nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2008‒07‒05
fourteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Child Work and Other Determinants of School Attendance and School Attainment in Bangladesh By Khanam, Rasheda; Ross, Russell
  2. A Flexible School for Early Childhood Education in Italy By Giorgio Ponti
  3. Teacher Quality, Teacher Licensure Tests, and Student Achievement By Richard Buddin; Gena Zamarro
  4. Primary School Architecture in Portugal: A Case Study By José M. R. Freire da Silva
  5. Prioritizing Educational Investments in Children in the Developing World By David K. Evans; Arkadipta Ghosh
  6. Sustainable Education Campus in Spain: Nature and Architecture for Training By Pablo Campos Calvo-Sotelo
  7. Special Primary School Complex in the United Kingdom: Booker Park By Mark Robinson
  8. Bottlenecks in the decentralisation of education funding in Poland By Herbst, Mikolaj
  9. Biological versus Foster Children Education: the Old-Age Support Motive as a Catch-up Determinant? Some Evidence from Indonesia By Karine Marazyan
  10. Attracting and Retaining Teachers in High-Need Schools: Do Financial Incentives Make Financial Sense? By Jennifer Imazeki
  11. Direct and indirect effects in a logit model By Maarten L. Buis
  12. Main features of the labour policy in Portugal By António Brandão Moniz; Tobias Woll
  13. Benchmarking the Lisbon Strategy By Demosthenes Ioannou; Marien Ferdinandusse; Marco Lo Duca; Wouter Coussens

  1. By: Khanam, Rasheda; Ross, Russell
    Abstract: The paper examines the linkages between child work and both school attendance and school attainment of children aged 5–17 years using data from a survey based in rural Bangladesh. This paper first looks at school attendance as an indicator of a child’s time input in schooling; then it measures the “schooling-for-age” as a learning achievement or schooling outcome. The results from the logistic regressions show that school attendance and grade attainment are lower for children who are working. The gender-disaggregated estimates show that probability of grade attainment is lower for girls than that of boys. Household permanent income, parental education and supply side correlates of schooling (presence of a primary (grade 1-6) school and secondary (grade 6-10) school in the village) are appeared to be significant determinants of schooling in rural Bangladesh. The results of this study further show that the effect of household permanent income, parental education and presence of secondary school is higher for grade attainment than school attendance.
    Keywords: Schooling; Child Labour; Logit; Bangladesh
    JEL: J13 I21 C25 O12
    Date: 2005–03
  2. By: Giorgio Ponti
    Abstract: The design of this flexible school for early childhood education in Milan, Italy, takes into account children’s development and the different ways they experience space according to their age. The facilities will include not only a nursery school and kindergarten, but also a drop-in day-care centre, a play centre and outdoor areas to develop the senses.
    Keywords: Italy, flexibility, learning environment, educational buildings, early childhood education, educational architecture
    Date: 2008–06
  3. By: Richard Buddin; Gena Zamarro
    Abstract: Teacher quality is a key element of student academic success, but little is known about how specific teacher characteristics influence classroom outcomes. This research examines whether teacher licensure test scores and other teacher attributes affect elementary student achievement. The results are based on longitudinal student-level data from Los Angeles. California requires three types of teacher licensure tests as part of the teacher certification process; a general knowledge test, a subject area test (single subject for secondary teachers and multiple subject for elementary teachers), and a reading pedagogy test for elementary school teachers. The student achievement analysis is based on a value-added approach that adjusts for both student and teacher fixed effects. The results show large differences in teacher quality across the school district, but measured teacher characteristics explain little of the difference. Teacher licensure test scores are unrelated to teacher success in the classroom. Similarly, student achievement is unaffected by whether classroom teachers have advanced degrees. Teacher experience is positively related with student achievement, but the linkage is weak and largely reflects poor outcomes for teachers during their first year or two in the classroom.
    Keywords: teacher quality, teacher licensure, student achievement, two-level fixed effects, education production function
    JEL: J44 J45 H0 H75 I21
    Date: 2008–05
  4. By: José M. R. Freire da Silva
    Abstract: Describing primary schools in a small city in Portugal is an opportunity for an overall look at the evolution of schools in general as special public buildings. A look at four of the six primary schools in the city of Caldas da Rainha shows how these public buildings have evolved, what they represent to the community, and how their architecture has corresponded to changing concepts in education and demands for flexibility over the years.
    Keywords: Portugal, school building design, learning environment, educational buildings, school infrastructure, primary school
    Date: 2008–06
  5. By: David K. Evans; Arkadipta Ghosh
    Abstract: The authors bring together 40 randomized and non-randomized evaluations of education programs to compare cost-effectiveness, seeking to facilitate prioritization of different candidate interventions by policymakers. They examine cost-effectiveness across three outcomes (enrollment, attendance, and test scores) and find distinct Òbest interventionsÓ for each outcome. For increasing enrollment, urban fellowships, school consolidation, and extra teachers have proven most cost effective. For school attendance, school-based deworming stands out as most cost effective. And for improving test scores, several interventions seem similarly cost effective, including providing blackboards, workbooks, training teachers, and others. They discuss some of the challenges inherent to comparing interventions.
    Keywords: education, cost-effectiveness
    JEL: O12 O15 I20
    Date: 2008–06
  6. By: Pablo Campos Calvo-Sotelo
    Abstract: The sustainable education campus project for San Agustín de Guadalix is based on an innovative concept of urbanism and architecture. The campus design and landscape aim to support training and exemplify sustainability.
    Keywords: sustainable development, Spain, technology and innovation, learning environment, university architecture, campus design, adult education
    Date: 2008–06
  7. By: Mark Robinson
    Abstract: Booker Park School is a new complex for pre-primary children and primary pupils with a range of behavioural and learning difficulties. To respond to the pupils’ varied needs, the school facilities offer a high degree of flexibility and a quality environment for learning.
    Keywords: United Kingdom, flexibility, school building design, educational buildings, special needs, primary school
    Date: 2008–06
  8. By: Herbst, Mikolaj
    Abstract: Ten years after delegating the responsibility for school management and operation maintenance to local governments, the education funding system in Poland still faces open challenges of fundamental importance. Although the decentralisation of education is commonly considered a success, the particular mechanisms of funding and legal solutions are hotly debated and certainly far from perfect. The financial responsibilities of the central government and the local authorities are imprecisely defined, which provokes conflicts and tensions between the main stakeholders. Moreover, the Polish education system lacks even the basic standards describing an efficient way of service provision. The formula used to allocate the so-called education subvention to individual local governments is subject to endless political bargains and trades and hardly reflects any reasonable policy. Recently, several ideas have been raised in the public debate in Poland on how to reform the funding of education. However, it seems that these heavily ideologised projects go far beyond the necessary changes and do not take into account either the complex context of decentralised education system or the experiences of other countries.
    Keywords: edcation finance; decentralisation; Poland
    JEL: H40 H52 I22
    Date: 2008–06
  9. By: Karine Marazyan (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I)
    Abstract: This paper aims at explaining differences in education among foster-children and between foster and biological children in developing countries. Foster-children whose biological parents are alive may provide old-age support for both their host and biological parents. Therefore foster-children have lower returns to education than biological children and should receive less human capital investment in household where both types of children live together. However, in households where foster-children are alone, host parents will over-invest in their education to ensure that the expected old-age support will equal a minimum amount to survive. Using data from Indonesia, we provide some evidence supporting our hypothesis.
    Keywords: Household Structure, Child Fostering, Sibling Rivalry
    Date: 2008–06–25
  10. By: Jennifer Imazeki (Department of Economics, San Diego State University)
    Abstract: This study synthesizes what we know and do not know about policies to attract and retain teachers in high-need schools and assesses the relative cost-effectiveness of two types of policies. Research consistently shows that teacher quality is likely to be lower in schools with higher proportions of students from disadvantaged backgrounds. This pattern is likely a result of several factors but the most well-documented is teachers’ mobility choices within and across districts. Although there are numerous programs across the country intended to attract and retain highly-skilled teachers in high-need schools, there is very little assessment of their effectiveness. Given the lack of evidence on specific interventions, I use the results from existing studies of teacher mobility and attrition to compare the effect of salary incentives and induction or mentoring programs. Although financial incentives are arguably the most straightforward policies for states and districts to adopt, high-need schools may be better served if policymakers and researchers devoted more attention to more cost-effective alternatives.
    Date: 2008–01
  11. By: Maarten L. Buis (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: In this presentation, I discuss a method by Erikson et al. (2005) for decomposing a total effect in a logit model into direct and indirect effects, and I propose a generalization of this method. Consider an example where social class has an indirect effect on attending college through academic performance in high school. The indirect effect is obtained by comparing the proportion of lower-class students that attend college with the counterfactual proportion of lower-class students if they had the distribution of performance of the higher-class students. This captures the association between class and attending college because of differences in performance, i.e., the indirect effect. The direct effect of class is obtained by comparing the proportion of higher-class students with the counterfactual proportion of lower-class students if they had the same distribution of performance as the higher-class students. This way, the variable performance is kept constant, and this results in the direct effect. If these comparisons are carried out in the form of log odds ratios, then the total effect will equal the sum of the direct and indirect effects. In its original form, this method assumes that the variable through which the indirect effect occurs is normally distributed. In this article, the method is generalized by allowing this variable to have any distribution, which has the added advantage of simplifying the method.
    Date: 2008–07–03
  12. By: António Brandão Moniz (IET - Research Centre on Enterprise and Work Innovation - WORKS project); Tobias Woll (IET - Research Centre on Enterprise and Work Innovation - WORKS project)
    Abstract: In this working paper is presented information on the Portuguese labour market developed with the support of the European project WORKS-“Work organisation and restructuring in the knowledge society”. Is still a on the process article and thus commentaries are welcome. The structure is based on the following topics: a) The employment policy (Time regimes - time use, flexibility, part-time work, work-life balance -, and the work contracts regimes – wages, contract types, diversity); b) Education and training (skilling outcomes, rules on retraining and further training, employability schemes, transferability of skills); c) Equal opportunities (relevance of equal opportunity regulation for restructuring outcomes, the role of gender and age regulation); d) Restructuring effects (policy on transfer of personnel, policy on redundancies, and participation or voice in restructuring).
    Keywords: labour market; work organisation; knowledge society; employment policy; Education; gender
    Date: 2007–12–13
  13. By: Demosthenes Ioannou (European Central Bank, Kaiserstrasse 29, 60311 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.); Marien Ferdinandusse (European Central Bank, Kaiserstrasse 29, 60311 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.); Marco Lo Duca (European Central Bank, Kaiserstrasse 29, 60311 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.); Wouter Coussens (European Central Bank, Kaiserstrasse 29, 60311 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the governance framework of the Lisbon Strategy and discusses the specific option of increasing the role of benchmarking as a means of improving the implementation record of structural reforms in the European Union. Against this background, the paper puts forward a possible avenue for developing a strong form of quantitative benchmarking, namely ranking. The ranking methodology relies on the construction of a synthetic indicator using the “benefit of the doubt” approach, which acknowledges differences in emphasis among Member States with regard to structural reform priorities. The methodology is applied by using the structural indicators that have been commonly agreed by the governments of the Member States, but could also be used for ranking exercises on the basis of other indicators. JEL Classification: E5, J1, J2, J6.
    Keywords: Labour supply, employment, participation, hours worked, immigration, skill and education, structural policies, labour demand, unemployment, euro area countries, labour markets, taxes and benefi ts, childcare, pensions, training, human capital, labour quality, working time and contracts, discrimination, mismatch, returns to education.
    Date: 2008–06
  14. By: Steven F. Koch (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria); S. Ssekabira Ntege (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)
    Abstract: This paper explores the degree to which imperfect information in the labour market regarding worker quality is likely to impact employment opportunities, as well as the wages associated with those opportunities. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide preliminary empirical evidence that market imperfections exist in South Africa's labour market, that those imperfections could be based on asymmetric private information, and that market participants pursue information gathering and revelation strategies to help mitigate the negative effects of the information asymmetries.
    JEL: D81 D82 I21 J23 J24 J31
    Date: 2008–06

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