nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2009‒05‒30
six papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Understanding the Transition to Work for First Degree University Graduates in Portugal: The case of the University of Évora By Aurora Galego; António Caleiro
  2. Upstream Innovation Protection: Common Law Evolution and the Dynamics of Wage Inequality By Guido Cozzi; Silvia Galli
  3. A (Micro) Course in Microeconomic Theory for MSc Students By Alexia Gaudeul
  4. Science-Based R&D in Schumpeterian Growth By Guido Cozzi; Silvia Galli
  5. Social Influence Given (Partially) Deliberate Matching: Career Imprints in the Creation of Academic Entrepreneurs By Pierre Azoulay; Christopher C. Liu; Toby E. Stuart
  6. Is European accounting research fairly reflected in academic journals? An investigation of possible non-mainstream and language barrier biases By Bernard Raffournier; Alain Schatt

  1. By: Aurora Galego (Department of Economics, University of Évora); António Caleiro (Department of Economics, University of Évora)
    Abstract: A traditional way of looking at the importance of universities assumes that these are sources of many positive effects from the point of view of the inputs, i.e. from a demand side perspective. In accordance to this perspective, the importance of a university can be measured by its multiplier effects, at a regional or national level. This perspective can be complemented with the analysis of the issues associated with the transition to work by their graduates. The paper thus analyses the factors that reveal to be explanatory of the time spent by first degree students of a small university in Portugal, the University of Évora, in order to enter the labour market. In doing so, we employ a sample of 767 students and estimate several specifications of discrete-time duration models. The results show that there are significant differences among the students from the several courses and highlight the importance of the final mark in the course. On the other hand, we did find any significant differences between male and female students.
    Keywords: Duration Models; Graduates; Labour Market; Universities
    JEL: J64 I23 C41
    Date: 2009
  2. By: Guido Cozzi; Silvia Galli
    Abstract: What is the most innovation-enhancing level of patent protection for the new ideas generated within the framework of multi-stage sequential innovation? How does increasing early innovation appropriability affect basic research, applied research, education, and wage inequality? What does the common law system imply on the macroeconomic responses to institutional change? We show how the jurisprudential changes in intellectual property rights witnessed in the US after 1980 can be related to the well-known increase in wage inequality and in education attainments. A Schumpeterian general equilibrium approach is followed.
    Keywords: Basic and Applied R&D, Sequential Innovation, Skill Premium, Inequality and Education, Research Exemption, Common Law
    JEL: O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2009–05
  3. By: Alexia Gaudeul
    Abstract: Those lecture notes cover the basics of a course in microeconomic theory for MSc students in Economics. They were developed over five years of teaching MSc Economic Theory I in the School of Economics at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK. The lectures differ from the standard fare in their emphasis on utility theory and its alternatives. A wide variety of exercises for every sections of the course are provided, along with detailed answers. Credit is due to the authors students for ‘debugging’ this material over the years. Specific credit for some of the material is given where appropriate. [MPRA Paper No. 15388]
    Keywords: "Economics; Microeconomics; Utility Theory; Game Theory;Incentive Theory; Online Textbook; Lecture Notes; Study Guide; MSc
    Date: 2009
  4. By: Guido Cozzi; Silvia Galli
    Abstract: Firm success is often associated with the development of better products. Private firms undertake applied R&D seeking market advantage, by capitalizing on the freely accessible results of basic research. But unpatentable basic research often fails to address applied R&D open problems. What is the role of the incentives in improving the innovative performance of an economy by matching partially motivated public researchers to their mission? Sometimes government funded research projects are mission-directed, yet in many cases the public sector academics indulge in carrier-driven research. An innovation system where, as in the US, also basic research is driven by patents, implicitly sets an ex-post incentive to the researchers guided by invisible hand. For a public innovation system - like the European one - designing an incentive scheme to motivate public researchers is of key importance for fostering the performance of the economic system. This paper extends the Schumpeterian multisector growth model with vertical innovation by highlighting a link between the degree of "targetness" of public research and aggregate innovation. A positive effect of social capital is also proved.
    Keywords: Sequential Innovation, Research Tools, Basic Research, Knowledge Management, Social Capital.
    JEL: H44 O31 O34 O38
    Date: 2009–04
  5. By: Pierre Azoulay (Columbia University, Columbia Business School); Christopher C. Liu (Harvard Business School); Toby E. Stuart (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit)
    Abstract: Actors often match with associates on a small set of dimensions that matter most for the particular relationship at hand. In so doing, they are exposed to unanticipated social influences because counterparts have more interests, attitudes, and preferences than would-be associates considered when they first chose to pair. This implies that some apparent social influences (those tied to the rationales for forming the relationship) are endogenous to the matching process, while others (those that are incidental to the formation of the relationship) may be conditionally exogenous, thus enabling causal estimation of peer effects. We illustrate this idea in a new dataset tracking the training and professional activities of academic biomedical scientists. In qualitative and quantitative analyses, we show that scientists match to their postdoctoral mentors based on two dominant factors, geography and scientific focus. They then adopt their advisers' orientations toward commercial science as evidenced by the transmission of patenting behavior, but they do not match on this dimension. We demonstrate this in two-stage models that adjust for the endogeneity of the matching process, using a modification of propensity score estimation and a sample selection correction with valid exclusion restrictions. Furthermore, we draw on qualitative accounts of the matching process recorded in oral histories of the career choices of the scientists in our data. All three methods-qualitative description, propensity score estimators, and those that tackle selection on unobservable factors-are potential approaches to establishing evidence of social influence in partially endogenous networks, and they may be especially persuasive in combination.
    Date: 2009–05
  6. By: Bernard Raffournier (HEC University of Geneva); Alain Schatt (Université de Bourgogne)
    Abstract: Recent research has revealed that most articles published in top US accounting journals come from institutions based in the US or a small number of other English-speaking countries (Jones and Roberts, 2005). It has also been shown that the research paradigm favoured by US journals is financial economics, with the result that articles on accounting history or social and behavioural accounting are very scarce. European journals exhibit a more diverse content. Nevertheless, as shown by some studies, British authors are the main contributors to these journals. As a consequence, the assertion has been made that the published literature is not perfectly representative of the diversity of European accounting research. The aim of this study is to test the validity of this assertion by comparing the content of eighteen major academic journals in accounting over five years (2000-2004) with the set of papers presented at the EAA congress in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The results give some support to the assertion that the diversity of European accounting research is imperfectly reflected in academic journals. They also are consistent with the idea that non English-speaking scholars are at a competitive disadvantage in the race for publication in recognized periodicals.
    Keywords: European accounting research; academic journals; language barrier biaises.
    JEL: M40
    Date: 2009–03

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