nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2007‒03‒17
sixteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of the Beira Interior

  1. More time is better : an evaluation of the full time school program in Uruguay By Cerdan-Infantes, Pedro; Vermeersch, Christel
  2. Mass Tertiary Education, Higher Education Standard and University Reform: A Theoretical Analysis By Massimiliano BRATTI; Stefano STAFFOLANI; Chiara BROCCOLINI
  3. Teacher certification and student achievement in Swedish compulsory schools By Andersson, Christian; Waldenström, Nina
  4. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia By John Marrapodi
  5. Higher Education Facilities: Issues and Trends By Francisco Marmolejo; Reynold Gonzalez; Nils Gersberg; Suvi Nenonen; Pablo Campos Calvo-Sotelo
  6. Teacher density and student achievement in Swedish compulsory schools By Andersson, Christian
  7. The Cost Structure of Higher Education in Further Education Colleges in England By Pamela Lenton
  8. “Intelligent” Primary School Project in Italy By Giorgio Ponti
  9. Time to Complete a Pos-graduation: some evidence of “school effect” upon ISCED 6 trajectories By Margarida Chagas Lopes
  10. Education, Risk Preference and Wages. By Sarah Brown; Karl Taylor
  11. Wage Differentials, Rate of Return toEducation, and Occupational WageShare in the Labour Market of Pakistan By Hyder, Asma
  12. The Over-Education of UK Immigrants: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey. By Joanne Kathryn Lindley; Pamela Lenton
  13. Returns to Education and Risky Financial Investment By Sarah Brown; Gaia Garino; Karl Taylor
  14. Teacher supply and the market for teachers By Andersson, Christian; Waldenström, Nina
  15. Pensions, Education and Life Expectancy By Michael Gorski; Tim Krieger; Thomas Lange
  16. Schools and Location: Tiebout, Alonso, and Government Policy By Eric A. Hanushek; Kuzey Yilmaz

  1. By: Cerdan-Infantes, Pedro; Vermeersch, Christel
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of the full-time school program in Uruguay on standardized test scores of 6th grade students. The program lengthened the school day from a half day to a full day, and provided additional inputs to schools to make this possible, such as additional teachers and construction of classrooms. The program was not randomly placed, but targeted poor urban schools. Using propensity score matching, the authors construct a comparable group of schools, and show that students in very disadvantaged schools improved in their test scores by 0.07 of a standard deviation per year of participation in the full-time program in mathematics, and 0.04 in language. While the program is expensive, it may, if well targeted, help address inequalities in education in Uruguay, at an increase in cost per student not larger than the current deficit in spending between Uruguay and the rest of the region.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Education For All,Teaching and Learning,Primary Education,Secondary Education
    Date: 2007–03–01
  2. By: Massimiliano BRATTI (Universit… di Milano, DEAS); Stefano STAFFOLANI (Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Economia); Chiara BROCCOLINI (Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Economia)
    Abstract: After the "3+2" University reform in Italy there has been a fast increase in the number of students. A common wisdom is that this result was partly achieved by reducing the standard of Higher Education (HE). In this paper we first build a theoretical model in which individuals decide whether to enrol in HE along with their optimal course quality, and whether to dropout. Then, we use the model to analyse the effect of a reduction in the standards of HE courses available in the educational system on overall enrollment and drop-out. We show that a reduction in HE standard helps achieving a mass tertiary education by increasing both the number of students and that of university graduates but it does not necessarily increase the overall efficiency of the HE system measured in terms of drop-out or graduation rates.
    Keywords: ability, drop-out, enrolment, italy, reform, standard, university
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2007–02
  3. By: Andersson, Christian (Uppsala University, Department of Economics); Waldenström, Nina (Stockholm School of Economics, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This study examines how the teaching staff composition with respect to certification affects student achievement in compulsory Swedish schools. The share of non-certified teachers in compulsory schooling has increased dramatically during the last decade, starting a large debate about school quality. We apply an instrumental variable approach to estimate the causal effect of the percentage of non-certified teachers on student achievement. We find, in our preferred specification, that a one percentage point increase in the share of non-certified teachers is expected to decrease the average student’s GPA ranking with about 0.6 units. A substantial effect if one considers the large differences in certification rate that do exist between schools and municipalities. The effect also appears to be stronger for students with highly educated parents
    Keywords: Teacher certification; teacher quality; student achievement; instrumental variable
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2007–02–20
  4. By: John Marrapodi
    Abstract: Since 1999 the Department of Education and Training in Western Australia has operated a successful security risk management programme. Its strategy is to help school principals both evaluate whether existing controls comply with security procedures and provide adequate, cost-effective levels of security to meet the risks faced by their schools.
    Keywords: school security, security risk assessment, school management, risk management
    Date: 2007–03
  5. By: Francisco Marmolejo; Reynold Gonzalez; Nils Gersberg; Suvi Nenonen; Pablo Campos Calvo-Sotelo
    Abstract: Issues that will shape the future of higher education institutions and new trends in campus architecture were the themes of a recent international seminar. Francisco Marmolejo, former consultant to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), presents here an overview of the seminar, explaining changes taking place in the area of higher education facilities and providing participants’ views. Presentations from three countries are also described below: Mexico’s Monterrey International Knowledge City; the higher education learning environment and the Finnish technology hub of Otaniemi; and, in Spain, the University of Salamanca’s R&D&I Building.
    Keywords: facilities management, PISA, university management, campus architecture, higher education institution
    Date: 2007–03
  6. By: Andersson, Christian (Uppsala University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how student achievement is affected by resource increases in the Swedish compulsory school due to a special government grant that was enforced in the academic year of 2001/02. The analysis is based on register data that contains all students that completed compulsory schooling (ninth grade) between 1998 and 2005. The results show that socio-economic variables explain a great deal of the variation in student achievement. The study also shows that the increased resources have not had a statistical significant positive effect on the average student’s achievement. This conclusion holds true when different measures of student achievement are used. Increased resources have however improved student achievement for students with low educated parents. If teacher density is increased with 10 percent students with low educated parents are expected to increase their grade point average ranking with about 0.4 percentile units.
    Keywords: Teacher density; student achievement; government grant
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2007–02–20
  7. By: Pamela Lenton (Department of Economics, The University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: This paper examines the cost of the provision of higher education courses within further education colleges in England. The further education sector is complex because of the wide range of courses it provides both in terms of subject type and of qualification level. We believe this to be the first attempt to fit a cost function specifically to the further education sector. Cost functions for a sample of 96 colleges over a two-year period, from 2000 to 2002, are fitted using a panel data methodology as well as stochastic frontier analysis. Our findings indicate that most further education colleges are able to benefit from economies of scale. Results from both methodologies suggest the presence of product-specific economies of scale, substantial ray economies of scale and that higher education classroom-based courses, such as business studies, along with vocational courses display substantial economies of scope.
    Keywords: Stochastic frontier, Education
    JEL: C21 C23 I21
    Date: 2006–09
  8. By: Giorgio Ponti
    Abstract: Construction work is about to begin on a new “intelligent” primary school for 300 students (later to be expanded for 600) in the Municipality of Solaro in the province of Milan. This is the fi rst primary school building in Italy designed according to the principles of the “intelligent school” as defi ned by the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan (CISEM). The building received the 2006 EUROSOLAR Prize.
    Keywords: environment, intelligent school, CISEM, innovative learning, school architecture
    Date: 2007–03
  9. By: Margarida Chagas Lopes
    Abstract: Most Portuguese higher education institutions are increasingly compelled to observe rather strict arrangements in what concerns time to achieve post-graduation studies. Actually European equivalence and mobility procedures in the framework of the Bologna process will not allow for considerable heterogeneity in this light. Nevertheless research carried recently on four Portuguese higher education institutions’ MSc. and PhD programmes revealed there is still a large amount of diversity among average time spells required to complete identical degrees. This outcome suggests that under strict time arrangements Bologna 2nd. and 3rd. cycles rate of success will widely vary among higher education institutions. Individual longitudinal data relative to a representative sample of the abovementioned MSc. and PhD. trajectories allows us to adjust a duration model and thereby investigate some of the main features behind those so different time spells, that is to say so heterogeneous success patterns. A quite meaningful “school effect” revealed to be one of the most striking outcomes.
    Keywords: Individual post-graduation trajectories; advanced studies (ISCED 7) organisation; duration models.
    JEL: I23
  10. By: Sarah Brown; Karl Taylor (Department of Economics, The University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: We explore the effect of risk preference on the educational attainment and wages of a sample of individuals drawn from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). Using a sequence of questions from the 1996 PSID, we are able to construct measures of risk aversion and risk tolerance allowing us to explore the implications of interpersonal differences in risk preference for educational attainment. Our empirical findings suggest that risk preference has a significant influence on human capital accumulation, with the degree of risk aversion (tolerance) being inversely (positively) associated with educational attainment. In addition, our findings suggest that risk preference is a valid instrument for education in a standard Mincerian earnings function.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Risk Aversion, Risk Preference, Wages.
    JEL: J24 J30
    Date: 2006–02
  11. By: Hyder, Asma
    Abstract: This paper examines the magnitude of public/private wage differentials in Pakistan using data drawn from the 2001-02 Labour Force Survey. Pakistan Labour Force Survey is a nationwide survey containing micro data from all over the country containing demographic and employment information. As in many other countries, public sector workers in Pakistan tend to have higher average pay and educational levels as compared to their private sector counterparts. First, this paper presents the inter-sectoral earning equations for the three main sectors of the economy, i.e., public, private, and state-owned enterprises. These results are further decomposed into “treatment” and “endowment effect”. To examine the role of human capital in wage gap, the rate of return to different levels of schooling is calculated. These rates of return to education may be important for policy formulation. The relative earning share is also worked out to look into the distribution of wages across the occupational categories. The earning equations are estimated with and without correction for selectivity, which is also the main objective of the study, i.e., to find out if any non-random selection is taking place within these three sectors of employment.
    Keywords: Wage Differentials; Rate of Return to Education; Public Sector; Labour Markets
    JEL: J45 J24 J32
    Date: 2007
  12. By: Joanne Kathryn Lindley; Pamela Lenton (Department of Economics, The University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: We investigate the incidence of over-education, as well as the effect on earnings, for immigrants and natives drawn from the Labour Force Survey between 1993 and 2003. This paper investigates whether immigrants are more or less likely to be over and under-educated than are natives and if there is any evidence of economic assimilation in such propensity differences. In addition we examine whether immigrants exhibit a larger or smaller earnings for over-education compared to natives. We find that native born non-whites and immigrants are more likely to be over-educated, even after conditioning on all other socio-economic factors (including ethnicity and English speaking country of origin). However, we also find evidence of assimilation in the incidence of immigrant over-education towards that of natives. Finally, we find that over-education implies a lower return to earnings for immigrants and non-white natives, compared to native born whites. The largest loss in earnings due to over-education actually applies to white education entrants, moreover we find no significant return to over-education for non-white labour market entrants, once we distinguish between these two immigrant groups.
    Keywords: over-education, earnings, immigrants, assimilation.
    JEL: J24 J7
    Date: 2006–01
  13. By: Sarah Brown; Gaia Garino; Karl Taylor (Department of Economics, The University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between wages, human capital and investment in financial assets with risky returns at the individual level. To explore this relationship from an international perspective, we analyse individual level data from the British Household Panel Survey, the German Socio-Economic Panel and the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our findings suggest that investment in financial assets with risky returns is positively associated with returns to human capital investment.
    Keywords: Education, Financial Investment, Human Capital, Wages.
    JEL: J24 J30
    Date: 2006–10
  14. By: Andersson, Christian (Uppsala University, Department of Economics); Waldenström, Nina (Stockholm School of Economics, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The share of non-certified teachers in Swedish compulsory public schools has grown considerably during the last decade, from 7.2 percent in 1995/96 to 17.2 percent in 2003/04. Moreover, comparisons between schools and municipalities indicate large and increasing differences in the share of non-certified teachers over time. In this paper we study whether these patterns may be explained by restrictions in the supply of certified teachers. We do this by using a temporary targeted governmental grant, aimed at increasing the personnel density in schools, as an exogenous teacher demand shock. Our results show that the introduction of the grant decreased the share of non-certified teachers more in areas characterized by relatively high unemployment rates among certified teachers, i.e., where teacher supply restrictions were relatively low. These findings hence suggest that teacher supply restrictions do indeed matter for the composition of teaching staff.
    Keywords: Teacher supply; teacher certification; government grant
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2007–02–20
  15. By: Michael Gorski (University of Paderborn); Tim Krieger (University of Paderborn); Thomas Lange (Ifo institute for economic research & University of Konstanz)
    Abstract: In a two-period model with agent heterogeneity we analyze a pension reform toward a stronger link between contributions and benefits (as recently observed in several countries) in a pension system with a Bismarckian and a Beveridgian component. We show that such a policy change reduces the educational level in an economy. The life expectancy differential between skilled and unskilled individuals drives this result. Furthermore, we investigate the consequences on the intragenerational redistribution characteristics of the pension system – in the sense of the number of net-recipients relative to net-payers – as well as welfare effects.
    Keywords: social security, education, life expectancy, pension reform, redistribution
    JEL: H55 I21 D39
    Date: 2007–03
  16. By: Eric A. Hanushek; Kuzey Yilmaz
    Abstract: An important element in considering school finance policies is that households are not passive. Instead they respond to policies with a combination of modified residential choice and political choice of tax levels. The highly stylized decision models of most existing analyses, however, lead to conerns about the policy evaluations. In our general equilibrium model of residential location and community choice, households base optimizing decisions on commuting costs, school quality, and land rents. With both centralized and decentralized employment, the resulting equilibrium has heterogeneous communities in terms of income and tastes for schools. This model is used to analyze a series of conventional policy experiments, including school district consolidation, district power utilization, and different equalization devices. The important conclusion is that welfare falls for all families with the restrictions in choice that are implied by these approaches.
    JEL: H4 I2 R1 R51
    Date: 2007–03

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