outcomes. The results show no significant intergenerational correlation of labour market outcomes for women when using the proportion of time in unemployment However, there is a significant relationship between the labour market outcomes of the mother and the proportion of time spent out of work by her daughter. Finally, the results show a significant relationship between parents’ and children’s education levels, indicating that there is an indirect effect of parental education on their children’s labour market outcomes through education. Indeed, it is shown that education significantly reduces the proportion of time in unemployment and not in work.
    Date: 2009–06
  14. By: Fletcher, Jason M.; Lehrer, Steven F.
    Abstract: There has been growing interest in using specific genetic markers as instrumental variables in attempts to assess causal relationships between health status and socioeconomic outcomes, including human capital accumulation. In this paper we use a combination of family fixed effects and genetic marker instruments to show strong evidence that inattentive symptoms of ADHD in childhood and depressive symptoms as an adolescent are linked with years of completed schooling. Our estimates suggest that controlling for family fixed effects is important but these strategies cannot fully account for the endogeneity of poor mental heath. Finally, our results demonstrate that the presence of comorbid conditions present immense challenges for empirical studies that aim to estimate the impact of specific health conditions.
    Keywords: Education Outcomes, Depression, Genetic Markers, ADHD, Obesity, Family Fixed Effects, and Instrumental Variables
    JEL: I20 I12 C31
    Date: 2009–06–26
  15. By: Susanna Stén
    Abstract: ABSTRACT : The 1990’s was a turbulent period for Finnish postgraduate education. The education system was reformed and the number of postgraduate students who graduated every year increased at a fast pace. In this thesis doctorate and licentiate degree holders as a group, as well as how their labour market situation has changed in the period of 1990-2004, is studied. The aim of the thesis is to describe the changes in the period rather than to try to explain them, since this is very complicated. The thesis uses the Finnish Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data (FLEED) that is maintained by Statistics Finland. The data cover a randomly chosen third of the Finnish population aged 16-69 in the years 1990-2004. The descriptive analysis shows that the composition of the group changed. Women’s share of the postgraduate degree holders increased, as did the mean age among recently graduated, mostly because the share aged over 50 increased. The labour market situation of the postgraduate degree holders weakened during the period but was still good, all in all. There were remarkable differences between the different fields of study. Those with education in social and health care and in engineering enjoyed the most favourable conditions, while those with education in humanistic fields faced the least favourable labour market situation. The number of private sector employers with employees with postgraduate degrees doubled during the period. There were some differences between the firms employing postgraduate degree holders and the average firm in Finland. Moreover, the return to postgraduate education was estimated using regression analysis. Throughout the period, it seems that the return to postgraduate education remained unchanged. The marginal return to postgraduate education somewhat decreased during 1990-1996, but thereafter the direction of the development is less clear. In 2004 a person with a postgraduate degree earned 101 percent more than a person with upper secondary education only and 16 percent more than a holder of a Master’s degree. There were also obvious differences in earnings between postgraduate degree holders in different fields of study. Persons with a degree in social and health care earned 52 percent more than those with a humanistic degree in 2004. In the same year female postgraduate degree holders earned about 20 percent less than their male colleagues, but the wage differential across gender decreased during the period.
    Keywords: PhD, higher education, Finland, employment, wages, returns to education
    JEL: J24 J44
    Date: 2009–06–08
  16. By: Margaret E. Blume-Kohout; Krishna B. Kumar; Neeraj Sood
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of federal extramural research funding on total expenditures for life sciences research and development (R&D) at U.S. universities, to determine whether federal R&D funding spurs funding from non-federal (private and state/local government) sources. We use a fixed effects instrumental variable approach to estimate the causal effect of federal funding on non-federal funding. Our results indicate that a dollar increase in federal funding leads to a $0.33 increase in non-federal funding at U.S. universities. Our evidence also suggests that successful applications for federal funding may be interpreted by non-federal funders as a signal of recipient quality: for example, non-PhD-granting universities, lower ranked universities and those that have historically received less funding experience greater increases in non-federal funding per federal dollar received.
    JEL: H5 I1 I23 O3
    Date: 2009–07
  17. By: Nathalie Francken
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the choice of public expenditure instrument is affecting capture in the public education sector. We analyze data on two public funding schemes in Madagascar. We find that there is much more capture of in-kind transfers than of cash transfers. Capture of both instruments declines with better local access to media information and with higher local literacy rates. However, capture of cash grants falls rapidly with a raise in the level of education of the intended beneficiaries, while this effect is significantly weaker for capture of in-kind funds. Our findings suggest that intensive monitoring and increased public access to information should be combined with the right instrument for public funding implementation in order to eradicate capture and corruption.
    Keywords: Public Expenditures; Transparency; Media
    JEL: H52 I22
    Date: 2009
  18. By: Cecilia Albert Verdú (Departamento de Fundamentos de Economía e H.E., Universidad de Alcalá.); María A. Davia Rodríguez (Departamento de Economía Española e Internacional, Econometría e Historia e Instituciones económicas, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha.)
    Abstract: This piece of work analyses the profile of poverty amongst youth in Spain from a multidimensional perspective. This approach entails the estimation of poverty risks, material deprivation indicators and an education exclusion indicator. Material deprivation indicators refer to deficiencies in dwelling’s conditions, to arrears with payments and non-affordability of basic goods. The analysis is developed on a sample of young adults from the Spanish section of EU-SILC (European Union Survey on Living Conditions). The methodology consists on a set discrete dependent variable models and count data models. The risk of poverty, material deprivation and education exclusion are strongly influenced by household composition, education attainment and labour market status as well as disability and nationality.
    Keywords: Youth, Poverty, Material Deprivation, Education Exclusion.
    JEL: I31 I32
    Date: 2009
  19. By: Kazuya Wada
    Date: 2009–05
  20. By: Katsuhiko Hori; Katsunori Yamada
    Abstract: This paper combines three prototype endogenous growth models, themodels with human capital accumulation introduced by Uzawa [1965] andLucas [1988], variety expansion by Romer [1990], and quality improvementsby Aghion and Howitt [1992], in order to investigate how these threeengines of growth interact. We show that a subsidy to human capital accumulation has a positive impact on R&D effort, as well as on human capital accumulation. On the other hand, a subsidy to R&D sectors does not affect human capital accumulation in our model. Moreover, we show that equilibrium dynamics is locally saddle-path stable around the steady growth path. It suggests that Schumpeterian growth models a la Howitt [1999] should share the locally saddle-path stable property. Finally, since in our model the percapita output growth rate is endogenously determined by both technology improvements and human capital accumulation, it bridges the gap between the literature on Schumpeterian growth models and that on growth empirics.
    Date: 2009–02
  21. By: de Grip, Andries (ROA, Maastricht University); Fouarge, Didier (ROA, Maastricht University); Sauermann, Jan (ROA, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Using a dataset of science and engineering graduates from 12 European countries, we analyse the determinants of labour migration after graduation. We find that not only wage gains are driving the migration decision, but also differences in labour market opportunities, past migration experience, and international student exchange are strong predictors of future migration. Contrary to our expectations, job characteristics such as the utilisation of skills in the job and involvement in innovation hardly affect the migration decision. When analysing country choice, countries such as the USA, Canada and Australia appear to attract migrants due their larger R&D intensity. Moreover, graduates with higher grades are more likely to migrate to these countries.
    Keywords: migration, university graduates, scientists & engineers
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2009–06
  22. By: Robin Cowan; Natalia Zinovyeva
    Abstract: This paper analyzes empirically the channels through which university research affects industry innovation. We examine how the opening of new science, medicine and engineering departments in Italy during 1985-2000 affected regional innovation systems. We find that creation of a new university department increased regional innovation activity 3-4 years later. On average, an opening of a new department has led to a twenty percent change in the number of patents led by regional firms. Given that this effect occurs within the first half decade of the appearance of a new department, it cannot be ascribed to improvements in the quality and quantity of graduates. At the same time, traditional measures of academic research activity -- publications and patents -- can explain at most 50 percent of this effect, of which the lion's share is due to publications.
    Date: 2009–06

This nep-edu issue is ©2009 by Joao Carlos Correia Leitao. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.