nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2009‒05‒09
seven papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Does making upper secondary school more comprehensive affect dropout rates, educational attainment and earnings? Evidence from a Swedish pilot scheme By Hall, Caroline
  2. Aims of Education By NCERT NCERT
  3. The Evolution of the Intergenerational Mobility of Education in Chile by Cohorts: Facts and Possible Causes By Claudio Sapelli.
  4. Immigrant wages in the Spanish labour market: does the origin of human capital matter? By Esteban Sanromá; Raúl Ramos; Hipólito Simón
  5. Building a Better World: An Ecosystemic Approach to Education, Culture, Health, Environment and Quality of Life By Pilon, André Francisco
  6. Los Retornos a la Educación en Chile: Estimaciones por Corte Transversal y por Cohortes By Claudio Sapelli.
  7. Play to Learn? An Experiment By Martin Dufwenberg; J. Todd Swarthout

  1. By: Hall, Caroline (Institute for Labour Market Polilcy Evaluation)
    Abstract: Since the mid-20th century many OECD countries have discarded their previous selective schools systems, in which students early on were separated between academic and vocational tracks, in favor of more comprehensive schools. The effects of these reforms have generally been difficult to evaluate and their consequences for students’ educational and labor market outcomes remain disputed. This paper evaluates the effects of the introduction of a more comprehensive upper secondary school system in Sweden in the 1990s. The reform reduced the differences between the academic and vocational educational tracks through prolonging and substantially increasing the academic content of all vocational tracks. The effects of this policy change are identified by exploiting a six year pilot scheme, which preceded the actual reform in some municipalities. The results show that the prolongation of the vocational tracks brought about an increased probability of dropping out among low performing students. Though one important motive behind the policy change was to enable all upper secondary school graduates to pursue a university degree, I find no effects on university enrolment or graduation. There are some indications, however, that attending the longer and more academic vocational track may have led to increased earnings in the long run.
    Keywords: Upper secondary education; comprehensive school system; educational attainment; earnings; instrumental variables
    JEL: I21 I28
    Date: 2009–04–22
    Abstract: The paper tries to understand what are the aims of education.
    Keywords: education, environment, children,knowledge, community, pedagogy, teaching, language, tradition, society, language, school
    Date: 2009
  3. By: Claudio Sapelli. (Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.)
    Abstract: We estimate the evolution of intergenerational mobility of education in Chile for synthetic cohorts born between 1930 and 1978. The correlation coefficient between children and parent education falls from 0.67 for the cohort born in 1930 to 0.41 for that born in 1956, followed by stagnation. We test three explanations for this evolution. The first that mobility was driven by laws that made further education mandatory. The second that mobility stopped because of a financial restriction either at age 18 or at birth. Finally, we test whether the increase in single parent households explains the stagnation in mobility.
    Keywords: Intergenerational mobility, Synthetic cohorts and Education
    JEL: J62 I20
    Date: 2009
  4. By: Esteban Sanromá (Universitat de Barcelona); Raúl Ramos (Universitat de Barcelona); Hipólito Simón (Universitat de Alicante)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the role played by the different components of human capital in the wage determination of recent immigrants within the Spanish labour market. Using microdata from the Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes 2007, the paper examines returns to human capital of immigrants, distinguishing between human capital accumulated in their home countries and in Spain. It also examines the impact on wages of the legal status. The evidence shows that returns to host country sources of human capital are higher than returns to foreign human capital, reflecting the limited international transferability of the latter. The only exception occurs in the case of immigrants from developed countries and immigrants who have studied in Spain. Whatever their home country, they obtain relatively high wage returns to education, including the part not acquired in the host country. Having legal status in Spain is associated with a substantial wage premium of around 15%. Lastly, the overall evidence confirms the presence of a strong heterogeneity in wage returns to different kinds of human capital and in the wage premium associated to the legal status as a function of the immigrants’ area of origin.
    Keywords: Fiscal immigration, wages, human capital.
    JEL: J15 J24 J31 J61
    Date: 2009
  5. By: Pilon, André Francisco
    Abstract: Quality of life, natural and man-made environments, physical, social and mental well-being are currently undermined by all sorts of hazards and injuries; political, economical, social and cultural disarray normalise atrocious behaviours and violence throughout the world. Considering the multiple problems of difficult settlement or solution in our times, current environmental, social, cultural, educational, political and economic policies and practices are examined in view of new paradigms of growth, power, wealth, work and freedom. A multidimensional ecosystemic approach and planning model integrate into a dynamic configuration four dimensions of being-in-the- world (intimate, interactive, social and biophysical), as they induce the events (deficits and assets), cope with consequences (desired or undesired) and reorganise for change.
    Keywords: education; culture; public policies; environment; ecosystems
    JEL: Q56 H75 I28 Z13
    Date: 2009–04–25
  6. By: Claudio Sapelli. (Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.)
    Abstract: Se utilizan cortes transversales y cohortes sintéticas para estimar las tasas de retorno a la educación en Chile. Para corte transversal se usa las CASEN de los años 1990 a 2006. Para cohortes sintéticas, las Encuestas de Ocupación del gran Santiago para los años 1957 a 2000 y la encuesta CASEN para los años 1990 a 2006.Los resultados de corte transversal muestran que la tasa de retorno es notoriamente distinta para los distintos niveles educativos. Los datos también muestran una inflexión en la evolución en el tiempo de las tasas de retorno: el alza mostrada en un principio se ha revertido, presentando además una convergencia de tasas. Se observan también fuertes premios a la obtención de títulos (sheepskin effect) para todos los niveles de educación, exceptuando la educación media técnica, donde los resultados no son claros, y la educación técnico profesional, donde esta desagregación no es aplicable. Esta evidencia señala claramente a la educación como una mezcla entre un aumento de la productividad (o capital humano) del individuo y un proceso de señalización hacia el mercado laboral. Los resultados de cohortes sintéticas muestran un nivel de retornos mucho más alto para todos los niveles de educación que los obtenidos a través de la metodología de Mincer, lo que concuerda con la teoría sobre la relación entre los dos métodos. Podemos ver entonces como las estimaciones a través de estudios de cortes transversales subestiman los verdaderos retornos para el proceso educativo en el caso chileno. En términos de la evolución en el tiempo estos resultados muestran también de forma mucho más evidente ir en camino a un cierto nivel de convergencia. Comparando nuestros resultados con estudios internacionales, vemos que las estimaciones a la Mincer muestran, para la educación secundaria y superior, una tasa de retorno mayor en el caso chileno que en la mayoría de los países similares y que todos los países desarrollados. Por último, vemos que al comparar las tasas de retorno en estudios de cohorte, los retornos chilenos son también mucho más altos.
    Keywords: Synthetic cohorts, Mincer equation, rates of return, education
    JEL: I20 J24 J31
    Date: 2009
  7. By: Martin Dufwenberg; J. Todd Swarthout
    Abstract: Does playing a game in class improve students' ability to analyze the game using game theory? We report results from an experimental design which allows us to test a series of related hypotheses. We fail to find support for the conjectured learning-enhancing effects and discuss what lessons can be learned substantially and methodologically.
    JEL: A22 C70
    Date: 2009–04

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