nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2007‒11‒10
28 papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of the Beira Interior

  1. "For One More Year with You": Changes in Compulsory Schooling, Education and the Distribution of Wages in Europe By Giorgio Brunello; Margherita Fort; Guglielmo Weber
  2. Africa’s Education Enigma? The Nigerian Story By Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere
  3. The Benefits and Costs of Alternative Strategies to Improve Educational Outcomes By Orazem, Peter; Glewwe, Paul; Patrinos, Harry
  4. Do College-Bound High School Students Need an Extra Year? Evidence from Ontario’s ‘Double Cohort’ By Louis-Philippe Morin
  5. Determinants of Secondary School Choice in the Czech Republic By Lenka Drnakova
  6. Vouchers, public school response, and the role of incentives: evidence from Florida By Rajashri Chakrabarti
  7. Gender and ethnic interactions among teachers and students – evidence from Sweden By Lindahl, Erica
  8. Comparing teachers’ assessments and national test results – evidence from Sweden By Lindahl, Erica
  10. Higher Education Reform and the Renewed Lisbon Strategy: Role of Member States and the European Commission By Frederick van der Ploeg; Reinhilde Veugelers
  11. Multilevel modeling of complex survey data By Sophia Rabe-Hesketh
  12. School Tracking Across the Baltic Sea By Ariga, Kenn; Brunello, Giorgio; Iwahashi, Roki; Rocco, Lorenzo
  13. The Pill and the College Attainment of American Women and Men By Heinrich Hock
  14. Educational Mismatches, Wages and Economic Growth: A Causal Analysis for the French Case since 1980 By Jean-Pascal Guironnet; Magali Jaoul-Grammare
  15. Return Migration, Investment in Children, and Intergenerational Mobility: Comparing Sons of Foreign and Native Born Fathers By Christian Dustmann
  16. Catching-up and Falling-behind in Economic Development: A Human Capital Approach By Jinyoung Kim
  17. Human capital externalities and adult mortality in the U.S. By Christopher H. Wheeler
  18. Are female leaders good for education? : Evidence from India By Irma Clots-Figueras
  19. Foreign Direct Investment and Country-Specific Human Capital By Jinyoung Kim; Jungsoo Park
  20. Standards and markets for university-originated organizational intelligence By Prejmerean, Mihaela Cornelia; Vasilache, Simona
  21. Labour Market Outcomes for Young Graduates By David C. Maré; Yun Liang
  22. L'Economie de l'Education fait-elle des Progrès? Une Perspective d'Histoire de la Pensée Economique By Jean-Luc De Meulemeester
  24. Teaching with Stata By Alan Acock; Tony Lachenbruch
  25. Performance evaluation in research departments: from the Balanced Scorecard to the Strategy Map By Antonella Cugini; Giovanna Michelon
  26. Research Scientist Productivity and Firm Size: Evidence from Panel Data on Inventors By Jinyoung Kim; Sangjoon John Lee; Gerald Marschke
  27. Capacité d’utilisation du capital humain et croissance de la productivité française de 1980 à 2002 By JEAN-PASCAL GUIRONNET
  28. School Choice and Information. An Experimental Study on Matching Mechanisms By Joana Pais; Agnes Pinter

  1. By: Giorgio Brunello (University of Padova, CESifo and IZA); Margherita Fort (European University Institute and University of Padova); Guglielmo Weber (University of Padova, CEPR and IFS)
    Abstract: Using data from 12 European countries and the variation across countries and over time in the changes of minimum school leaving age, we study the effects of the quantity of education on the distribution of earnings. We find that compulsory school reforms significantly affect educational attainment, especially among individuals belonging to the lowest quantile of the distribution of ability. Contrary to previous findings in the relevant literature, we find that additional education reduces wage inequality below median income and increases it above median income. There is also evidence in our data that education and ability are complements in the production of human capital and earnings. While these results support an elitist education policy - more education to the brightest, they also suggest that investing in the less fortunate but bright could payoff both on efficiency and on equity grounds.
    Keywords: education reforms, distribution of earnings, Europe
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2007–10
  2. By: Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere (Georgia Institute of Technology and IZA)
    Abstract: In the last two decades, the social and economic benefits of formal education in Sub-Saharan Africa have been debated. Anecdotal evidence points to low returns to education in Africa. Unfortunately, there is limited econometric evidence to support these claims at the micro level. In this study, I focus on Nigeria a country that holds 1/5 of Africa’s population. I use instruments based on the exogenous timing of the implementation and withdrawal of free primary education across regions in this country to consistently estimate the returns to education in the late 1990s. The results show the average returns to education are particularly low in the 90s, in contrast to conventional wisdom for developing countries (2.8% for every extra year of schooling between 1997 and 1999). Surprisingly, I find no significant differences between OLS and IV estimates of returns to education when necessary controls are included in the wage equation. The low returns to education results shed new light on both the changes in demand for education in Nigeria and the increased emigration rates from African countries that characterized the 90s.
    Keywords: human capital, instrumental variables, Nigeria, returns to education, schooling
    JEL: J24 I21 I29 O12
    Date: 2007–10
  3. By: Orazem, Peter; Glewwe, Paul; Patrinos, Harry
    Abstract: This paper reviews the stylized facts regarding the levels of human capital investments and the returns to those investments in developing countries. It shows that 23% of children in developing countries do not complete the fifth grade and of these, 55% started school but dropped out. We argue that eliminating dropouts is the most cost effective way to make progress on the goal of Universal Primary Education. Of the various mechanisms we can use, mechanisms that stimulate schooling demand have the strongest evidence of success to date and are the most cost effective.
    Keywords: Education, literacy, benefits, costs, developing countries, Universal Primary Education, collateral benefits
    JEL: O2
    Date: 2007–11–02
  4. By: Louis-Philippe Morin (University of Ottawa and IZA)
    Abstract: The Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE) interpretation of the IV estimates of the returns to schooling is becoming increasingly popular. Typically, researchers reporting LATE estimates do not provide systematic evidence that there is substantial heterogeneity across different ability levels in returns, and without such evidence, the LATE interpretation is short of being compelling. The recent abolition of Grade 13 in Ontario’s secondary school system provides a unique opportunity to measure the benefits of an extra year of high school for high-ability students (those bound for college), rather than dropouts. I present a simple factor model which allows the value-added of Grade 13 (in terms of achievement) to be estimated, generalizing the standard difference-in-differences estimator to correct for heterogeneity in ability measurement across college subjects. The main finding is that the estimated return to an extra year of high school in terms of human capital is small for these high-ability students: students coming out of Grade 13 have a 2.2 point advantage (on a 100 point scale) over students from Grade 12, the estimated return to Grade 13 being around 2 percent. This evidence indicates that there is substantial heterogeneity in the return to an additional year of high school in the direction assumed in the prior literature.
    Keywords: return to schooling, factor model, difference-in-differences
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2007–10
  5. By: Lenka Drnakova
    Abstract: The admission process into secondary schools in the Czech Republic involves high risk of ending up at an undesired school if failing to be admitted to one’s preferred school. Hence, the application decision is an important element of the process since individuals have to assess their chances of being admitted. Empirical evidence based on pupils participating in the PISA project suggests that especially the education of parents and cognitive abilities matter to a large extent for a pupil’s application decision. Noncognitive skills are found to have an impact on a pupil’s decision as well, even though the significance and magnitude differ across districts, and, most importantly, genders. Non-cognitive skills of females operate in accordance with intuitive expectations– higher risk associated with the outcome of the admission process in the district increases the importance of non-cognitive abilities with respect to decision-making. The opposite, counter-intuitive outcomes are obtained for males. Explanation and research suggestions are offered.
    Keywords: Non-cognitive skills, schooling choice, secondary education.
    JEL: J24 I21
    Date: 2007–09
  6. By: Rajashri Chakrabarti
    Abstract: In this paper, I analyze the behavior of public schools facing vouchers. The literature on the effects of voucher programs on public schools typically focuses on student and mean school scores. This paper tries to go inside the black box to investigate some of the ways in which schools facing the threat of vouchers in Florida behaved. Under a 1999 program, Florida schools earning an "F" grade for the first time were exposed to the threat of vouchers, but did not face vouchers unless and until they got a second "F" within the next three years. Exploiting the institutional details of this program, I analyze the incentives built into the system and investigate the behavior of the public schools facing these incentives. I find strong evidence that they did respond to incentives. Using highly disaggregated school-level data, a difference-in-differences estimation strategy as well as a regression discontinuity analysis, I find that the threatened schools tended to focus more on students below the minimum criteria cutoffs rather than equally on all; interestingly, however, this improvement did not come at the expense of higher performing students. Second, consistent with incentives, the schools focused on writing rather than reading and math. These results are robust to controlling for differential pre-program trends, changes in demographic compositions, mean reversion, and sorting and have important policy implications.
    Keywords: Educational vouchers ; Public schools
    Date: 2007
  7. By: Lindahl, Erica (Department of Economics, Uppsala University)
    Abstract: This study investigates the importance of gender and ethnic interactions among teachers and students for school performance in Swedish, English and Mathematics. School leaving certificates assigned by the teacher is compared with results on comprehensive national tests. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students (age 16) from Sweden. I find that a student is likely to obtain better test scores in Mathematics, when the share of teachers of the same gender as the student increases. Correspondingly, ethnic minority students, on average, obtain better test scores in Mathematics, when the share of ethnic minority teachers increases. The positive same-gender effect on test scores is counteracted by a negative assessment effect. That is, conditional on test scores, same-gender teachers are less generous than opposite-gender teachers when assessing students’ performance. In Swedish and English no statistically significant effects are found.
    Keywords: School achievements; student and teacher interactions; gender; race
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2007–10–16
  8. By: Lindahl, Erica (Department of Economics, Uppsala University)
    Abstract: This study compares results on national tests with teachers’ assessment of student performance, by using Swedish data of grade 9 students (16 years old). I examine whether there are systematic differences correlated with gender and ethnic background. That is, if the relationship between school leaving certificates and national test results differs between girls and boys or between natives and non-natives. The results show that girls are more generously rewarded in teachers’ assessment compared to test results in all three subjects studied. Non-native students are more generously rewarded in teachers’ assessment compared to test results in two out of three subjects studied.
    Keywords: School performance; gender; race
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2007–10–16
  9. By: Jaan Masso; Raul Eamets; Hanna Kanep
    Abstract: The aim of the current paper is to estimate the need for new PhDs in the Estonian academic sector for the 5-year period 2007–2012 using a survey of employers, such as universities, institutions of applied higher education and research institutes. The doctoral workforce in all countries around the world constitutes a rather small segment of the labour market; however, PhDs provide a crucial input for educational and R&D activities not only through their employment in the academic sector, but nowadays also increasingly in the public and private sector. Our results show that academic institutions would prefer to hire a rather high proportion of new PhDs – almost 100% of the current number. On the one hand total demand is high due to a high replacement demand brought on by retirements in the next years as a result of the
    Keywords: PhD, higher education, research and development, academic fields
    JEL: I2 J4
    Date: 2007
  10. By: Frederick van der Ploeg; Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: Discussions on problems in higher education in Europe typically focus on rising enrolment rates, access, governance, underperformance in research and teaching, lack of internationalisation, the lack of private and public funding. Our proposals for reform are based on more autonomy for universities, higher tuition fees, more private funding, introduction of income-contingent loans, better governance, more competition and internationalisation. Taking a subsidiarity perspective, the role of the EU in reforming the higher education sector in Europe is providing mutual policy learning opportunities on higher education reforms across Member States and supporting the building of higher education infrastructure in Member States (through the Structural and FP Funds). But beyond the support to Member States policies, the EU should further develop the European dimension, through furthering the goals of the Bologna reforms, cross recognition of qualifications, funding and promoting intra-EU mobility of students, researchers and teachers. The EU should take more initiatives to facilitate global mobility and cooperation. Finally, consistent with the subsidiarity principle, the EU can develop "flagships" initiatives.
    Keywords: higher education, enrolment, access, governance, research, teaching, funding, tuition fees, income-contingent loans, open market for the EU, Bologna reforms, mobility, competition, subsidiarity, flagships
    JEL: H2 H4 I2
    Date: 2007
  11. By: Sophia Rabe-Hesketh (University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: Survey data are often analyzed using multilevel or hierarchical models. For example, in education surveys, schools may be sampled at the first stage and students at the second stage and multilevel models used to model within-school and between-school variability. An important aspect of most surveys that is often ignored in multilevel modeling is that units at each stage are sampled with unequal probabilities. Standard maximum likelihood estimation can be modified to take the sampling probabilities into account, yielding pseudomaximum likelihood estimation, which is typically combined with robust standard errors based on the sandwich estimator. This approach is implemented in gllamm. I will introduce the ideas, discuss issues that arise such as the scaling of the weights, and illustrate the approach by applying it to data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA).
    Date: 2007–10–31
  12. By: Ariga, Kenn; Brunello, Giorgio; Iwahashi, Roki; Rocco, Lorenzo
    Abstract: In spite of their relative vicinity Scandinavian countries and Central European countries (mainly Germany) have substantially different schooling institutions. While the former group of countries delays school tracking until age 16, the latter group anticipates differentiation between age 10 and age 13. This paper proposes a simple median voter model of school design which accounts rather well for these differences. The key idea is that voters weight the potential advantages of early tracking in terms of higher wages and human capital against the information loss associated to early selection.
    Keywords: Central Europe; Scandinavia; school tracking
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2007–11
  13. By: Heinrich Hock (Department of Economics, Florida State University)
    Abstract: This paper considers the educational consequences of the increased ability of young women to delay childbearing as a result of the birth control pill. In order to identify the effects of the pill, I utilize quasi-experimental variation in U.S. state laws governing access to contraception among female adolescents during the 1960s and 1970s. Inference based on these laws indicates that unconstrained access to the pill increased female college enrollment rates by over 2 percentage points and reduced the dropout rate by over 5 percentage points. Further, early pill access led to a rise in college completion of approximately three quarters of a percentage point among women over the age of thirty. Finally, I analyze the outcomes of men in relation to the contraceptive laws, finding evidence that male educational opportunities also improved due to reductions in undesired early fertility among their female partners.
    Keywords: contraception, human capital, women, men
    JEL: I21 J13 N32 N42
    Date: 2007–10
  14. By: Jean-Pascal Guironnet; Magali Jaoul-Grammare
    Abstract: In the last two decades, France has experienced an increase in mismatches between education and work. This article studies twenty two years of French productivity to highlight the causes and effects of overeducation on the employee wages and the national income. From the INSEE and Cereq data, this analysis shows a positive effect in the short term on wages of the least qualified and overeducated worker. Furthermore, overeducation phenomenon does not penalize the higher graduates. Paradoxically, if it is always profitable for individuals to increase their education investment; in term of growth, overeducation of the higher graduates produce an unfavourable short term effect on GDP.
    Date: 2007–04
  15. By: Christian Dustmann (University College London, CReAM, CEP and IZA)
    Abstract: This paper studies parental investment in education and intergenerational earnings mobility for father-son pairs with native and foreign born fathers. We illustrate within a simple model that for immigrants, investment in their children is related to their return migration probability. In our empirical analysis, we include a measure for return probabilities, based on repeated information about migrants' return intentions. Our results suggest that educational investments in the son are positively associated with a higher probability of a permanent migration of the father. We also find that the son's permanent wages are positively associated with the probability of the father's permanent migration. Keywords: Intergenerational mobility, return intentions, educational investment, earnings.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, return intentions, educational investment, earnings
    JEL: J15 J24 J62
    Date: 2007–09
  16. By: Jinyoung Kim (Department of Economics, Korea University)
    Abstract: This paper proposes an endogenous growth model where human capital is the engine of growth and can be transferred across countries via costly foreign education. Importing advanced knowledge by students abroad can improve a developing country¡¯s chance of catching up with a developed host country. An excessively wide difference in knowledge level between the two countries, however, can hamper the chance of catching-up because few students can afford foreign education. Taking these two counteracting forces into account, our model predicts that the relationship between income growth in a developing country and income gap will assume the form of an inverted-U schedule. The model also produces an endogenous threshold level of income gap which separates catching-up and falling-behind. We test the model¡¯s propositions and estimate the threshold using international panel data, which lends support to our theory.
    Keywords: Catch-up, Convergence, Divergence, Human capital, Foreign education
    JEL: O40 I20
    Date: 2007
  17. By: Christopher H. Wheeler
    Abstract: Human capital is now widely recognized to confer numerous benefits, including higher incomes, lower incidence of unemployment, and better health, to those who invest in it. Yet, recent evidence suggests that it also produces larger, social (external) benefits, such as greater aggregate income and productivity as well as lower rates of crime and political corruption. This paper considers whether human capital also delivers external benefits via reduced mortality. That is, after conditioning on various individual-specific characteristics including income and education, do we observe lower rates of mortality in economies with higher average levels of education among the total population? Evidence from a sample of more than 200 U.S. metropolitan areas over the decade of the 1990s suggests that there are significant human capital externalities on health. After conditioning on a variety of city-specific characteristics, the findings suggest that a 5 percentage point decrease in the fraction of college graduates in the population corresponds to a 14 to 36 percent increase in the probability of death, on average. Although I am unable to identify the precise mechanism by which this relationship operates, it is certainly consistent with the idea that interactions with highly educated individuals - who tend to exhibit relatively healthy behaviors - encourage others to adopt similar behaviors. Evidence of a significant inverse relationship between aggregate human capital and smoking, conditional on personal characteristics, in a sample of 201 U.S. metropolitan areas is also consistent with this hypothesis.
    Date: 2007
  18. By: Irma Clots-Figueras
    Abstract: This paper shows that the gender of politicians affects the educational levels of individuals who grow up in the districts where these politicians are elected. Increasing female political representation by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual attains primary education in urban areas by 6 percentage points, which is 21% of the difference in primary education attainment between the richest and the poorest Indian states. Caste also matters, as female politicians who won seats reserved for lower castes and disadvantaged tribes are those who mainly have an effect. In addition, both the gender and caste of politicians determine who benefits more from their policies: in urban areas female politicians increase educational achievements of those of their gender and caste. A unique dataset collected on politicians in India is matched with individual data by cohort and district of residence. The political data allow the identification of close elections between women and men, which yield quasi-experimental election outcomes used to estimate the causal effect of the gender of politicians.
    Date: 2007–08
  19. By: Jinyoung Kim (Department of Economics, Korea University); Jungsoo Park (Department of Economics, Sogang University)
    Abstract: Workers who are educated abroad acquire human capital specific to the country of foreign study (for example, language capital and country-specific knowledge on firm organization and on social system) which makes them more productive than domestically educated workers when both types of workers are employed by subsidiaries of multinational firms headquartered in the country of foreign study. An increase in foreign-educated labor in an FDI-host country thus attracts more FDI from the country of foreign study. We find evidence from bilateral FDI and foreign-student data for 63 countries over the period of 1963-1998 that strongly supports this prediction. Our findings suggest that foreign-educated labor may account for a sizable portion of growth in FDI flows during the sample period.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment, multinational firm, human capital, foreign education, students abroad
    JEL: F21 F10
    Date: 2007
  20. By: Prejmerean, Mihaela Cornelia; Vasilache, Simona
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to bring to discussion ways to diagnose university’s organizational intelligence and to put forward some ways of measuring it. The main steps pursued refer to defining and describing the organizational particularities of universities, which modulate in specific ways organizational intelligence strategies implementation, applying the organizational intelligence standards to universities, and examining the features of the intelligence markets. The manner in which the paradigm of the traditional university is being changed, and finally eliminated, by the social stimuli which claim for a different type of intelligence originating in universities and which are the beneficiaries of the new model of university, as an organization in-between – preserving its idiosyncratic position, but engaging in mutually profitable alliances, is an issue we address to.
    Keywords: organizational intelligence; academic strategic management; intelligence markets
    JEL: I21 Z13 I23
    Date: 2007–05–20
  21. By: David C. Maré (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Yun Liang (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: This paper examines income and employment outcomes for 18 to 30 year old New Zealanders with post-school qualifications, using data from the 1996 and 2001 Censi. Outcomes are analysed by field of study, to highlight the variation in outcomes within the post-school graduate (PSG) population. Fields are characterised according to the specialisation of job choices made by PSGs. A preliminary investigation is undertaken of changes in supply and demand of PSGs in different fields. Part A of the report summarises patterns for all PSGs, and compares fields of study. Part B contains field profiles for each of 26 grouped fields of study that can be compared across the two years.
    Keywords: Labour Market outcomes, Tertiary Qualification, Young Graduates, New Zealand
    JEL: D31
    Date: 2006–06
  22. By: Jean-Luc De Meulemeester (DULBEA, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Skope, University of Oxford.)
    Abstract: Dans cet article, nous survolons les grandes tendances de l'évolution de la pensée économique en ce qui concerne le rôle de l'éducation et du capital humain, et nous cherchons par là à évaluer s'il y a eu (ou non) progrès dans le champ spécifique de l'économie de l'éducation Si les principales intuitions sur les liens entre éducation et économie étaient déjà là à la fin du 18ième siècle et au début du 19ièmesiècle, les principaux développements datent de l'après-guerre. Nous mettons en avant les grands thèmes débattus depuis la fin des années 50, et mettons en évidence une forme de cyclicité en ce qui concerne la vision des économistes quant au rôle bénéfique ou non de l'éducation pour l'économie. Nous soulignons également un progrès scientifique, menant l'économie de l'éducation à relativiser les premiers enseignements simplistes de la théorie du capital humain. On assiste en effet à une prise de conscience “historique” (rôle des institutions, dépendance à la trajectoire) ainsi qu'à un mouvement vers un travail empirique de plus en plus soigné (tant en termes des idées, des méthodes que des bases de données constituées), le tout menant à une vision nuancée des relations entre éducation et croissance comme celle entre éducation et performances sur le marché du travail. Cette évolution depuis les années 80 a permis à l'économie de l'éducation de servir de fondement plus solide à des prescriptions de politique économique et sociale.
    Keywords: éducation, croissance, marché du travail, histoire de la pensée économique.
    JEL: B1 B2 I2 J24 O4
    Date: 2007–10
  23. By: Isaac Ehrlich (State University of New York at Buffalo and NBER); Jinyoung Kim (Department of Economics, Korea University)
    Abstract: Using an endogenous-growth, overlapping-generations framework where human capital is the engine of growth, we derive propositions concerning the evolution of income and fertility distributions and their interdependencies over three phases of economic development. In our model, heterogeneous families determine fertility and children’s human capital, and generations are linked through intra-family and inter-family interactions. Through simulations and regression analyses we test key implications concerning the dynamic behavior of inequalities in fertility, educational attainments, and three income inequality measures -- family-income inequality, income-group inequality, and the Gini coefficient. In this context, we also reexamine the “Kuznets hypothesis?concerning the relation between income growth and inequality.
    Keywords: income inequality, human capital, fertility, schooling, family, endogenous growth
    JEL: D1 D3 J1 J2
    Date: 2007
  24. By: Alan Acock (Oregon State University); Tony Lachenbruch
    Abstract: Stata is a useful tool to demonstrate statistical concepts to elementary (and advanced) statistics classes. For elementary classes, one of the issues is to avoid making the class one in how to use Stata but keep the focus on learning statistics. We have found a lab to be helpful to teach students how to use Stata. The basic commands need to be demonstrated, and since most students don’t have full Stata documentation, some simple command descriptions are useful. It is also a good idea to use datasets from real life to illustrate the ideas. Some pitfalls can be shown—our greatest goof (that we continue to do) is when using logical commands to create new variables—missing values are always an issue. Some moderately advanced ideas can be introduced into the elementary class. Tony Lachenbruch is experimenting with the permutation and bootstrap commands this year. Alan Acock is trying to find a way to move a college of SPSS and SAS users to Stata by getting students on the Stata bandwagon. Alan Acock is also trying to find which user-written commands should be incorporated in the first-year labs.
    Date: 2007–10–31
  25. By: Antonella Cugini (Università di Padova); Giovanna Michelon (Università di Padova)
    Abstract: Notwithstanding a growing interest towards performance management systems for universities, little is known on their application to academic departments. Being an institution dedicated to research, a department presents specific characteristics: creativity, professional autonomy, low degree of repetitiveness, uncertainty on results, unclear relation between input and output. Such peculiarities make the evaluation and measurement of its performance particularly difficult. The purpose of the paper is the exploration and development of a performance evaluation approach which is suitable for the particular features of an academic department. As this paper is explorative in nature, we use a qualitative methodology, to identify dimensions of performance evaluation suitable for application to an academic department. Data are collected for the case study of a department of the University of Padua, Italy. After identifying the relations between the four perspective of the balanced scorecard and identifying the strategic maps, the case study proposes a set of goals and measures which are suitable to satisfy the managerial needs of the analyzed department. The paper contributes to the performance evaluation literature in three main ways. It extends the concept of customer by considering a wider systems of stakeholders; it emphasize the strategic role of the financial dimension as a driver for achieving the mission and it highlights the need to coordinate the different stakeholders involved in the enhancement of strategy, from academic and administrative staff, to different types of customers and the community in general.
    Keywords: performance measurement, strategy map, balanced scorecard, university, departments
    JEL: M10 M41
    Date: 2007–11
  26. By: Jinyoung Kim (Department of Economics, Korea University); Sangjoon John Lee (Alfred University); Gerald Marschke (University at Albany and IZA)
    Abstract: It has long been recognized that worker wages and possibly productivity are higher in large firms. Moreover, at least since Schumpeter (1942) economists have been interested in the relative efficiency of large firms in the research and development enterprise. This paper uses longitudinal worker-firm-matched data to examine the relationship between the productivity of workers specifically engaged in innovation and firm size in the pharmaceutical and semiconductor industries. In both industries, we find that inventors?productivity increases with firm size. This result holds across different specifications and even after controlling for inventors?experience, education, the quality of other inventors in the firm, and other firm characteristics. We find evidence in the pharmaceutical industry that this is partly accounted for by differences between how large and small firms organize R&D activities.
    Keywords: Patents, Innovation, Labor productivity, Research, Firm size
    JEL: O30 O32 O34 J21 J24
    Date: 2007
    Abstract: Face à un développement massif du phénomène de suréducation sur ces deux dernières décennies, cet article présente un modèle de fonction de production qui capture les relations entre la croissance et les désajustements offre/demande de qualifications. A partir de deux décennies de production française, notre analyse montre que ce phénomène réduit considérablement la productivité des travailleurs, en particulier pour les diplômés du supérieur. Le reclassement de ces derniers produirait, par ailleurs, un impact significatif sur la croissance du revenu national. Pourtant, malgré des situations d’inadéquate correspondance entre formation et emploi plus fréquentes, les qualifications universitaires restent toujours socialement bénéfiques en terme productif.
    Date: 2006–05
  28. By: Joana Pais; Agnes Pinter
    Abstract: We present an experimental study where we analyze three well-known matching mechanisms. the Boston, the Gale-Shapley, and the Top Trading Cycles mechanisms. in di¤erent informational settings. Our experimental results are consistent with the theory, suggesting that the TTC mechanism outperforms both the Boston and the Gale-Shapley mechanisms in terms of efficiency and it is slightly more successful than the Gale-Shapley mechanism regarding the proportion of truthful preference revelation, whereas manipulation is stronger under the Boston mechanism. In addition, even though agents are much more likely to revert to truth-telling in lack of information about the others. payoffs. ignorance may be beneficial in this context. , the TTC mechanism results less sensitive to the amount of information that participants hold. These results therefore suggest that the use of the TTC mechanism in practice is more desirable than of the others.
    Keywords: Laboratory Experiments
    JEL: C92
    Date: 2007–09

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