nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2007‒09‒24
twenty papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Students' Academic Self-Perception By Arnaud Chevalier; Steve Gibbons; Andy Thorpe; Martin Snell; Sherria Hoskins
  2. The Expansion of Higher Education and Time-Consistent Taxation By Panu Poutvaara
  3. Desafios da Educação Superior e Desenvolvimento no Brasil By Paulo Roberto Corbucci
  4. Using Accelerated Learning to Correct Student Flows: The Case of Paraná, Brazil By Heloísa Lück; Marta Parente
  5. Human Capital Quality and Economic Growth By Nadir Altinok
  6. A Infra-Estrutura das Escolas Brasileiras de Ensino Fundamental: Um Estudo com Base nos Censos Escolares de 1997 a 2005 By Natália Sátyro; Sergei Soares
  7. Educational mismatch, wages, and wage growth: Overeducation in Sweden, 1974-2000 By Korpi, Tomas; Tåhlin, Michael
  8. The Quantity-Quality Tradeoff of Children in a Developing Country: Identification Using Chinese Twins By Hongbin Li; Junsen Zhang; Yi Zhu
  9. Cross-Nativity Marriages, Gender, and Human Capital Levels of Children By Delia Furtado
  10. The design of optimal education policies when individuals differ in inherited wealth and ability By Dario Maldonado
  11. A Repetência no Contexto Internacional: O que Dizem os Dados de Avaliações das Quais o Brasil não Participa? By Sergei Suarez Dillon Soares
  12. Sheepskin Effects and the Relationship Between Earnings and Education: Analyzing the Evolution Over Time in Brazil By Anna Crespo; Maurício Cortez Reis
  13. Educação: Um Escudo Contra o Homicídio? By Sergei Suarez Dillon Soares
  14. Creative Class and Regional Growth - Empirical Evidence from Eight European Countries By Ron A. Boschma; Michael Fritsch
  15. Ranking Dutch Economists By Ours, J.C. van; Vermeulen, F.M.P.
  16. Surgimiento de la educación en la República de Colombia, ¿En que Fallamos? By María Teresa Ramírez Girlado; Irene Salazar
  17. Evaluating the Performance of UK Research in Economics By Nicholas Vasilakos; Gauthier Lanot; Tim Worrall
  18. Les salaires des enseignants en France : une analyse transversale et comparative dans le cadre national By Alain Mingat; Bruno Suchaut
  19. Rendimentos Domiciliares com Aposentadorias e Pensões e as Decisões dos Jovens Quanto à Educação e à Participação na Força de Trabalho By Maurício Cortez Reis; José Márcio Camargo
  20. Retornos laborales a la educación en la Argentina. Evolución y estructura actual By Jorge A. Paz; ;

  1. By: Arnaud Chevalier (Royal Holloway University of London, University College Dublin, CEE, London School of Economics and IZA); Steve Gibbons (CEP, London School of Economics); Andy Thorpe (University of Portsmouth); Martin Snell (University of Portsmouth); Sherria Hoskins (University of Portsmouth)
    Abstract: Participation rates in higher education differ persistently between some groups in society. Using two British datasets we investigate whether this gap is rooted in students’ misperception of their own and other’s ability, thereby increasing the expected costs to studying. Among high school pupils, we find that pupils with a more positive view of their academic abilities are more likely to expect to continue to higher education even after controlling for observable measures of ability and students’ characteristics. University students are also poor at estimating their own test-performance and over-estimate their predicted test score. However, females, white and working class students have less inflated view of themselves. Self-perception has limited impact on the expected probability of success and expected returns amongst these university students.
    Keywords: test performance, self-assessment, higher education participation, academic self-perception
    JEL: I21 J16 Y80
    Date: 2007–08
  2. By: Panu Poutvaara (University of Helsinki and IZA)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes educational choices and political support for subsidies to higher education in the presence of a time-consistency problem in income redistribution. There may be political support for so generous subsidization that it motivates the median voter to obtain higher education. As a result of increasing own income, the median voter prefers in the future lower taxes than without higher education. Therefore, the expansion of participation in higher education during the second half of the 20th century may have partly been driven by the aim to limit the political support for overly generous income redistribution.
    Keywords: education, time-consistency problem, voting, subsidies to education
    JEL: H52 I22 D72
    Date: 2007–08
  3. By: Paulo Roberto Corbucci
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to discuss the relations between higher education and development in the context of the Brazilian society. Thus, it begins with the analysis of scientific and technological production in Brazil as well as the preparation of professionals required by the public and private productive sectors during the last two decades. Furthermore, it presents indicators concerning supply and demand for higher education in Brazil. It also covers the evaluation of the performance of higher educational system, financial aid for students and federal expenditure for this level of education. From the analysis related to these subjects, it was possible to outline some challenges for the higher education area to increase its contribution to the development of the Brazilian nation.
    Date: 2007–07
  4. By: Heloísa Lück; Marta Parente
    Abstract: In 1995, the Brazilian Education Ministry took measures in an attempt to correct the flow of elementary education students in the Brazilian public schools. The program called ?Accelerated Learning? was designed as an alternative educational experience for those students who were two or more years behind in their schooling. It offered them an opportunity to have meaningful learning experiences and to overcome the age-grade discrepancy in their education. The Ministry of Education offered to support the States in carrying out these programs for their students, through technical assistance and financial resources for professional training schemes. Responding this call 25 out of the 27 federal units implemented such programs. This paper provides an overview of this program, at a national level, and describes an experiment conducted in the State of Paraná, where a specific case study was carried out to identify factors associated with the results of this kind of program. It is part of the study undertaken by IPEA-Institute of Research in Applied Economics, in partnership with Consed-National Council of State Secretaries and the Inter-American Development Bank - BID, which focused on these programs. The study was carried out from 2000 to 2005 and aimed at describing: the main characteristics and actions taken by such programs in the years 1998 to 2000; their results, as well as the process of their implementation and management by the State Secretariats of Education.
    Date: 2007–04
  5. By: Nadir Altinok (IREDU - Institut de recherche sur l'éducation : Sociologie et Economie de l'Education - [CNRS : UMR5225] - [Université de Bourgogne])
    Abstract: The estimation of the relationship between education and economic growth is marked by contradictions. These contradictions underline the lack of precision characterizing indicators of human capital. This paper constructs new indicators based on a pool of international surveys concerning pupil assessment. Thus, our new database, which includes 105 countries, makes it possible to confirm or not the positive relationship between education and growth. Taking into account the endogeneity of education, we measure a positive effect of qualitative indicators of human capital and the growth of countries between 1960 and 2000. The contribution of education to growth therefore appears significant, both from a quantitative and a qualitative point of view.
    Keywords: Education quality ; Human capital ; Growth ; Development
    Date: 2007–09–17
  6. By: Natália Sátyro; Sergei Soares
    Abstract: This paper uses data from the annual School Census to describe the physical and human resource infrastructure available to Brazilian primary schools. We investigate access to basic services such as water, electricity, and sewage; facilities available in the school; existence of a library or reading room; information and communication technology; and, finally teacher qualification. In the case of facilities and library description we were forced to create an index, given the volume of information available in the School Census each year. Our first conclusion is that material schooling conditions improved greatly between 1997 and 2005 but educational attainment and achievement did not change much during this period. Second, there are no major differences in resources between state and private school, although there are large differences between these two and municipal schools. This is again a curious result since there are very small differences in attainment and achievement between state and municipal schools but large differences between state and private schools. These two results put in doubt the impacts that improving infrastructure will have upon educational results. Our last finding, however, leans in the opposite direction. Rural schools suffer both very poor material conditions and very poor educational results. This suggests that perhaps improving material conditions in the very worse schools, which are almost all rural, may have strong impacts upon attainment or achievement. Finally, an important conclusion of this text is that more investigation is urgently needed investigating the link between infrastructure data from administrative sources and educational results.
    Date: 2007–04
  7. By: Korpi, Tomas (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Tåhlin, Michael (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of educational mismatch on wages and wage growth in Sweden. The empirical analyses, based on cross-sectional and panel data from the Level of living surveys 1974-2000, are guided by two main hypotheses: (a) that educational mismatch reflects human capital compensation rather than real mismatch, and (b) that educational mismatch is real but dissolves with time spent in the labour market, so that its impact on wages tends toward zero over a typical worker’s career. Our findings do not support these hypotheses. First, significant differences in contemporaneous economic returns to education across match categories remain even after variations in ability are taken into account. Second, we find no evidence that the rate of wage growth is higher among overeducated workers than others. Our conclusion is that the overeducated are penalized early on by an inferior rate of return to schooling from which they do not recover.
    Keywords: Educational mismatch; overeducation; wages
    JEL: J24 J31 J62
    Date: 2007–09–20
  8. By: Hongbin Li (Chinese University of Hong Kong and Tsinghua University); Junsen Zhang (Chinese University of Hong Kong and IZA); Yi Zhu (Michigan State University)
    Abstract: Testing the tradeoff between child quantity and quality within a family is complicated by the endogeneity of family size. Using data from the Chinese Population Census, this paper examines the effect of family size on child educational attainment in China. We find a negative correlation between family size and child outcome, even after we control for the birth order effect. We then instrument family size by the exogenous variation that is induced by a twin birth, and find a negative effect of family size on children’s education. We also find that the effect of family size is more evident in rural China, where the public education system is poor. Given that our estimates of the effect of twinning on non-twins at least provide the lower bound of the true effect of family size (Rosenzweig and Zhang, 2006), these findings suggest a quantity-quality tradeoff of children in developing countries.
    Keywords: quantity-quality tradeoff, twins, China
    JEL: J13 J18 J24 O10
    Date: 2007–08
  9. By: Delia Furtado (University of Connecticut and IZA)
    Abstract: Because the demographic composition of todays immigrants to the US differs so much from those of natives, immigrants may be less likely to socially integrate into U.S. society, and specically less likely to marry natives. This paper explores the relationship between immigrants' marriage patterns and the academic outcomes of their children. Using 2000 Census data, it is found that while marital decisions of foreign born females do not affect their children's academic success, foreign born males that marry foreign born females are less likely to have children that are high school dropouts. These relationships remain after using various methods to control for the endogeneity of the intermarriage decision. Although we cannot disentangle whether the benefits of same-nativity marriages for foreign born males arise from a more efficient technology in human capital production within the household or from increased participation in ethnic networks, it does appear that immigrant males have better educated children when they marry immigrant females.
    Keywords: Cross-Nativity Marriage, Education, Ethnic Networks .%
    JEL: J12 J15 Z13
    Date: 2007–08
  10. By: Dario Maldonado
    Abstract: In this paper I consider the role of optimal education policies in redistribution when individuals differ in two aspects: ability and inherited wealth. I discuss the extent to which the rules that emerge in unidimensional settings apply also in the bidimensional setting considered in this paper. The main conclusion is that, subject to some qualifications, the same type of rules that determine optimal education policies when only ability heterogeneity is considered apply to the case where both parameters of heterogeneity are considered. This rules imply a widening of the education gap between high- and low-ability individuals in second-best with respect to the first-best gap. The qualifications regard the implementation of the optimal allocation of resources to education and not on the way the optimal allocation in first- and in second-best differ.
    Date: 2007–07–31
  11. By: Sergei Suarez Dillon Soares
    Abstract: Brazil is characterized by very high levels of grade repetition. Only Angola suffers from student flow worse than Brazil. There is ample qualitative and quantitative evidence establishing a link between grade repetition and dropping out from school. However, there is little discussion in Brazil of the impact of grade repetition in the international context. The objective of this text is to use data from TIMSS mathematics an science evaluations and PIRLS reading evaluations to estimate the impact of anti-repetition policies upon academic achievement. In order to do this I used both univariate comparisons of countries that have outlawed repetition in primary school with other countries and multivariate regression analysis. The main result is that there is no evidence whatsoever that anti-repetition policies have any negative impact upon children?s academic achievement. On the contrary, regression results show a positive, albeit non-significant, impact of automatic promotion upon test results.
    Date: 2007–08
  12. By: Anna Crespo; Maurício Cortez Reis
    Abstract: This paper seeks to analyze trends in sheepskin effects and earnings-education relationship on the Brazilian labor market from 1982 to 2004. Using data from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (Pnad) are estimated earnings equations including linear years of schooling, and splines and discontinuous functions for completed degrees, as well as semi-parametric regressions. Empirical evidence reports a reduction in the sheepskin effects from 1982 to 2004, indicating that a diploma or degree completion in Brazil has been loosing its value over time. At the same time, the relationship between log earnings and education has become more convex. Similar trends are verified when the analysis is carried out separately by region.
    Date: 2007–04
  13. By: Sergei Suarez Dillon Soares
    Abstract: The objective of this text is to make a preliminary analysis of the relations between educational level and victimization by homicide. To this end, I use the following data sources: the Integrated Mortality System (SIM) between 1999 and 2004; the Demographic Census of 2000 and the National Household Surveys between 1999 and 2004 (except for 2000, year in which there was no household survey). The text consists of both an exploratory analysis comparing homicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants according to age, educational level and sex and a regression analysis to find partial correlation coefficients. The regressions are estimated using cells defined by sex, age, region of residence, skin color and schooling level. The estimation methods used were the linear probability model and logistic regression. My results reinforce three already well-known results. The first is that women suffer homicide rates that are roughly one-tenth that of men. The second is that negroes suffer much higher homicide rates then whites. Finally the most important homicide risk group are youths between 16 and 36. The most important new result is the importance of educational in preventing homicide. Although the exact magnitude depends upon the model being estimated, in all of them schooling is significantly and negatively related to death by homicide. However, caution must be exercised in interpreting the partial correlation coefficients found cannot be interpreted as causal. There are no doubt omitted variables that have a causal relation both with educational level and homicide risk and this may lead to spurious correlation between the two. An analysis using instrumental variables to separate causal and endogenous magnitudes will be the subject of an upcoming study. However, the magnitude of the effect is so strong that even if a fraction is causally due to education, schooling still is one of the most important public policies for reducing homicide.
    Date: 2007–08
  14. By: Ron A. Boschma (Utrecht University, Department of Economic Geography, Utrecht, Netherlands); Michael Fritsch (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, German Institute of Economic Research, Berlin, and Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany)
    Abstract: We analyze the regional distribution and the effect of people in creative occupations based on data for more than 450 regions in eight European countries. The geographic distribution of the creative class is highly uneven. The creative class is not attracted to highly urbanized regions per se, but rather a climate of tolerance and openness seem to be rather important factors. We find that the creative class has a positive and significant effect on employment growth and new business formation at the regional level. Human capital as measured by creative occupation outperforms indicators that are based on formal education.
    Keywords: Creativity, innovation, entrepreneurship, regional development
    JEL: O31 O18 R12
    Date: 2007–09–17
  15. By: Ours, J.C. van; Vermeulen, F.M.P. (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)
    Abstract: This paper ranks Dutch economists using information about publications and citations. Rankings involve the aggregation of several performance dimensions. Instead of using a cardinal approach, where each dimension is weighted based on impact factors of journals for example, we use an ordinal approach which accounts for quality differences between journals and also takes citations into account. We find that this ordinal approach is more robust. Based on the ordinal ranking of publications and citations we find that Peter Wakker is the most productive economist, followed by Michel Wedel. The third place in the ranking is ex aequo for Philip-Hans Franses and Florencio Lopez de Silanes. Adding-up the individual output we find that the economists of Erasmus University Rotterdam are the most productive, followed ex aequo by Tilburg University and Free University Amsterdam.
    Keywords: Productivity of economists;ranking
    JEL: A11 J24
    Date: 2007
  16. By: María Teresa Ramírez Girlado; Irene Salazar
    Date: 2007–09–17
  17. By: Nicholas Vasilakos (Economics, Keele University); Gauthier Lanot (Keele University, Department of Economics); Tim Worrall (Economics, Keele University)
    Abstract: This paper reports on available bibliometric evidence on the performance of UK research in economics. It examines some standard and non-standard sources of bibliometric evidence and in particular evidence from the ISI and EconLit databases and the Repository of Papers in Economics (RePEc). It also reports on research capacity of UK economics and some non-bibliometric sources of evidence.
    Keywords: Research evaluation, bibliometrics.
    JEL: A10 I23
    Date: 2007–07
  18. By: Alain Mingat (IREDU - Institut de recherche sur l'éducation : Sociologie et Economie de l'Education - [CNRS : UMR5225] - [Université de Bourgogne]); Bruno Suchaut (IREDU - Institut de recherche sur l'éducation : Sociologie et Economie de l'Education - [CNRS : UMR5225] - [Université de Bourgogne])
    Abstract: Sur la base de l'enquête emploi 2005 de l'INSEE, ce texte expose une analyse des salaires des enseignants français du secteur public. Il s'agit d'examiner la<br />question de la rémunération d’une manière relative en mobilisant des fonctions de gains classiques de Mincer. En moyenne, les rémunérations des enseignants du<br />public sont équivalentes à celles des salariés du privé possédant la même expérience professionnelle et le même niveau de diplôme. En revanche, des disparités notables se manifestent quand on prend en compte le genre et le niveau d’enseignement dans la fonction exercée. Au niveau de l’enseignement primaire, les hommes apparaissent particulièrement désavantagés avec une perte relative de près de 15% de salaire en référence aux salariés du privé, alors que les femmes possèdent, quant à elles, un avantage relatif de l'’ordre de 4%. Une structure comparable, mais avec des ordres de grandeur différents, est observée pour l’'enseignement secondaire avec respectivement un gain salarial relatif de 11% pour les femmes et une perte relative de 6% pour les hommes.
    Keywords: Salaire ; Enseignant ; France
    Date: 2007–09–19
  19. By: Maurício Cortez Reis; José Márcio Camargo
    Abstract: For many households in Brazil, a significant share of the income is provided by retirement or pension. We argue in this paper that the high level of income provided by retirement and pension in Brazil could have consequences on young persons` decision about whether to work, and also on their decision about schooling attainment. The empirical evidence suggests that household income from retirement and pension reduces the labor force participation rate of young workers. Also, according to the results, this reduction in the participation rate is associated with both higher proportions of young individuals studying and higher proportions of individuals neither studying nor participating.
    Date: 2007–02
  20. By: Jorge A. Paz; ;
    Date: 2007–08

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