nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2008‒10‒07
seventeen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Technical University of Lisbon

  1. The Economics of Student Attendance By Pipergias Analytis, Pantelis; Ramachandran , Rajesh; Rauh , Chris; Willis, Jack
  2. The Transmission of Women's Fertility, Human Capital and Work Orientation Across Immigrant Generations By Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Albert Yung-Hsu Liu; Kerry L. Papps
  3. Value Creation in the Interface of Industry and Academy - A Case Study of Intellectual Capital of Technology Transfer Offices At US Universities By Antti-Jussi Tahvanainen; Raine Hermans
  4. Children Capabilities and Family Characteristics in Italy By Tindara Addabbo; Maria Laura Di Tommaso
  5. Differences in Impact Factor Across Fields and Over Time By Benjamin Althouse; Jevin West; Ted Bergstrom; Carl Bergstrom
  6. On the Determinants and Implications of School Choice: Semi-Structural Simulations for Chile By Francisco Gallego; Andrés E. Hernando.
  7. Historical Origins of Schooling: The Role of Democracy and Political Decentralization By Francisco Gallego
  8. The great proletarian cultural revolution, disruptions to education, and returns to schooling in urban China By Giles, John; Park, Albert; Wang, Meiyan
  9. A new challenge for higher education in Romania –entrepreneurial universities By Sitnikov, Catalina Soriana
  10. The Elite and the Marginalised: an Analysis of Public Spending on Mass Education in the Indian States By Sarmistha Pal; Sugata Ghosh
  11. Are Over-educated People Insiders or Outsiders? A Case of Job Search Methods and Over-education in UK By Kucel, Aleksander; Byrne, Delma
  12. Positive externalities of congestion, human capital, and socio-economic factors: A case study of chronic illness in Japan. By yamamura, eiji
  13. Do Rankings Reflect Research Quality? By Bruno S. Frey; Katja Rost
  14. Timing of Family Income, Borrowing Constraints and Child Achievement By Maria Knoth Humlum
  15. ICT in public administration and SMB companies: four years of new challenges By [Vymetal], [Dominik]
  16. The Innovation and Entrepreneurship Latinamerican Scoreborard: The impact of University-Industry Cooperation in Ecuador By Massón-Guerra, José Luis
  17. When The Saints Come Marching In: Effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on Student Evacuees By Bruce Sacerdote

  1. By: Pipergias Analytis, Pantelis; Ramachandran , Rajesh; Rauh , Chris; Willis, Jack
    Abstract: The most common method of education remains that of the student teacher relationship in the classroom. Within this framework, although the student has the final choice on attendance, the educational institution can affect his relevant incentives. At the two extremes, full attendance can be mandatory for completion of the course, or attendance can be entirely optional. This article begins with a theoretical model showing that under the assumptions of rational individuals, no externalities, and “perfect evaluation methods”, optional attendance is optimal. The three central assumptions of the model are then relaxed to show that under certain conditions, assuming a high social value of education, institutional intervention can be justified economically. The approach is enriched with many practical examples, and the efficiency of numerous attendance rules is discussed. The article concludes with the deduction of policy recommendations for educational institutions
    Keywords: attendance laws; time allocation;educational production funtions; screening; mandatory attendance
    JEL: A20 I21 D82
    Date: 2008–06–03
  2. By: Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn; Albert Yung-Hsu Liu; Kerry L. Papps
    Abstract: Using 1995-2006 Current Population Survey and 1970-2000 Census data, we study the intergenerational transmission of fertility, human capital and work orientation of immigrants to their US-born children. We find that second-generation women's fertility and labor supply are significantly positively affected by the immigrant generation's fertility and labor supply respectively, with the effect of mother's fertility and labor supply larger than that of women from the father's source country. The second generation's education levels are also significantly positively affected by that of their parents, with a stronger effect of father's than mother's education. Second-generation women's schooling levels are negatively affected by immigrant fertility, suggesting a quality-quantity tradeoff for immigrant families. We find higher transmission rates for immigrant fertility to the second generation than we do for labor supply or education: after one generation, 40-65% of any immigrant excess fertility will remain, but only 12-18 % of any immigrant annual hours shortfall and 18-36% of any immigrant educational shortfall. These results suggest a considerable amount of assimilation across generations toward native levels of schooling and labor supply, although fertility effects show more persistence.
    JEL: J1 J16 J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2008–10
  3. By: Antti-Jussi Tahvanainen; Raine Hermans
    Abstract: ABSTRACT : This study scrutinizes the impact of value-creating practices in university-industry technology transfer that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge generated in academic research towards its successful application by companies on markets. To be more precise, the aim is to demarcate the role that US university technology transfer offices (TTOs), one of the consequential arrangements conjured into existence by the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, play in matching the substance of academic research and the need-driven demand of commercial markets. In the process, they implicitly, yet strategically, guarantee the sustainability of the flow of technologies out of the laboratories towards market application, as their actions and motives uphold and sustain the incentive structures of both of the universes, the academic and the commercial. This is accomplished by performing and specializing in the very functions that neither universe has been able or willing to perform in order to take a step closer towards each other. These contributions are often hard to capture in quantitative measures, which has led to common criticism about the effectiveness of TTOs. We propose such measures to be used with care in the comparative evaluation of TTO performance, but also point at and recognize their value as parameters that can be utilized to internally monitor the performance of each TTO individually over time as a tool of management. Some alternative, Intellectual Capital based measures are suggested.
    Keywords: university technology transfer, technology transfer office, intellectual capital, knowledge management, Bayh-Dole Act, government intervention, value adding functions, value platform
    Date: 2008–09–22
  4. By: Tindara Addabbo; Maria Laura Di Tommaso
    Abstract: This paper explores the possibilities of using structural equation modelling to measure capabilities of Italian children. In particular the paper focuses on two capabilities: “Senses, Imagination and Thought” and “Leisure and Play Activities ”. The indicators used to measure the capability of ‘Senses, imagination and thought’ for 6-13 years old children are attitude towards education, attendance to arts classes and other type of extra curriculum classes like computing and languages. The variables used as indicators of the capability of “Leisure and play activities” include how often children play in playground, various types of games, attendance to sports classes. We use both descriptive statistics, an ordered probit model, and a structural equation model in order to investigate the relation among the above mentioned indicators, the latent construct for capabilities and a set of covariates. Moreover we use a new data set in order to include family income among the covariates. The data result from the matching (through a propensity score method) of two data sets: Bank of Italy Survey on Income and Wealth for year 2000 and Istat Families, social subjects and childhood condition for year 1998.
    Keywords: Education, Capabilities, Child Well Being, Structural Equation Modelling
    JEL: I2 C1 J1
    Date: 2008–06
  5. By: Benjamin Althouse (University of Washington); Jevin West (University of Washington); Ted Bergstrom (University of California, Santa Barbara); Carl Bergstrom (University of Washington)
    Abstract: The impact factor of an academic journal for any year is the number of times the average article published in that journal in the previous two years are cited in that year. From 1994-2005, the average impact factor of journals listed by the ISI has been increasing by an average of 2.6 percent per year. This paper documents this growth and explores its causes.
    Keywords: academic journals, citations, impact factor,
    Date: 2008–04–23
  6. By: Francisco Gallego (Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.); Andrés E. Hernando.
    Abstract: This paper studies the implications of school choice in the context of the Chilean quasivoucher system. We use information of school choices of about 80,000 students that lived in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago in Chile in 2002 and the results of the discrete choice model estimated in Gallego and Hernando (2008) to perform a number of exercises aimed at quantifying what we call the “value of choice” (i.e. how much do households gain from a school choice system?) against a number of counterfactuals that restrict school choice in several dimensions (geographic choice, the existence of top ups, and the supply of voucher schools). We also (i) analyze the effects on socioeconomic segregation of students and (ii) study the potential effects of introducing a non-flat voucher that is decreasing in students’ SES. Our results suggest that overall, school choice seems to be valuable to households, but there is a lot of heterogeneity in its value. In some simulations, school choice is regressive (as when lotteries are used to allocate students to current schools; or when we consider the effects of the increase in the supply of voucher schools) and in other progressive (when students are allowed to choose outside the county in which they live). Interestingly, policies that restrict the use of top ups to the voucher do not seem to reduce segregation in a significant way. This contrasts with the introduction of a differentiated voucher, which would mostly benefit the poor and even compensate them for loses from some dimensions of school choice observed in particular groups.
    Keywords: School choice, Chile, Vouchers, Segregation, Structural estimates, Parents preferences
    JEL: I20 I21 I22 I28
    Date: 2008
  7. By: Francisco Gallego (Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.)
    Abstract: Why does schooling attainment vary widely across countries? Why are differences in schooling attainment highly persistent? I show that cross-country differences in schooling are related to political institutions, such as democracy and local democracy (political decentralization), which are affected by colonial factors. By using the number of native cultures before colonization as an instrument for political decentralization, I show that, after controlling for the causal effect of income on schooling, the degree of democratization positively affects the development of primary education, whereas political decentralization has a positive and significant impact on more advanced levels of schooling.
    Keywords: Schooling, Political Decentralization, Democracy, Institutions, Colonialism, School Decentralization.
    JEL: I2 N3 O15
    Date: 2008
  8. By: Giles, John; Park, Albert; Wang, Meiyan
    Abstract: In determining whether a country's higher education system should be expanded, it is important for policymakers first to determine the extent to which high private returns to post-secondary education are an indication of the scarcity of graduates instead of the high unobserved ability of students who choose to attend post-secondary education. To this end, the paper identifies the returns to schooling in urban China using individual-level variation in educational attainment caused by exogenous city-wide disruptions to education during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976. For city-cohorts who experienced greater disruptions, children's educational attainment became less correlated with that of their fathers and more influenced by whether their fathers held administrative positions. The analysis calculates returns to college education using data from the China Urban Labor Survey conducted in five large cities in 2001. The results are consistent with the selection of high-ability students into higher education. The analysis also demonstrates that these results are unlikely to be driven by sample selection bias associated with migration, or by alternative pathways through which the Cultural Revolution could have affected adult productivity.
    Keywords: Education For All,Tertiary Education,Secondary Education,Primary Education,Population Policies
    Date: 2008–09–01
  9. By: Sitnikov, Catalina Soriana
    Abstract: Learning and teaching have always been at the core of economic change and development. For long time there was a search for suggestions, ideas, plans and projects of how educational systems can be made more relevant to the needs of the societies they were established to serve. Implementing the Bologna principles and following the priorities of Lisbon strategy, Romanian education system and, particularly, the higher education system, reconsiders and rebuilds its vision and mission as well as its entire strategy. In this regard, the following basic elements are considered in the paper: •What is learned must be relevant to the needs of the people in economy. Educational providers need to be in touch with labour market requirements; •Effective learning must be judged on the basis of the outcomes that result, rather than on the inputs required; •Ways must be found to facilitate learning rather than to simply supply instruction; •The valueing of research and innovation within educational organizations must be increased; •Tailor made “entrepreneurial” education towards the necessities of the market, especially focused on small and medium size enterprises; •The lifelong learning –education permanence- should be continuously developed and be linked to the market requirements. The role and the main influences that higher education system will have over economic and human resources development are underlined. Also, appreciating that entrepreneurship becomes more and more one of the most important factors of development, the education and economic development are linked through the concept of “entrepreneurial university”.
    Keywords: higher education; economic development; entrepreneurial university
    JEL: I2 O15 M13
    Date: 2008–09–26
  10. By: Sarmistha Pal; Sugata Ghosh
    Abstract: In the context of strikingly low literacy rates among Indian women and low caste popultaion, the paper explores whether and how far the interests of the marginalised poor are undermined by the dominant elite consisting mainly of the landed and the capitalists. We distinguish the dominant elite from the minority elite (i.e., elected women and low caste representatives in the ruling government) and also the marginalised as measured by the state poverty rate. Results based on the Indian state-level data suggest that a higher share of land held by the top 5% of the popultaion lowers public spending on education while presence of capitalist elite, as reflected in greater degree of industrialisation enhances it, even in poor states; the landed elite thus appears to be unresponsive to the underlying poverty rate. The effect of minority representation in the government appears to have a limited impact, indicating a possibility of their non-accountability to serve their cohorts and/or a possible allinace with the dominant elite.
    Date: 2008–07
  11. By: Kucel, Aleksander (Pompeu Fabra University, Department of Political and Social Sciences, Barcelona, Spain); Byrne, Delma (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI))
    Keywords: over-education, networks, job search
    JEL: I21 J21 J24
    Date: 2008–09
  12. By: yamamura, eiji
    Abstract: This paper explores, using Japanese panel data for the years 1988-2002, how externalities from congestion and human capital influence deaths caused by chronic illnesses. Major findings through fixed effects 2SLS estimation were as follows: (1) the number of deaths were smaller in more densely-populated areas, and this tendency was more distinct for males; (2) higher human capital correlated with a decreased number of deaths, with the effect being greater in females than in males. These findings suggest that human capital and positive externalities stemming from congestion make a contribution to improving lifestyle, which is affected differently by socio-economic circumstance in males and females.
    Keywords: population density; education; chronic illness
    JEL: R58 I19
    Date: 2008–09–29
  13. By: Bruno S. Frey; Katja Rost
    Abstract: Publication and citation rankings have become major indicators of the scientific worth of universities and countries, and determine to a large extent the career of individual scholars. We argue that such rankings do not effectively measure research quality, which should be the essence of evaluation. For that reason, an alternative ranking is developed as a quality indicator, based on membership on academic editorial boards of professional journals. It turns out that especially the ranking of individual scholars is far from objective. The results differ markedly, depending on whether research quantity or research quality is considered. Even quantity rankings are not objective; two citation rankings, based on different samples, produce entirely different results. It follows that any career decisions based on rankings are dominated by chance and do not reflect research quality. Instead of propagating a ranking based on board membership as the gold standard, we suggest that committees make use of this quality indicator to find members who, in turn, evaluate the research quality of individual scholars.
    Keywords: Rankings; Universities; Scholars; Publications; Citations
    JEL: H43 L15 O38
    Date: 2008–09
  14. By: Maria Knoth Humlum (School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus, Denmark)
    Abstract: In this paper, I investigate the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement production. Detailed administrative data augmented with PISA test scores at age 15 are used to analyze the effects of the timing of family income on child achievement. Contrary to many earlier studies, tests for early borrowing constraints suggest that parents are not constrained in early investments in their children's achievement, and thus that the timing of income does not matter for long-term child outcomes. This is a reasonable result given the setting in a Scandinavian welfare state with generous child and education subsidies. Actually, later family income (age 12-15) is a more important determinant of child achievement than earlier income.
    Keywords: child human capital, timing of family income
    JEL: I2 J24
    Date: 2008–10–01
  15. By: [Vymetal], [Dominik]
    Abstract: Four years of EU membership has brought new opportunities and challenges for local companies and public administration in member countries. New small and medium companies (SMB) emerged in the neighboring regions cross over the former frontiers, there are new clusters using inter-regional cooperation. Based on the extensive cooperation with “old” EU countries new best business practices are being introduced in the existing processes. The public administration has to follow not only the new legislation but also the new business needs. All mentioned changes create new impulses for Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Basic statistic data presented in this paper imply considerable reserves in document workflows on municipal administration level. SMB companies lag behind the EU average in electronic business level. One of the reasons could be relatively low support of Content Management Systems and logistic chains (SCM) by existing ICT. In order to meet the demands described some changes and tuning in the infrastructure, security and standardization is necessary. Necessary changes are regularly put into operation what leads to new opportunities for ICT students leaving the universities. The ratios of ICT students and graduates compared with the total numbers stagnated in the last years. Hence, changes in the ICT education and its permanent actualization are needed in all branches of ICT.
    Keywords: information technology; content management; public administration; small and medium sized companies; electronic commerce; e-Government; document management; ICT education
    JEL: D23 C88 H83 A29
    Date: 2008–05–14
  16. By: Massón-Guerra, José Luis
    Abstract: One of the structural problems in Latin-American has been the lower innovative capacity and lower generation of economically exploitable knowledge. This phenomenon has been produced by the absence of government’s incentives and strategies in order to be competitive inside the Knowledge Based Economy. More concretely, political, institutional and social factors have contributed negatively within this reality. As a consequence, the knowledge generation in this region is insufficient not only to satisfy its necessities but also to be competitive in the global context. At difference, the developing regions have recognized the significance impact of R&D investment and Education in their sustainable growth.This report uses the methodology proposed by the European Commission in the study about the “European Innovation Scoreboard 2007”. Specifically, this methodology is adapted at the Latin-American reality. In summary, the results will provide the current picture of the innovation and entrepreneurship in Latin-American Countries.
    Keywords: Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Economic Growth
    JEL: L26 O3 O4
    Date: 2008–07–07
  17. By: Bruce Sacerdote
    Abstract: I examine academic performance and college going for public school students affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Students who are forced to switch schools due to the hurricanes experience sharp declines in test scores in the first year following the hurricane. However, by the second and third years after the disaster, Katrina evacuees displaced from Orleans Parish appear to benefit from the displacement, experiencing a .15 standard deviation improvement in scores. The test score gains are concentrated among students whose initial schools were in the lowest quintile of the test score distribution and among students who leave the New Orleans MSA. Katrina evacuees from suburban areas and Rita evacuees (from the Lake Charles area) eventually recover most of the ground lost during 05-06 but do not experience long term gains relative to their pre-Katrina test scores. High school age Orleans evacuees have higher college enrollment rates than their predecessors from the same high schools. Meanwhile, Katrina evacuees from the suburbs experience a 3.5 percentage point drop in their rate of enrollment in four year colleges. Those evacuees do not to make up for the decline in the subsequent two years. Later cohorts of suburban New Orleans evacuees are unaffected. The results suggest that for students in the lowest performing schools, the long term gains to achievement from switching schools can more than offset even substantial costs of disruption.
    JEL: I2 J01 J24
    Date: 2008–10

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