nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2007‒02‒17
24 papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Exploring the Impact of Interrupted Education on Earnings: The Educational Cost of the Chinese Cultural Revolution By Xin Meng; Robert Gregory
  2. Educational(work)performance in african countries:problems policies and prospects By Nwaobi, Godwin
  3. Does a Food for Education Program Affect School Outcomes? The Bangladesh Case By Xin Meng; Jim Ryan
  5. Dochází k reálné diferenciaci ekonomických vysokoškolských vzdělávacích institucí na výzkumně zaměřené a výukově zaměřené? / Is There a Real Differentiation of Economic Educational Institutions on Research Oriented and Teaching Oriented? [available in Czech only] By František Turnovec
  6. The impact of the specialist schools programme on exam results By Jim Taylor
  7. A Millennium Learning Goal: Measuring Real Progress in Education By Deon Filmer; Amer Hasan; Lant Pritchett
  8. Peer Effects in European Primary Schools: Evidence from PIRLS By Ammermüller, Andreas; Pischke, Jörn-Steffen
  9. Efficiency and productivity change in the English higher education sector from 1996/97 to 2002/03 By Jill Johnes
  10. The Changing Nature of the School-to-Work Transition Process in OECD Countries By Glenda Quintini; John P. Martin; Sébastien Martin
  11. Choice of Fields of Study of Canadian University Graduates: The Role of Gender and their Parents’ Education By Brahim Boudarbat; Claude Montmarquette
  12. Une analyse par l'économie des conventions des formations complémentaires d'initiative locale. By Bénédicte Gendron
  13. Education and economic growth By Geraint Johnes
  14. L'enseignement supérieur, un élément de la dynamique des territoires. By Michel Vernières
  15. Does Education Matter in Patience Formation? Evidence from Ugandan Villages By Michal Bauer; Julie Chytilová
  16. Accounting for Intergenerational Income Persistence: Noncognitive Skills, Ability and Education By Jo Blanden; Paul Gregg; Lindsey Macmillan
  17. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education By Ammermüller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas
  18. Efficiency in the further education sector in England: A subject level analysis By Jill Johnes; Steve Bradley; Alan Little
  19. Measuring the research performance of Chinese higher education institutions using data envelopment analysis By Jill Johnes; Li Yu
  20. Schooling and Citizenship: Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Reforms By Thomas Siedler
  21. Education, corruption and growth in developing countries. By Cuong Le Van; Mathilde Maurel
  22. Public spending efficiency: institutional indicators in primary and secondary education By Frédéric Gonand; Isabelle Joumard; Robert Price
  23. The role of pecuniary and non-pecuniary factors in teacher turnover and mobility decisions By Steve Bradley; Colin Green; Gareth Leeves
  24. Explaining the East German Productivity Gap — The Role of Human Capital By Joachim Ragnitz

  1. By: Xin Meng (Australian National University and IZA); Robert Gregory (Australian National University and IZA)
    Abstract: During the Chinese Cultural Revolution many schools stopped normal operation for a long time, senior high schools stopped student recruitment for up to 6 years, and universities stopped recruitment for an even longer period. Such large scale school interruptions significantly reduced the opportunity for a large cohort of individuals to obtain university degrees and senior high school qualifications. More than half of this cohort who would normally attain a university degree were unable to do so. We estimate that those who did not obtain a university degree, because of the Cultural Revolution, lost an average of more than 50 percent of potential earnings. Both genders suffered reduced attainment of senior high school certificates and more than 20 per cent prematurely stopped their education process at junior high school level. However, these education responses do not appear to have translated into lower earnings. In addition, at each level of education attainment most of the cohort experienced missed or interrupted schooling. We show, however, that given the education certificate attained, the impact on earnings of these missed years of schooling or lack of normal curricula was small.
    Keywords: education, earnings, Cultural Revolution, China
    JEL: I21 J31
    Date: 2007–01
  2. By: Nwaobi, Godwin
    Abstract: Without education, development will not occur, only an educated people can command the skills necessary for sustainable economic growth and for a better quality of life. Recognizing this fact, African governments have placed heavy emphasis on expanding educational opportunities from primary school through university to the past four decades. More over, international organization have put so much emphasis on supporting educational expansion and improvement in Africa. However, education in Africa is in crisis today (and most especially for African universities). Enrollments rise as capacities for government support decline; talented staff are abandoning the campuses; libraries are out dated; research output are dropping, students are protesting overcrowded and inhospitable conditions; staffs are equally protesting poor working conditions (with continues strikes); university graduates are seriously underemployed or unemployed; and general educational quality is deteriorating. The need for action is urgent and thus effective educational policy making is imperative for the eradication of the identified problems.
    Keywords: education; africa; university; primary; secondary; tertiary; nonformaleducation; gender; policies; policy reforms; female education; labour force; work performance; early childhood; formal education; lifelong learning; examinations
    JEL: I21 I22 I23 I20
    Date: 2007–01–30
  3. By: Xin Meng (Australian National University and IZA); Jim Ryan (Australian National University)
    Abstract: The Food for Education (FFE) program was introduced to Bangladesh in 1993. This paper evaluates the effect of this program on school participation and duration of schooling using a household survey data collected in 2000, after 7 years of operation of the program. Using propensity score matching combined with difference-in-differences methodologies we estimate the average effect of FFE eligibility on the schooling outcomes. We found that the program is successful in that the eligible children on average have 15 to 27 per cent higher school participation rates, relative to their counterfactuals who were not but would have been eligible for the program. Conditional on school participation, participants also stay at school 0.7 to 1.05 years longer than their counterfactuals.
    Keywords: education, program evaluation
    JEL: J38 I28
    Date: 2007–01
  4. By: Sergei Soares (International Poverty Centre, UNDP/IPEA); Emanuela di Gropello (World Bank)
    Abstract: The paper investigates why some schools in East Asia and Latin America are more efficient in the use of resources than others. It estimates input and output efficiencies and uses efficiency scores as dependent variables in analysis of variance and regression analyses. Input and output efficiencies are calculated using “hard” inputs such as number and quality of teachers and student socio-economic status, and “soft” inputs such as management; sorting and school autonomy are then used as explanatory variables in the variance and regression analysis. The results indicate that private management and student selection lead to high efficiencies and this result is negative for those who hope for quality public education for all; greater school autonomy leads to higher efficiencies, even for public schools that do not practice selection.
    Keywords: Efficiency, Education quality, School inputs, Poverty
    JEL: B41 D11 D12 E31 I32 O54
    Date: 2006–04
  5. By: František Turnovec (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: Reform of universities in the Czech Republic (and in Europe as well) has the dual objective: increase of accessibility of higher education and increase of competitiveness of educational institutions on world academic market. While the first objective (accessibility) requires existence of “teaching oriented” educational institutions, focused on mass undergraduate programs, the second objective presumes “research oriented” educational institutions, focused on postgraduate programs and research. The paper demonstrates (on a sample of empirical data about publication performance of economic educational institutions) that it is possible to observe the process of differentiation of Czech educational institutions on “teaching oriented” and “research oriented”.
    Keywords: citation; impact factor; egalitarian ordering; elitist ordering; publication and citation databases; ranking
    JEL: A11 P2
    Date: 2007–01
  6. By: Jim Taylor
    Abstract: The Government and its agencies have seriously overestimated the impact of the specialist schools programme on educational attainment. The substantially higher exam scores achieved on average by schools with specialist status are due primarily to sample selection bias and not to any benefits flowing from subject specialisation itself. A fixed effects model is used on the panel of maintained secondary schools in England covering the period 1992-2005 to obtain this result. It is found, however, that the specialist schools programme has had beneficial distributional consequences. There is evidence that schools with the highest proportion of pupils eligible for free school meals have experienced by far the biggest improvement in exam results as a consequence of acquiring specialist status.
    Date: 2007
  7. By: Deon Filmer; Amer Hasan; Lant Pritchett
    Abstract: The Millennium Development Goal for primary schooling completion has focused attention on a measurable output indicator to monitor increases in schooling in poor countries. We argue the next step, which moves towards the even more important Millennium Learning Goal, is to monitor outcomes of learning achievement. We demonstrate that even in countries meeting the MDG of primary completion, the majority of youth are not reaching even minimal competency levels, let alone the competencies demanded in a globalized environment. Even though Brazil is on track to the meet the MDG, our estimates are that 78 percent of Brazilian youth lack even minimally adequate competencies in mathematics and 96 percent do not reach what we posit as a reasonable global standard of adequacy. Mexico has reached the MDG—but 50 percent of youth are not minimally competent in math and 91 percent do not reach a global standard. While nearly all countries’ education systems are expanding quantitatively nearly all are failing in their fundamental purpose. Policymakers, educators and citizens need to focus on the real target of schooling: adequately equipping their nation’s youth for full participation as adults in economic, political and social roles. A goal of school completion alone is an increasingly inadequate guide for action. With a Millennium Learning Goal, progress of the education system will be judged on the outcomes of the system: the assessed mastery of the desired competencies of an entire age cohort—both those in school and out of school. By focusing on the learning achievement of all children in a cohort an MLG eliminates the false dichotomy between “access/enrollment” and “quality of those in school”: reaching an MLG depends on both.
    Keywords: primary school, poverty, millenium development goals, school completion, school enrollment
    JEL: I28 I20 O15
    Date: 2006–08
  8. By: Ammermüller, Andreas; Pischke, Jörn-Steffen
    Abstract: We estimate peer effects for fourth graders in six European countries. The identification relies on variation across classes within schools. We argue that classes within primary schools are formed roughly randomly with respect to family background. Similar to previous studies, we find sizeable estimates of peer effects in standard OLS specifications. The size of the estimate is much reduced within schools. This could be explained either by selection into schools or by measurement error in the peer background variable. When we correct for measurement error we find within school estimates close to the original OLS estimates. Our results suggest that the peer effect is modestly large, measurement error is important in our survey data, and selection plays little role in biasing peer effects estimates. We find no significant evidence of non-linear peer effects.
    Date: 2006
  9. By: Jill Johnes
    Abstract: This study uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) and a distance function approach to derive Malmquist productivity indexes for 113 English higher education institutions (HEIs) over the period 1996/97 to 2002/03. The analysis finds that over the period of the study HEIs have experienced an annual average increase in Malmquist productivity of 1.5%. On investigating the components of this productivity change, however, it becomes apparent that HEIs have enjoyed an annual average of 2.3% increase in technology combined with a decrease in technical efficiency of -0.8%. The finding of the importance of technology change (relative to technical efficiency change) in the Malmquist productivity indexes for HEIs is in line with previous studies (Flegg et al 2004; Worthington & Lee 2005), but the finding of negative technical efficiency change is new. Further examination of the indexes reveals differences between the subgroups of HEIs in England. Pre-1992 HEIs have experienced much lower Malmquist productivity (and technology change) than post-1992 and colleges which belong to the Standing Conference of Principals Ltd (SCOP). Further examination reveals that, for pre- and post-1992 institutions, technology change may be related positively to change in the ratio of students to staff, while technical efficiency change may be negatively related to change in the student staff ratio. Thus rapid changes in the higher education sector may have a positive effect on the technology of production but this may be achieved at the cost of lower technical efficiency.
    Keywords: higher education; efficiency measurement; data envelopment analysis; distance functions; productivity change; Malmquist index
    Date: 2006
  10. By: Glenda Quintini (OECD); John P. Martin (OECD and IZA); Sébastien Martin (OECD)
    Abstract: Despite the fact that today’s young cohorts are smaller in number and better educated than their older counterparts, high youth unemployment remains a serious problem in many OECD countries. This reflects a variety of factors, including the relatively high proportion of young people leaving school without a basic education qualification, the fact that skills acquired in initial education are not always well adapted to labour market requirements, as well as general labour market conditions and problems in the functioning of labour markets. The paper highlights the contrasting trends in youth labour market performance over the past decade using a wide range of indicators. It also presents new evidence on i) the length of transitions from school to work; and ii) the degree to which temporary jobs serve as either traps for young people or stepping-stones to good careers. In addition, the paper reviews some recent policy innovations to improve youth employment prospects.
    Keywords: youth labour market, school-to-work transition, temporary and permanent contracts, apprenticeship, youth labour market programmes
    JEL: J13 J21 J24
    Date: 2007–01
  11. By: Brahim Boudarbat (Université de Montréal,CIRANO and IZA); Claude Montmarquette (Université de Montréal and CIRANO)
    Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of the choice of field of study by university students using data from the Canadian National Graduate Survey. The sample of 18,708 graduates holding a Bachelor degree is interesting in itself knowing that these students completed their study and thus represent a pool of high quality individuals. What impact expected postgraduation lifetime earnings have in choosing their field of study respectively to their non pecuniary preferences? Are these individuals less or more influenced by monetary incentives on their decision than was found in previous literature with samples of university students not all completing their studies successfully? Unlike existing studies, we account for the probability that students will be able to find employment related to their field of study when evaluating lifetime earnings after graduation. The parameters that drive students’ choices of fields of study are estimated using a mixed multinomial logit model applied to seven broadly defined fields. Results indicate that the weight put by a student on initial earnings and earnings’ rate of growth earnings depends upon the education level of the parent of the same gender. Surprisingly, lifetime earnings have no statistically significant impact when the parent of the same gender as the student has a university education. Results show that men are, in general, more sensitive than women to initial income variations, whilst women are more sensitive than men to the earnings’ rate of growth variations. Marital status, enrolment status and the vocation identified with each field of study are influential factors in students’ choices. From a policy perspective, a substantial increase in lifetime earnings, while all other factors remain constant, would be necessary to draw students into fields of study they are not inclined to choose initially.
    Keywords: Canada, university fields of study, expected lifetime earnings, mixed multinomial logit model, parents’ education
    JEL: J24 C35
    Date: 2007–01
  12. By: Bénédicte Gendron (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne et Céreq)
    Abstract: Interaction between schools and companies through Local Initiative Complementary Training Programmes in Post-secondary Education - Formation Complémentaire d'Initiative Locale - (FCIL), permits both the integration and adaptation to employment of young people who have received “standard” training in the education system. Investment Theory (Thévenot, 1986), FCILs by being adjusted locally to company needs, may be examined as a means of preparing and regulating qualities and “school-compagny” interaction may be seen as a more efficient form of non-marketable coordination than the market one's.
    Keywords: Economy of convention, form investment theory, school-company relationship.
    JEL: I29 J24
    Date: 2006–12
  13. By: Geraint Johnes
    Abstract: Contemporary views on the determinants of economic growth place education in centre stage. Yet the way in which education affects growth is not yet well understood. This paper begins by surveying the recent literature on the factors that affect growth, paying particular attention to education. It then proceeds to estimate a comprehensive model of growth, testing its robustness across regions of the world. Policy conclusions are drawn.
    Keywords: growth, education, political economy
    Date: 2006
  14. By: Michel Vernières (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: Higher education establishments have a very important role for local development, especially for medium-sized towns. Universities are at the origin of jobs, and income, therefore they play a role for local development. In the last decades, local authorities have found it logical to relocate universities in France. But, for the future, this effort to attract new university programmes will probably oppose overall national policy. Of course, in a national and international context of competition, the most powerful universities have a true comparative advantage.
    Keywords: France, higher education, local development, regional planning, relocation.
    JEL: I23 R58
    Date: 2006–12
  15. By: Michal Bauer (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic); Julie Chytilová (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: The paper aims to contribute to the understanding of why there is a lack of domestic saving and investment in rural parts of sub-Saharan Africa. It focuses on heterogeneity in inter-temporal preferences as a possible explanation of this important puzzle. The study is based on a unique experimental data set collected from 856 respondents in Ugandan villages and scrutinizes how individual patience – measured by the discount rate – is formed. The results suggest that Ugandan respondents are substantially less patient than their counterparts in similar experimental studies undertaken in developed countries and South Asia. We find a strong negative association between the level of education and the individual discount rate. Furthermore, we took advantage of the Ugandan education reform in 1996 and varying school frequency to demonstrate the causal relationship stemming from education to patience. The estimates suggest that an additional year at school decreases the discount rate on average by 35 percentage points after controlling for other characteristics (age, income group, sex, marital status and clan linkage). Our findings strongly accord with patience understood as a non-cognitive ability which needs to be taught by parents, learnt at school and promoted by social norms. The Ugandan responses, therefore, propose a new way in which education may influence development in sub-Saharan Africa – by shaping individual patience.
    Keywords: Time preference; patience; discount rate; education; savings; economic development; field survey; sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: C93 D91 O12
    Date: 2007–02
  16. By: Jo Blanden (University of Surrey, LSE and IZA); Paul Gregg (University of Bristol and LSE); Lindsey Macmillan (CMPO, University of Bristol)
    Abstract: We analyse in detail the factors that lead to intergenerational persistence among sons, where this is measured as the association between childhood family income and later adult earnings. We seek to account for the level of income persistence in the 1970 BCS cohort and also to explore the decline in mobility in the UK between the 1958 NCDS cohort and the 1970 cohort. The mediating factors considered are cognitive skills, noncognitive traits, educational attainment and labour market attachment. Changes in the relationships between these variables, parental income and earnings are able to explain over 80% of the rise in intergenerational persistence across the cohorts.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, children, skills
    JEL: J62 J13 J31
    Date: 2007–01
  17. By: Ammermüller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas
    Abstract: On the basis of a theoretical model, we argue that higher aggregate unemployment affects individual returns to education. We therefore include aggregate unemployment and an interaction term between unemployment and the individual education level in a standard Mincer equation. Our results show that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases the returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour market changes with respect to their jobs but encounter larger wage changes than less skilled employees. Differences in regional unemployment can in addition almost fully explain the observed large differences in regional returns to education. We use representative individual data and regional panel variation in unemployment between different German regions and for different employee groups. We demonstrate that our results are robust with respect to aggregation bias, time lags and potential endogeneity of the unemployment variable.
    Keywords: returns to education, unemployment, regional variation
    JEL: C23 J24
    Date: 2006
  18. By: Jill Johnes; Steve Bradley; Alan Little
    Abstract: An earlier study used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to establish that efficiency in further education (FE) colleges varies widely (Bradley, Johnes & Little 2006a). Further statistical analysis suggested that this is explained, to some extent, by student composition and factors relating to the area in which the college is located. This study builds on those results by investigating efficiency levels by subject of study within FE colleges. Mean DEA efficiency is found to vary from 76% to 88% in the worst- and best-performing subject areas, respectively. Further investigation using statistical methods indicates that, while student composition and regional characteristics affect efficiency at the subject level, their effects can vary by area of learning. This has the clear policy implication that strategies to improve efficiency in FE colleges must be devised and operated at subject rather than provider level.
    Keywords: Further Education, Efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis
    Date: 2007
  19. By: Jill Johnes; Li Yu
    Abstract: This study uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to examine the relative efficiency of over 100 selected Chinese regular universities. Various models are developed to measure the research efficiency of these higher education institutions (HEIs) using data for 2003 and 2004. The findings show that the level of efficiency depends on whether or not a subjective measure of research output (based on experts’ opinions of the HEIs) is included as an output in the model. Mean efficiency is higher when the reputation variable is included (around 90%) than when it is not (mean efficiency is around 55% in this case). However, the rankings of the universities are remarkably insensitive to whether or not this variable is included. Bootstrapping procedures are used to find the 95% confidence intervals for the efficiencies, and indicate that the best and worst performing institutions are significantly different from each other; only the middle-performing 30% of HEIs cannot be distinguished from each other in terms of their performance. Further investigation suggests that regional location, source of funding and whether the university is comprehensive or specialist may all contribute to the observed differences in performance. The regional differences are consistent but not significant at conventional levels of significance; the efficiencies differ significantly by administrative type when the subjective measure of research output is excluded from the analysis; comprehensive universities consistently and significantly outperform specialist institutions. The possibility of regional differences in performance is particularly worrying since the already economically disadvantaged Western region may suffer a continued lag in development if its HEIs are less efficient than those in the better developed Central and coastal regions.
    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; efficiency measurement; Chinese higher education
    Date: 2006
  20. By: Thomas Siedler (University of Essex, DIW Berlin and IZA)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether schooling has a positive impact on individual's political interest, voting turnout, democratic values, political involvement and political group membership, using the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS). Between 1949 and 1969 the number of compulsory years of schooling was increased from eight to nine years in the Federal Republic of Germany, gradually over time and across federal states. These law changes allow one to investigate the causal impact of years of schooling on citizenship. Years of schooling are found to be positively correlated with a broad range of political outcome measures. However, when exogenous increase in schooling through law changes is used, there is no evidence of a causal effect running from schooling to citizenship in Germany.
    Keywords: voting, civic engagement, education, externalities, instrumental variables estimation
    JEL: I2 H4 H23
    Date: 2007–01
  21. By: Cuong Le Van (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Mathilde Maurel (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: Education is key in explaining growth, as emphasized recently by Krueger and Lindahl (2001). But for a given level of education, what can explain the missing growth in developing countries ? Corruption, the poor enforcement of property rights, the government share of property rights, the government share of GDP, the regulations it imposes might influence the Total Factor Productivity (TFP thereafter) of a country's economic system. A number of empirical papers emphasize the consequences bad institutions have on growth, but few are examining the link between education, corruption (more generally bad institutions) and growth. Our model assumes that at low level of GDP per head and high level of corruption education spending has no impact on growth. The slope gets positive only at above critical size of corruption. The implications are tested using the data set of Xavier Sala-i-Martin, Gernot Doppelhofer and Ronald I. Miller (2004), which is extended with the aggregate governance indicators of Kaufman et ali.
    Keywords: Public spending, education, corruption, endogeneous growth.
    JEL: O41 H50 D73
    Date: 2006–12
  22. By: Frédéric Gonand; Isabelle Joumard; Robert Price
    Abstract: This paper presents composite indicators of the institutional and policy characteristics of educational systems, collated from the questionnaire responses of 26 Member countries. These indicators provide an overview of the institutional framework in the primary and secondary education sector and are constructed so as to be used for the analysis of international differences in spending efficiency. The key features of the institutional setting in the non-tertiary education sector are grouped under three headings: i) the ability to prioritise and allocate resources efficiently (through decentralisation and mechanisms matching resources to specific needs); ii) the efficiency in managing spending at the local level (through outcome-focused policies and managerial autonomy), and iii) the efficiency in service provision (through benchmarking and user choice). For each country, an intermediate indicator is computed for each of these six institutional properties. Composite indicators then combine the six intermediate indicators of spending efficiency into a single, aggregate measure. Results are presented and some of their implications are discussed. Overall, the characteristics of the institutional framework in the non-tertiary public education sector seem to be very favourable, compared to OECD average, in the United Kingdom, Australia, Norway, Denmark and the Netherlands, whereas results are less favourable for the Czech Republic, Greece, Luxembourg, Japan, Turkey, Hungary, Belgium (French speaking community), Switzerland and Austria. <P>Efficacité de la dépense publique : indicateurs institutionnels dans le secteur de l'éducation primaire et secondaire <BR>Ce document de travail présente sous forme d'indicateurs quantitatifs les réponses de 26 pays membres de l'OCDE à un questionnaire portant sur l'organisation institutionnelle du secteur public de l'éducation primaire et secondaire. Les indicateurs fournissent une vue d'ensemble des caractéristiques institutionnelles susceptibles de contribuer aux différences d'efficacité de la dépense publique entre les pays dans le secteur éducatif. Les caractéristiques institutionnelles prises en compte sont regroupées autour de trois dimensions : i) la capacité à allouer efficacement les ressources consacrées à l'éducation publique (décentralisation, prise en compte de besoins spécifiques), ii) l'efficacité de la gestion au niveau local (fixations d'objectifs, autonomie des écoles), et iii) l'efficacité de la fourniture de service éducatif au niveau local grâce à des mécanismes de marché (évaluation des performances, rôle du choix de l'usager). Pour chaque pays, un indicateur intermédiaire est calculé pour chacune de ces six caractéristiques institutionnelles. Un indicateur composite est alors construit qui fournit une mesure synthétique de la qualité des institutions du secteur public de l'éducation au regard de leur capacité à renforcer l'efficacité de la dépense publique. Les résultats montrent en particulier que les institutions éducatives sont relativement favorables à l'efficacité de la dépense publique au Royaume-Uni, en Australie, en Norvège, au Danemark et aux Pays-Bas ; et relativement défavorables en République Tchèque, en Grèce, au Luxembourg, au Japon, en Turquie, en Hongrie, en Belgique (communauté francophone), en Suisse et en Autriche.
    Keywords: user choice, choix de l'usager, decentralisation, décentralisation, benchmarks, Public education, Institutional indicators, Public spending efficiency, Outcome-focused public policies, Managerial autonomy in the public sector, Education nationale, Indicateurs institutionnels, Efficacité de la dépense publique, Evaluation des performances, Management par objectif
    JEL: H11 H77 H83 I20 I28
    Date: 2007–01–30
  23. By: Steve Bradley; Colin Green; Gareth Leeves
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of teacher exits from and mobility within the Queensland state school system. In common with previous research we find that non-pecuniary factors, such as class size and location, affect movement decisions but our results suggest a significant role for pecuniary factors. In particular, higher wages reduce exits from the public sector, especially in the case of more experienced female teachers. Locality allowances paid to teachers in rural and remote schools, where non-pecuniary factors are less attractive, appear to have some success in attracting and retaining staff in these locations.
    Date: 2006
  24. By: Joachim Ragnitz
    Abstract: The paper concentrates on the question whether the low level of productivity in East Germany can be explained by deficits in the stock of human capital. It is shown that figures on “formal” qualifications yield a too optimistic view on human capital endowments; in fact, the effective stock on human capital in East Germany is lower than in West Germany when differences in job activities are taken into account. One reason is the dominance of non human capitalintensive industries as a consequence of locational decisions in the past. Another reason is a low human capital intensity within the different branches which is a consequence of specialization within affiliated firms. In the next years human capital endowment of the East German economy will further deteriorate as a result of selective migration and unfavorable educational attendance of the younger cohorts. This impedes a fast convergence in productivity between East and West Germany.
    Keywords: Productivity, East Germany, Human Capital
    JEL: J24 O47
    Date: 2007–01

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