nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2008‒03‒08
seven papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of the Beira Interior

  1. How to interpret the growing phenomenon of private tutoring : human capital deepening, inequality increasing, or waste of resources ? By Rogers, F. Halsey; Dang, Hai-Anh
  2. The Effect of Education on In-prison Conflict:Evidence from Argentina By Edgar Villa; María Laura Alzúa; Catherine Rodríguez
  3. Does parental employment affect children's educational attainment? By Hörisch, Hannah
  4. The emergence and growth of US-style business education in Mexico (1955-2005) By Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo
  5. Changing Returns to Education During a Boom? The Case of Ireland By Seamus McGuinness; Frances McGinnity; Philip J. O'Connell
  7. Diversity of human capital attributes and diversity of remunerating systems By Fatima Suleman; Jean-Jacques Paul

  1. By: Rogers, F. Halsey; Dang, Hai-Anh
    Abstract: Private tutoring is now a major component of the education sector in many developing countries, yet education policy too seldom acknowledges and makes use of it. Various criticisms have been raised against private tutoring, most notably that it exacerbates social inequalities and may even fail to improve student outcomes. This paper surveys the literature for evidence on private tutoring-the extent of the tutoring phenomenon, the factors that explain its growth, and its cost-effectiveness in improving student academic performance. It also presents a framework for assessing the efficiency and equity effects of tutoring. It concludes that tutoring can raise the effectiveness of the education system under certain reasonable assumptions, even taking into account equity concerns, and it offers guidance for attacking corruption and other problems that diminish the contributions of the tutoring sector.
    Keywords: Teaching and Learning,Tertiary Education,Education For All,Primary Education,
    Date: 2008–02–01
  2. By: Edgar Villa; María Laura Alzúa; Catherine Rodríguez
    Abstract: Using census data for Argentine prisons for the period 2002-2005, this paper presents evidence of the positive e¤ect that prisoner education programs (pri- mary and some part of secondary schooling) have on in prison conflictivity measured as sanctions or violent behavior of the prisoner. In order to over- come the problems of endogeneity that education decisions generate we use an instrumental variables approach. Our results show a decrease in partici- pation in violent conflicts and bad behavior which can be partially attributed to education.
    Date: 2008–01–31
  3. By: Hörisch, Hannah
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are aged 0-3. We use data from the German Socioeconomic Panel. Overall, we find little support that parental employment affects children's educational attainment. We can rule out that having a mother who works one hour more per week lowers the probability of high secondary track attendance by more than 0.1%.
    Keywords: sibling differences; educational attainment; child care
    JEL: C20 I21 J13
    Date: 2008–02–26
  4. By: Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo
    Abstract: Structured Abstract Purpose - This article contributes to efforts documenting the incursion of Anglo-American capitalism into Latin America by looking at the emergence and development of graduate and postgraduate business education in Mexico. Design/methodology/approach - Archival research (including current writings) combines with unstructured interviews and a database of teaching case studies. The database considers teaching case studies looking at multinational companies working in Mexico and cases focusing on Mexican companies. Findings – The emergence of graduate degrees in management during the 1950s and 1960s mirrors a move to a more hierarchical structure of family businesses. The emergence of postgraduate business education in the 1960s reflects the existence of a large group of salaried managers. Between 1948 and 1997, teaching case studies overwhelmingly sought to help US managers doing business in Mexico. Since then a significantly greater number of Mexican business experiences have been documented, suggesting a greater effort to link indigenous businesses with trends in global companies. Originality/value – Contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between multinationals, indigenous businesses and management education in emerging markets. Paper type - Empirical.
    Keywords: master’s in management; case method; business schools; family businesses; multinationals; Mexico; USA.
    JEL: A23 F23 N36
    Date: 2008–02
  5. By: Seamus McGuinness (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)); Frances McGinnity (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)); Philip J. O'Connell (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI))
    Abstract: Ireland’s “Celtic Tiger” years saw GDP per capita rise from 60% of the EU average to 120% of the average over the course of the 1990s, with a growth in employment of about 40% over the period 1994-2001. What were the consequences of the boom for returns to education and wage inequality? This paper uses data from the Living in Ireland Survey for 1994, 1997 and 2001 to examine wage inequality, the returns to education and the relative demand for labour for men and women. Theories of skilled-biased technical change suggest that the rapid period of economic growth experienced in Ireland will have been accompanied by a rise in the relative demand for skilled labour that will, in turn, have led to rising wage inequality. However, this is not the case for this period. We find fairly stable returns to education and falling wage inequality for men throughout the period, partly explained by a rapid growth in demand for unskilled labour, which helped maintain low-skilled wages. For women we find some fall in the wage premium to a university degree and falling wage inequality in the period 1997-2001. We argue that for women, low-skilled wages were kept up by the introduction of the minimum wage in 2000, and high skilled wages fell due to a rapid rise in the supply of highly qualified women. The Irish example shows that skill-biased technical change theory needs to take account of both the specific changes in the nature of labour demand and the nature and extent of concomitant changes in labour supply.
    Date: 2008–02
  6. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Dept. of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics); Waldenström, Daniel (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: Billions of euros are allocated every year to university research. Increased specialisation and international integration of research and researchers has sharply raised the need for comparisons of performance across fields, institutions and individual researchers. However, there is still no consensus regarding how such rankings should be conducted and what output measures are appropriate to use. We rank all full professors in a particular discipline, economics, in one European nation using seven established, and some of them commonly used, measures of research performance. Our examination shows both that the rank order can vary greatly across measures, and that depending on the measure used the distribution of total research out-put is valued very differently. The renowned KMS measure in economics stands out among the measures analysed here. It exhibits the weakest correlation with the others used in our study. We conclude by giving advice to funding councils and others assessing research quality on how to think about the use of both quantitative and qualitative measures of performance.
    Keywords: Impact of research; Ranking; Research productivity; Bibliometrics; Impact Factor
    JEL: A11 A14 B41
    Date: 2008–03–04
  7. By: Fatima Suleman (DINAMIA - Centro de Estudos sobre a Mudança Socioeconómica - Université de Lisbonne); Jean-Jacques Paul (IREDU - Institut de recherche sur l'éducation : Sociologie et Economie de l'Education - CNRS : UMR5225 - Université de Bourgogne)
    Abstract: This paper aims at comparing the respective impact of the traditional Human Capital Variables (HCV) and of competences explicitly assessed on employees’ remuneration. The data are derived from an original survey conducted in five large banking companies in Portugal. Six hundred clerks were interviewed regarding their individual characteristics (age, gender, education, experience in the labour market, experience in the company). Their respective supervisors were asked to assess their competences using a list of thirty skills. Complementary models are used in this research, relating to earnings and the distribution of profit shares to employees. Analyses take the specific structure of the multilevel data into account. These different dimensions show that traditional human capital variables are important determinants for earnings, whereas competences explain the profit shares distributed to employees.
    Keywords: Earnings ; Human capital ; Competences ; Profit sharing ; Banking sector ; Portugal
    Date: 2008–03

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