nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2007‒06‒23
eleven papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of the Beira Interior

  1. School Systems and Efficiency and Equity of Education By Jung Hur; Kang Changhui
  2. Over-education for the rich, under-education for the poor: a search-theoretic microfoundation By Charlot, Olivier; Decreuse, Bruno
  3. Has Higher Education Among Young Women Substantially Reduced the Gender Gap in Employment and Earnings? By Frenette, Marc; Coulombe, Simon
  4. Education, Corruption and Constitutional Reform By Theo Eicher; Cecilia García-Peñalosa; Tanguy van Ypersele
  5. Family size and child outcomes: Is there really no trade-off? By Åslund, Olof; Grönqvist, Hans
  6. Higher education, employers’ monopsony power and the labour share in OECD countries By Daudey, Emilie; Decreuse, Bruno
  7. The importance of education for the reallocation of labor: evidence from Swedish linked employer-employee data 1986-2002 By Gartell, Marie; Jans, Ann-Christin; Persson, Helena
  8. Economics research in Canada: A long-run assessment of journal publications By James B. Davies; Martin Kocher; Matthias Sutter
  9. Academic Patenting in Europe: New Evidence from the KEINS Database. By Francesco Lissoni; Patrick Llerena; Maureen McKelvey; Bulat Sanditov
  10. College Admissions Game: Early Action or Early Decision? By Mumcu, Ayse; Saglam, Ismail
  11. Science vs Technology: a faculty dilemma? 35 years of patenting at the School of Engineering and Applied Science of Columbia University. By Eleftherios Sapsalis

  1. By: Jung Hur (Department of Economics, National University of Singapore); Kang Changhui (Department of Economics, National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: How students should be allocated to schools to achieve educational goals is one of important debates on the construction of school systems. Promoters of comprehensive and selective school systems fail to reach a consensus on implications of each system for efficiency and equity of education. This paper examines impacts of different systems of student allocation on educational goals, using a simple economic model. It argues that how a selective system is designed matters a great deal in a comparison between comprehensive and selective systems: different designs of a selective system can yield widely different educational implications compared with those from a comprehensive system. A judicious use of a selective system can at times achieve educational goals better than a comprehensive system. Given our finding that different households prefer different school systems, we suggest that by offering multiple subsystems, the educational planner can enhance educational attainments of households beyond those achieved by a single national system.
    Keywords: Education, Comprehensive and Selective School Systems
    JEL: D11 I20
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Charlot, Olivier; Decreuse, Bruno
    Abstract: This paper studies the efficiency of educational choices in a two sector/two schooling level matching model of the labour market where a continuum of heterogenous workers allocates itself between sectors depending on their decision to invest in education. Individuals differ in ability and schooling cost, the search market is segmented by education, and there is free entry of new firms in each sector. Self-selection in education originates composition effects in the distribution of skills across sectors. This in turn modifies the intensity of job creation, implying the private and social returns to schooling always differ. Provided that ability and schooling cost are not too positively correlated, agents with large schooling costs — the ‘poor’ — select themselves too much, while there is too little self-selection among the low schooling cost individuals — the ‘rich’. We also show that education should be more taxed than subsidized when the Hosios condition holds.
    Keywords: Ability; Schooling cost; Heterogeneity; Matching frictions; Efficiency
    JEL: J24 J60 I20
    Date: 2006
  3. By: Frenette, Marc; Coulombe, Simon
    Abstract: Young women have gained considerable ground on young men in terms of educational attainment in the 1990s. The objective of this study is to assess the role of rapidly rising educational attainment among young women in raising their relative position in the labour market. The findings suggest that the educational trends have not contributed towards a decline in the full-time employment gap. Nevertheless, they have contributed towards a decline in the gender earnings gap, especially in the 1990s. However, university-educated women have lost ground to university-educated men. This is likely due to the fact that men and women continued to choose traditional disciplines during the 1990s, but only male-dominated disciplines saw improvements in average earnings.
    Keywords: Education, training and learning, Society and community, Educational attainment, Outcomes of education, Women and gender
    Date: 2007–06–12
  4. By: Theo Eicher; Cecilia García-Peñalosa; Tanguy van Ypersele
    Abstract: We model the two way interaction between education, corruption and the level of output. Corruption reduces income levels and hence educational attainment. Education in turn affects the incentives for corruption: more education increases output and thus the rents from corruption, but it also increases the probability that the electorate identifies corrupt behavior and ousts the incumbent politician. In this context, we identify the conditions under which an opportunist politician has the incentives to take actions that will allow the economy to escape from a poverty trap. Our analysis shows that the relationship between education, output levels and the level of corruption is non-monotonic, and that both institution-led development and education-led development are possible. Which path occurs crucially depends on the initial level of inequality.
    Date: 2006–10
  5. By: Åslund, Olof (IFAU - Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation); Grönqvist, Hans (Uppsala University)
    Abstract: Recent empirical work questions the negative relationship between family size and children’s attainments proposed by theoretical work and supported by a large empirical literature. We use twin births as an exogenous source of variation in family size in an unusually rich dataset where it is possible to separately look at intermediate and long run outcomes. We find little evidence of a causal effect on long term outcomes such as years of schooling and earnings, and studies that do not take selection effects into account are likely to overstate the effects. We do, however, find a small but significant negative impact of family size on grades in compulsory and secondary school.
    Keywords: Family size; twin births; education; earnings
    JEL: I20 J13
    Date: 2007–06–11
  6. By: Daudey, Emilie; Decreuse, Bruno
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of higher education on the labour share. It is based on the following idea: as education offers adaptability skills, it should reduce employers’ monopsony power and, therefore, increase the labour share. This idea is developed in a two-sector model with search unemployment and wage competition between employers to attract/keep workers. Using panel data for eleven OECD countries, we show that the proportion of higher educated in the population has a significant positive effect on the labour share: typically, an increase of one standard deviation in higher education induces a three point increase in the labour share. The other determinants of the labour share are compatible with the theoretical model. They include the capital-output ratio (-), minimum to median wage ratio (+), union density (+). We also find that the unemployment rate has a negative and significant impact on the labour share, which, together with the positive impact of higher education, is incompatible with a three-factor model where factors are paid their marginal products.
    Keywords: Search frictions; Adaptability; Labour share; Macroeconomic panel data
    JEL: J60 E25 I20
    Date: 2006–07
  7. By: Gartell, Marie (Institute for futures studies); Jans, Ann-Christin (Swedish Social Insurance Agency); Persson, Helena (Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations (SACO))
    Abstract: Using employer-employee data covering the whole Swedish economy over a uniquely long time period from 1986 to 2002, we examine how job flows and worker flows have been distributed both on an aggregate level and across educational levels. We find that job and worker flows vary by educational level, not only with respect to magnitude and variation, but with respect to direction as well. Our results show that analyses that do not account for the educational level of workers can be very misleading.
    Keywords: Linked employer-employee data; job and worker flows; education
    JEL: I20 J21 J23
    Date: 2007–05–08
  8. By: James B. Davies; Martin Kocher; Matthias Sutter
    Abstract: We examine the publications of authors affiliated with an economics research institution in Canada in (i) the Top-10 journals in economics according to journals’ impact factors, and (ii) the Canadian Journal of Economics. We consider all publications in the even years from 1980 to 2000. Canadian economists contributed about 5% of publications in the Top-10 journals and about 55% of publications in the Canadian Journal of Economics over this period. We identify the most active research centres and identify trends in their relative outputs over time. Those research centres successful in publishing in the Top-10 journals are found to also dominate the Canadian Journal of Economics. Additionally, we check the robustness of our findings with respect to journal selection, and we present data on authors’ Ph.D.-origin, thereby indicating output and its concentration in graduate education.
    Keywords: Research in economics, Canadian economics, top journals
    JEL: A11 A14
    Date: 2007–07
  9. By: Francesco Lissoni (University of Brescia, Brescia and Cespri - Bocconi University, Milano, Italy.); Patrick Llerena (BETA - Université L.Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.); Maureen McKelvey (RIDE-IMIT - Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.); Bulat Sanditov (Cespri - Bocconi University, Milano, Italy and MERIT - Maastricht University, The Netherlands.)
    Abstract: The paper provides summary statistics from the KEINS database on academic patenting in France, Italy, and Sweden. It shows that academic scientists in those countries have signed many more patents than previously estimated. This re?evaluation of academic patenting comes by considering all patents signed by academic scientists active in 2004, both those assigned to universities and the many more held by business companies, governmental organizations, and public laboratories. Specific institutional features of the university and research systems in the three countries contribute to explain these ownership patterns, which are remarkably different from those observed in the US. In the light of these new data, European universities’ contribution to domestic patenting appears not to be much less intense than that of their US counterparts.
    Keywords: Technology transfer, University patents, Academic inventors.
    JEL: I23 O31 O34
    Date: 2007–06
  10. By: Mumcu, Ayse; Saglam, Ismail
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the long-played, yet until now unmodeled, college admissions game over early admissions plans using a many-to-one matching framework. We characterize the equilibrium strategies of each college involving its early quota out of its total capacity, and the set of admissible and deferred students within its applicant pool independently from the early admissions plans of the colleges in the market. Given these strategies, we show that for each college early action is a weakly dominant choice between early admissions plans.
    Keywords: Many-to-one matching; early action; early decision; college admissions
    JEL: C71 D71 C78
    Date: 2007–06–15
  11. By: Eleftherios Sapsalis (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels and Columbia University, US.)
    Abstract: In the large and complex debate related to the creation, diffusion and protection of academic research results, this paper intends to understand the characteristics of academics involved in the knowledge creation as measured by publications and patents. Moreover, it aims to produce some piece of evidence that it is possible to manage patenting activity without jeopardizing publishing. Analysing the publishing and patenting activity of the 326 faculty members of the School of Engineering at Columbia University between 1970 and 2005, we find out that more than the Bayh-Dole Act, it is the implementation of the IP policy at Columbia University that has created an incentive to patent at the engineering school. We also find out that the probability and propensity to patent is influenced by the scientific production of a researcher, his contacts with industry but also his mindset towards patenting. Analysing the scientific productivity of the researchers, we confirm that heterogeneity in the career might deter the productivity of a researcher. We find that scientific collaboration with industry and technological collaboration on application-oriented projects with public or industrial partners had a positive impact on the probability to be among the best scientists. Finally our results suggest that patenting activity undertaken by Columbia University does not divert academics from publishing and relay the recent findings of the literature.
    Keywords: Academia, Patent, Publication
    JEL: O10 O33 O34 O38 L38
    Date: 2007–06

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