nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2008‒12‒21
twelve papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. Effect of changes in state funding of higher education on higher education output in South Africa: 1986-2007 By Pierre de Villiers; Gert Steyn
  2. Food Price Inflation and Children's Schooling By Michael Grimm
  3. Entrepreneurship, methodologies in higher education an experience in a portuguese business school By Carvalho, Luísa; Costa, Teresa; Dominguinhos, Pedro; Pereira, Raquel
  4. What explains the academic success of second-year economics students? An exploratory analysis By Pietie Horn; Ada Jansen; Derek Yu
  5. The impact of New Public Management (NPM) instruments on PhD education By Peter Schneider; Dieter Sadowski
  6. The Technological Origins of the High School Movement By Kim, Se-Um
  7. Future Economic Strategy of the Czech Republic as an EU Member State By Tošenovský, Filip
  8. The child care transition: a league table of early childhood education and care in economically advanced countries By Peter Adamson
  9. Die öffentlich geförderte Bildungs- und Betreuungsinfrastruktur in Deutschland: Eine ökonomische Analyse regionaler und nutzergruppenspezifischer Unterschiede By Katharina C. Spiess; Eva M. Berger; Olaf Groh-Samberg
  10. Overcoming disparities and expanding access to early childhood services in Germany: policy consideration and funding options By Katharina C. Spiess; Eva M. Berger; Olaf Groh-Samberg
  11. Benchmarks for early childhood services in OECD countries By John Bennett
  12. The role of e-government in the rise of administrative efficiency By Vatuiu, Teodora

  1. By: Pierre de Villiers (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Gert Steyn (Institutional Research and Planning Division, University of Stellenbosch)
    Abstract: During the last two decades state funding of higher education in South Africa has decreased substantially (especially if public expenditure of HE as a percentage of GDP is used as a yardstick). HE institutions were forced to increase tuition fees and rely more on the third income stream to balance their books. In the process increases in instruction/research staff did not keep up with the increase in student numbers. During the period 1986-2003 qualifications awarded to students per full-time equivalent instruction/research staff member increased over time – indicating greater efficiency of the HE sector in delivering more teaching output. High-level research in the form of publication units in accredited journals, however, stagnated during this period. In recent years until 2007, however, publications in accredited journals increased substantially. This was mainly the result of broadening the number of accredited journals by the Department of Education. In this paper two indicators, linked to the current funding formula for higher education, to measure academic output of HEIs are defined and applied to the output of institutions for the period since 2002. It is concluded that there is large variability between HEIs as far as teaching and research output are concerned. A cause for concern is that the majority of the research is conducted by just a few HE institutions.
    Keywords: Higher education, Financing, Subsidy formula, Education output
    JEL: H40 I22 I23
    Date: 2008
  2. By: Michael Grimm
    Abstract: I analyze the impact of food price inflation on parental decisions to send their children to school. Moreover, I use the fact that food crop farmers and cotton farmers were exposed differently to that shock to estimate the income elasticity of school enrolment. The results suggest that the shock-induced loss in purchasing power had an immediate effect on enrolment rates. Instrumental variable estimates show that the effect of household income on children's school enrolment is much larger than a simple OLS regression would suggest. Hence, policies to expand education in Sub-Saharan Africa, should not neglect the demand side.
    Keywords: Education, Household Income, Inflation, Aggregate Shocks, Africa
    JEL: I21 O12 Q12
    Date: 2008
  3. By: Carvalho, Luísa; Costa, Teresa; Dominguinhos, Pedro; Pereira, Raquel
    Abstract: Today entrepreneurship education is an important issue to improve the process of creating new firm assuming new risks and rewards. The theoretical discussion about around the question: “Entrepreneurs are born or made?” assume that is possible educate to be entrepreneurs. Schools have an important role in this process. Believing in this possibility our Business School developed a set of pedagogical methodologies supported in apprenticeship based on “learning by doing”. This pedagogical methodology was created through a study of best practices. This study aims to propose a set of innovative methodologies and students perceptions about their apprenticeship experience/process. The study concludes with a set of recommendations and a best practices manual useful to appliance in higher education.
    Keywords: Innovative methodologies; entrepreneurship education; learning by doing
    JEL: L26 A2 M13
    Date: 2008–12–12
  4. By: Pietie Horn (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Ada Jansen (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Derek Yu (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch)
    Abstract: The factors influencing academic success of first-year Economics students have received much attention from researchers. Very little attention, however, has been given to the determinants of success of senior Economics students. In the USA, Graunke and Woosley (2005: 367) indicate that college sophomores (second years) face academic difficulties, but this receives little attention in the literature. Economics is an elective subject for second-year students at Stellenbosch University. The academic performance of the second-year students has shown a decline, as compared to the first-year Economics performance and the faculty’s average performance. An observed phenomenon at Stellenbosch University is the poor attendance of lecture and tutorials by second year students, some of the factors than can perhaps explain why students perform poorly. This phenomenon may be explained in part by second year students losing interest in academic activities, focusing on other social commitments. This study investigates the academic success of second-year Economics students. It adds to the existing literature on the factors affecting the academic success of Economics students by focusing on the second-year students (a much neglected group in empirical studies, particularly in South Africa). The empirical analyses confirm some of the existing findings in the literature, namely that lecture and tutorial attendance are important contributors to academic success. We also find that as students progress to Economics at the second-year level, their performance in individual matriculation subjects is less relevant, except for those students who had taken Additional Mathematics. However, the matriculation aggregate mark is significant in explaining the academic performance, in a non-linear way. An important finding is that non-White students tend to perform more poorly in essay writing (one of the components of the course mark in the second year) than White students.
    Keywords: Education, Undergraduate, Second-year economics, Academic performance
    JEL: A2 A22 A29
    Date: 2008
  5. By: Peter Schneider; Dieter Sadowski (Institute for Labour Law and Industrial Relations in the EC, University of Trier)
    Abstract: New public governance emphasizes less state, more market and more hierarchy as the cornerstones for effective steering of higher education institutions. Based on an explorative analysis of qualitative and quantitative data of fourteen German and European economics departments, we investigate the steering effects of six new public management (NPM) instruments in the years 2001 to 2002 on subsequent placement success of PhD graduates. Using crisp set Qualitative Comparative Analysis to analyze the data, our results deliver strong support for the positive effects of competition for resources and the partial harmful effects of hierarchy on PhD education. Governance of successful departments is characterized by two solutions: additional funding based on evaluations as one single success factor in each solution or a combination of additional funding based on nationally competitive performance in addition with either no public policy regulations for departments or with no university regulations for departments. Governance of unsuccessful departments is characterized by one solution: university regulations for departments or a combination of no additional funding based on nationally competitive performance in addition with no additional funding based on evaluations. Our results strengthen the strong impact of selected competitive mechanisms as an effective indirect governance instrument and the partially detrimental effects of state regulation and more hierarchy as elements of direct governance instruments for successful PhD education.
    Keywords: New Public Management instruments, competition, state regulation, hierarchy, economics, PhD education, QCA
    Date: 2008–04
  6. By: Kim, Se-Um
    Abstract: This paper argues that the emergence of knowledge hierarchies in the modern U.S. firms since the late 19th century, expedited by huge progress in communication technology, played a significant role in the expansion of mass secondary education called the high school movement in the U.S. in the early 20th century. To analyze the causal connections among these historical events, the paper presents a dynamic model in which the complementarity between individual skills is crucial to production. Middle-skilled individuals could help increase the payoff to the high-skilled by supervising low-skilled production workers as middle managers in firms, and so some of potential top managers with high skill actively supported the expansion of mass education to the secondary level some time after a sophisticated form of production organizations had started to emerge. This theoretical explanation is consistent with the existing historical evidence in the literature.
    Keywords: High School Movement; Communication Technology; Skill Complementarity; Knowledge Hierarchies; Middle Managers; Public Secondary Education
    JEL: O10 O40
    Date: 2008–10–20
  7. By: Tošenovský, Filip
    Abstract: The article discusses the economic and political position of the Czech republic as an EU member state and comments on its potential future problems related to a greater expansion of the EU.
    Keywords: migration; education; bank credits; state deficit; labor market
    JEL: A10
    Date: 2008–12–15
  8. By: Peter Adamson
    Abstract: A great change is coming over childhood in the world's richest countries. Today's rising generation is the first in which a majority are spending a large part of early childhood in some form of out-of-home child care. At the same time, neuroscientific research is demonstrating that loving, stable, secure, and stimulating relationships with caregivers in the earliest months and years of life are critical for every aspect of a child’s development. Taken together, these two developments confront public and policymakers in OECD countries with urgent questions. Whether the child care transition will represent an advance or a setback for today's children and tomorrow's world. will depend on the response.
    Keywords: child care; child care services; early childhood; early childhood development; early childhood education; right to care and protection; right to child care services; right to education;
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2008
  9. By: Katharina C. Spiess; Eva M. Berger; Olaf Groh-Samberg
    Abstract: Betreuung und Bildung in der frühen Kindheit war lange Zeit im Westen Deutschlands ein Thema, das wenig Aufmerksamkeit fand. Weithin herrschte die Vorstellung, dass Kleinkinder zu Hause versorgt werden sollten. Aufgrund von Warnungen, die von Kinderärzten und Bindungsforschern kamen, wurden junge Kinder nur in dringenden Fällen in Krippen oder von Tagesmüttern betreut. Eltern, die solche Einrichtungen in Anspruch nahmen, hatten oft ein schlechtes Gewissen
    Keywords: child care; child care services; early childhood; early childhood development; early childhood education; right to care and protection; right to child care services; right to education;
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2008
  10. By: Katharina C. Spiess; Eva M. Berger; Olaf Groh-Samberg
    Abstract: In comparison to the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) systems of many other advanced economies the German system can be characterised as relative uniform, when looking at programmes and providers. But in other ways, there are considerable variations. There are considerate regional differences in governance, funding, and attendance rates, in particular with respect to certain socio-economic groups. This paper describes and evaluates these differences, mainly from an economic perspective and also taking child well-being into account.
    Keywords: child care; child care services; early childhood; early childhood development; early childhood education; right to care and protection; right to child care services; right to education;
    Date: 2008
  11. By: John Bennett
    Abstract: The Innocenti Report Card 8 presents ten benchmarks for early childhood services. It represent a bold first step towards the ultimate goal of improving the lives of young children by enabling international comparisons to be made in the early childhood field, thereby encouraging countries to learn from each other’s experiences. The current paper provides some critical reflections on the challenges involved in establishing the principle of standard-setting in the early childhood field and suggests factors that should command our attention as the principle - as is hoped - becomes established and the process of standard-setting matures.
    Keywords: child care; child care services; early childhood; early childhood development; early childhood education; right to care and protection; right to child care services; right to education;
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2008
  12. By: Vatuiu, Teodora
    Abstract: The aim of e-Government - one of the key objectives laid out in the Commission's i2010 Action plan - is to bring administrations closer to citizens and businesses by providing online public services e-Government refers to the provision of online public services to citizens and businesses. Services for citizens include registration to government services such as health care, education or employment benefits. For businesses, e-Government services can take the form of online alerts for public procurements or funding opportunities as well as information and support on applicable legislation in a given sector.
    Keywords: [e-government] [administrative efficiency]
    JEL: D73 D8 A10
    Date: 2008–10–14

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