nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2008‒04‒15
eleven papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of the Beira Interior

  1. The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship competencies and intentions: An evaluation of the Junior Achievement Student Mini-Company Program By Hessel Oosterbeek; Mirjam van Praag; Auke IJsselstein
  2. Quality and TQM at Higher Education Institutions in the UK: Lessons from the University of East London and the Aston University By Jashim Uddin Ahmed
  3. Private Returns to Education in Ghana: Implications for Investments in Schooling and Migration By Sackey
  4. The coordination between education and employment policies By Alka obadić; Sanja Porić
  5. The Nature of Credit Constraints and Human Capital By Lance J. Lochner; Alexander Monge-Naranjo
  6. Educational Attainment, Growth and Poverty Reduction within the MDG Framework: Simulations and Costing for the Peruvian Case By Gustavo Yamada; Juan F. Castro; Arlette Beltran; Maria A. Cardenas
  7. The Determinants of University Participation in Canada (1977-2003) By Louis N. Christofides; Michael Hoy; Ling Yang
  8. The Gender Imbalance in Participation in Canadian Universities (1977-2005) By Louis N. Christofides; Michael Hoy; Ling Yang
  9. Affirmative Action in Education: Evidence From Engineering College Admissions in India By Marianne Bertrand; Rema Hanna; Sendhil Mullainathan
  10. Intertemporal Substitution in Maternal Labor Supply: Evidence using State School Entrance Age Laws By barua, rashmi
  11. Collaborative Research in India: Academic Institution v/s Industry By Neeraj Parnami, Neeraj Parnami; Bandyopadhyay, T.K.

  1. By: Hessel Oosterbeek; Mirjam van Praag (Max Planck Institute for Economics, Jena); Auke IJsselstein
    Abstract: Both the European Community, its member countries and the United States have stimulated schools to implement entrepreneurship programs into schooling curricula on a large scale, based on the idea that entrepreneurial competencies and mindsets must be developed at school. The leading and acclaimed worldwide program is the Junior Achievement Student Mini-Company Program. Nevertheless, so far, its effects on students? entrepreneurship competencies and attitudes have not been evaluated. This paper analyzes the impact of the program in a Dutch college using an instrumental variables approach in a difference-in-differences framework. The results show that the program does not have the intended effects: students? self-assessed entrepreneurial skills remain unaffected and students? intentions to become an entrepreneur even decrease significantly.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, program evaluation, entrepreneur competencies, entrepreneur intentions
    JEL: A20 C31 H43 H75 I20 J24 L26
    Date: 2008–03–26
  2. By: Jashim Uddin Ahmed (North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh)
    Abstract: The objective of this article is to investigate the level of implication of Quality in the University of East London and TQM in the Aston University. The elements of Quality and Accountability are the major driving forces in academic institutions in the UK, and in this respect, the total quality management (TQM) movement has exploded, capturing the attention of educators at all levels. Certainly, higher education embraces the concept of TQM as a set of tools for planning continuous improvement. In wider context, TQM have all sought to achieve fundamental change in organizations. The focuses of these two cases are implication of Quality and TQM programme in the University of East London and Aston University respectively.
    Date: 2008–04
  3. By: Sackey
    Abstract: This study examines the determinants of school attendance and attainment in Ghana with a view to deriving implications for policy direction. Using micro-level data from the Ghana living standards surveys, our gender disaggregated probit models on current schoolattendance and attainment show that parental education and household resources are significant determinants of schooling. The effect of household resources on current schoolattendance is higher for daughters than it is for sons. It appears that for male and female children the impact of household resources on school attendance has reduced, statistically speaking. Father’s schooling effects on the education of female children decreased between 1992 and 1999. Mother’s schooling effects on school attendance of daughtersin 1992 were not significantly different from those realized in 1999. However, the effects of mother’s schooling levels on school attendance of male children appear to have reduced. Other significant determinants of children’s schooling are the age of children, school infrastructure, religion and urban residency. The paper concludes that education matters and has an intergenerational impact. Arguably, sustainable poverty reduction approaches cannot ignore the role of education and implications for employment, earnings and social development. Hence, gender sensitive policies to ensure educational equity are vital.
    Date: 2008–01
  4. By: Alka obadić (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb); Sanja Porić
    Abstract: At the end of the 20th century, knowledge production has been radically transformed. As knew knowledge economies and US were becoming an increasing threat for EU, the Lisbon Strategy was set to treat the economic problems that EU is facing. This article discusses and evaluates the potential of the Lisbon Agenda and presents the ways how growth in GDP per capita and employability could be increased by synchronized education and employment policies. It is widely believed that jobs are becoming more and more demanding of skills and as a result workers need to upgrade their skills or risk loosing out in the competition for jobs in the new economy. The research confirms that the reason why many of these unemployed workers might be considered "unemployable in a modern economy" is their comparatively low level of education. Employment rates rise with educational attainment and higher educated individuals also face a more stable labour market than lower educated individuals. The research concludes that in situation of stable higher unemployment rates and higher demand for specific labour skills it is obvious that the coordination between employment and education policies is needed. To ensure employability, policies for promoting education and lifelong learning have to be adjusted to changes in the economy and society.
    Keywords: Lisbon Agenda, employment policy, education policy, lifelong learning, EU
    JEL: I2 J21 J64
    Date: 2008–03–31
  5. By: Lance J. Lochner; Alexander Monge-Naranjo
    Abstract: This paper studies the nature and impact of credit constraints in the market for human capital. We derive endogenous constraints from the design of government student loan programs and from the limited repayment incentives in private lending markets. These constraints imply cross-sectional patterns for schooling, ability, and family income that are consistent with U.S. data. This contrasts with the standard exogenous constraint model, which predicts a counterfactual negative ability -- schooling relationship for low-income youth. We show that the rising empirical importance of familial wealth and income in determining college attendance (Belley and Lochner 2007) is consistent with increasingly binding credit constraints in the face of rising tuition costs and returns to schooling. Our framework also explains the recent increase in private credit for college as a market response to the rising returns to school.
    JEL: H81 I22 I28
    Date: 2008–04
  6. By: Gustavo Yamada; Juan F. Castro; Arlette Beltran; Maria A. Cardenas
    Abstract: We propose a model that accounts for the potential feedback between schooling performance, human capital accumulation and long run GDP growth, and links these results with poverty incidence. Our simulation exercise takes into account targets for education indicators and GDP growth itself (as arguments in our planner's loss function) and provides two conclusions: (i) with additional funds which amount to 1 percent of GDP each year, public intervention could, by year 2015, add an extra 0.89 and 1.80 percentage points in terms of long-run GDP growth and permanent reduction in poverty incidence, respectively; and (ii) in order to engineer an intervention in the educational sector so as to transfer households the necessary assets to attain a larger income generation potential in the long run, we need to extend the original set of MDG indicators to account for access to higher educational levels besides primary education.
    Keywords: Millennium development goals, education, human capital, GDP growth, poverty, Peru
    JEL: O41 I32 C25 C41 C61
    Date: 2008
  7. By: Louis N. Christofides; Michael Hoy; Ling Yang
    Abstract: The decision to attend university is influenced by the balance of the expected returns and costs of attending university, by liquidity constraints and capital market imperfections that may modify these calculations and, hence, by the family income of prospective students. Family circumstances also play a role. We examine the secular increase in the propensity of children from Canadian families, evident in annual surveys spanning two and a half decades, to attend university. We quantify the importance of these factors taking account of the greater propensity by young women than men to attend university and controlling for secular trends in socioeconomic norms that impinge on these decisions.
    Keywords: University participation, families, Canada
    Date: 2008–04
  8. By: Louis N. Christofides; Michael Hoy; Ling Yang
    Abstract: More females than males have been attending Canadian universities over the past decade and this gender imbalance in university participation has been increasing. We use the Linear Probability and Logit models to investigate the determinants of attending university and explore the reasons for the increasing gender imbalance. We find that, in gender-specific equations, the values of the coefficients attached to variables and the values of the variables themselves are both important in explaining the rising level of the university participation rate for women and men. The important variables include a time trend to capture the evolving societal norms, the dynamic influence of parental education, the earnings premium for a university degree, tuition fees and real income. The increasing gap between the female and male participation rates (15 percentage points by 2005) can be accounted for equally by differences in the coefficients in female and male participation equations and the widening gap in the university premium for women and men.
    Keywords: University participation, individuals, gender, Canada
    Date: 2008–04
  9. By: Marianne Bertrand; Rema Hanna; Sendhil Mullainathan
    Abstract: Many countries mandate affirmative action in university admissions for traditionally disadvantaged groups. Little is known about either the efficacy or costs of these programs. This paper examines affirmative action in engineering colleges in India for "lower-caste" groups. We find that it successfully targets the financially disadvantaged: the marginal upper-caste applicant comes from a more advantaged background than the marginal lower-caste applicant who displaces him. Despite much lower entrance exam scores, the marginal lower-caste entrant does benefit: we find a strong, positive economic return to admission. These findings contradict common arguments against affirmative action: that it is only relevant for richer lower-caste members, or that those who are admitted are too unprepared to benefit from the education. However, these benefits come at a cost. Our point estimates suggest that the marginal upper-caste entrant enjoys nearly twice the earnings level gain as the marginal lower-caste entrant. This finding illustrates the program's redistributive nature: it benefits the poor, but costs resources in absolute terms. One reason for this lower level gain is that a smaller fraction of lower-caste admits end up employed in engineering or advanced technical jobs. Finally, we find no evidence that the marginal upper-caste applicant who is rejected due to the policy ends up with more negative attitudes towards lower castes or towards affirmative action programs. On the other hand, there is some weak evidence that the marginal lower-caste admits become stronger supporters of affirmative action programs.
    JEL: I21 I38 J7
    Date: 2008–04
  10. By: barua, rashmi
    Abstract: In this paper, I propose a new framework to study the intertemporal labor supply hypothesis. I use an exogenous source of variation in maternal net earning opportunities, generated through school entrance age of children, to study intertemporal labor supply behavior. Employing data from the 1980 US Census and the NLSY, I estimate the effect of a one year delay in school attendance on long run maternal labor supply. To deal with the endogeneity of school attendance age, I exploit the variation in child month of birth and state kindergarten entrance age laws. IV estimates imply that having a 5 year old enrolled in school increases labor supply measures for married women, with no younger children, by between 7 to 34 percent. In contrast to the results for married mothers, I do not find any statistically significant effect on labor market outcomes for single mothers or mothers of 5 year olds with additional younger children. Further, using a sample of 7 to 10 year olds from the NLSY, I investigate persistence in employment outcomes for a married mother whose child delayed school entry. The estimates suggest that delayed school enrollment has long run implications for maternal labor supply. Results point towards significant intertemporal substitution in labor supply. Rough calculations yield an uncompensated wage elasticity of 0.76 and an intertemporal elasticity of substitution equal to 1.1.
    Keywords: Maternal labor supply; Kindergarten entry age; intertemporal substitution
    JEL: I20 J22 J20
    Date: 2008–05–12
  11. By: Neeraj Parnami, Neeraj Parnami; Bandyopadhyay, T.K.
    Abstract: The term ‘collaboration’ is used to depict the all forms of agreement between academic institutions, corporate, universities, and any combination of such two or more parties who share the commitment to reach a common goal by using their resources available. Collaboration in Research and development (R&D) sector has been broadly used phenomenon for many years in India. In the collaborative research, the significant factors like time & cost being reduced to large extent because of sharing of the resources by the parties. Collaborative research contributes to the technological and economical development of the country. Collaboration avoids duplication in research. But there are lots of questions, may be arising in your mind like: what is actual meaning of collaborative research? Why do industries collaborate with the academic institutions? What goes on in the collaborative research? What are the effects of collaborative research? Which type of policy do they have? and simultaneously there are lots of issues - involved in collaborative research like intellectual property rights, technology licensing, confidential agreement etc. how can all these issues be resolved before or during collaboration, so that a healthy relationship may be established for the future benefits of all the parties involved? The purpose of writing this paper is to shed the light on the solutions available of all these questions and the issues arise between the parties involved in the collaborative research program.
    Keywords: Collaborative research; Intellectual property; Academic institution; Issues; University; Licensing; Industry; Driving force.
    JEL: A12 D89 I28 K11 A11
    Date: 2008–02–10

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