nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2006‒12‒22
eight papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. School choice and student achievement – new evidence on open-enrolment By Söderström, Martin
  2. Can migration reduce educational attainments? Depressing evidence from Mexico By David McKenzie; Hillel Rapoport
  3. Intergenerational Mobility and Return Migration: Comparing the sons of foreign and native born fathers By Christian Dustmann
  4. Impact of Structural Change in Education, Industry and Infrastructure on Income Distribution in Sri Lanka By Ramani Gunatilaka; Duangkamon Chotikapanich; Brett Inder
  5. Pay for Performance Where Output is Hard to Measure: the Case of Performance Pay for School Teachers By Richard Belfield; David Marsden
  6. Ethnic Minority Immigrants and their Children in Britain By Christian Dustmann; Nikolaos Theodoropoulos
  7. Boosting Innovation Performance in Brazil By Carlos H. de Brito Cruz; Luiz de Mello
  8. Measuring International Skilled Migration: New Estimates Controlling for Age of Entry By Michel Beinea; Frédéric Docquier; Hillel Rapoport

  1. By: Söderström, Martin (Uppsala University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of open-enrolment on student performance in the context of an admission reform in Stockholm. Before 2000, students had priority to the public upper secondary school situated closest to where they lived, but from the fall of 2000 and onwards, admission is based on grades only. The reform imposed strong incentives for school competition: all students can apply to all schools, there is no targeting of students to schools, and funding follows the students. It is shown that the students in Stockholm perform no better with increased choice availability. In fact, high ability students seem to perform worse after the reform.
    Keywords: School choice; open-enrolment
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2006–12–04
  2. By: David McKenzie (Development Research Group, World Bank); Hillel Rapoport (Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University, CADRE, University of Lille II, and Stanford Center for International Development)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of migration on educational attainments in rural Mexico. Using historical migration rates by state to instrument for current migration, we find evidence of a significant negative effect of migration on schooling attendance and attainments of 12 to 18 year-old boys and of 16 to 18 year-old girls. IV-Censored Ordered Probit results show that living in a migrant household lowers the chances of boys completing junior high-school and of boys and girls completing high-school. The negative effect of migration on schooling is somewhat mitigated for younger girls with low educated mothers, which is consistent with remittances relaxing credit constraints on education investment for the very poor. However, for the majority of rural Mexican children, family migration depresses educational attainment. Comparison of the marginal effects of migration on school attendance and on participation to other activities shows that the observed decrease in schooling of 16 to 18 year olds is accounted for by current migration of boys and increases in housework for girls.
    Keywords: Migration, migrant networks, education attainments, Mexico
    JEL: O15 J61 D31
    Date: 2006–03
  3. By: Christian Dustmann (Department of Economics and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London)
    Abstract: This paper studies the intergenerational mobility in earnings and education for father-son pairs with native and foreign born fathers. We develop a simple model which illustrates that a higher probability of a permanent migration of the parent increases educational investments into the child. Our empirical evidence is largely consistent with this. We find higher intergenerational mobility for father-son pairs with native born fathers than with foreign born fathers. For the foreign born, we find that son’s permanent wages are strongly and positively associated with the probability of the father’s permanent migration. Investigating investments into education, we find again a strong association between the probability of the father’s permanent migration, and the son’s educational attainments. These effects remain if in addition we condition on father’s education, or on father’s permanent earnings.
    Date: 2005–06
  4. By: Ramani Gunatilaka; Duangkamon Chotikapanich; Brett Inder
    Abstract: Income inequality increased in Sri Lanka following trade liberalization in 1977. This study applies a semi-parametric method to investigate whether structural changes in education, industry and infrastructure access underlay the change in the distribution. The study finds that while the concentration of people shifted towards higher income ranges at every stage in the distribution between 1985 and 2002, changes in access to infrastructure triggered much of the shift. Higher levels of educational attainment also had an impact. But the middle classes appear to have benefited disproportionately more from the provision of education and infrastructure services than did the poor. The analysis recommends that such services are targeted more effectively towards those in the poorest income deciles to enable them to move out of poverty to higher income ranges.
    Keywords: Income inequality; Sri Lanka; education; infrastructure; kernel density decomposition
    JEL: D31
    Date: 2006–11
  5. By: Richard Belfield; David Marsden
    Abstract: The introduction of performance-related pay with Performance Management in the state school sector of England and Wales represents a considerable change in the school management system. After 2000, all teachers were subject to annual goal setting performance reviews. Experienced teachers were offered an extended pay scale based on performance instead of seniority, and to gain access to the new upper pay scale, teachers had to go through a 'threshold assessment' based on their professional skills and performance. This paper reports the results of a panel survey of classroom and head teachers which started in 2000 just before implementation of the new system, and then after one and after four years of operation. We find that both classroom and head teacher views have changed considerably over time, from initial general skepticism and opposition towards a more positive view, especially among head teachers by 2004. We argue that the adoption of an integrative bargaining approach to performance reviews explains why a growing minority of schools have achieved improved goal setting, and improved pupil attainments as they have implemented performancemanagement. Pay for performance has been one of the measures of organizational support that headteachers could bring to induce changes in teachers' classroom priorities. We argue that the teachers' case shows that a wider range of performance incentives than previously thought can be offered to employees in such occupations, provided that goal setting and performance measurement are approached as a form of negotiation instead of top-down.
    Keywords: Education, teachers, performance related pay, public sector, compensation, industrial relations
    JEL: I2 J33 J45 M52
    Date: 2006–08
  6. By: Christian Dustmann (Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration, Department of Economics, University College London); Nikolaos Theodoropoulos (Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration(CReAM), University College London.)
    Abstract: According to the 2001 UK Census ethnic minority groups account for 4.6 million or 7.9 percent of the total UK population. The 2001 British Labour Force Survey indicates that the descendants of Britain’s ethnic minority immigrants form an important part of the British population (2.8 percent) and of the labour force (2.1 percent). In this paper, we use data from the British Labour Force Survey over the period 1979-2005 to investigate educational attainment and economic behaviour of ethnic minority immigrants and their children in Britain. We compare different ethnic minority groups born in Britain to their parent’s generation and to equivalent groups of white native born individuals. Intergenerational comparisons suggest that British born ethnic minorities are on average more educated than their parents as well more educated than their white native born peers. Despite their strong educational achievements, we find that ethnic minority immigrants and their British born children exhibit lower employment probabilities than their white native born peers. However, significant differences exist across immigrant/ethnic groups and genders. British born ethnic minorities appear to have slightly higher wages than their white native born peers. But if British born ethnic minorities were to face the white native regional distribution and were attributed white native characteristics, their wages would be considerably lower. The substantial employment gap between British born ethnic minorities and white natives cannot be explained by observable differences. We suggest some possible explanations for these gaps.
    Keywords: Ethnic Minorities/Immigrants, Education, Intergenerational comparisons, Employment, Wages
    JEL: J15 I20 J62 J21 J30
    Date: 2006–10
  7. By: Carlos H. de Brito Cruz; Luiz de Mello
    Abstract: Brazil's main challenge in innovation policy is to encourage the business sector to engage in productivity-enhancing innovative activities. At 1% of GDP, R&D spending (both public and private) is comparatively low by OECD standards and is carried out predominantly by the government. Most scientists work in public universities and research institutions, rather than in the business sector. Output indicators, such as the number of patents held abroad, suggest that there is much scope for improvement. Academic patenting effort is being stepped up and should be facilitated by the easing of restrictions on the transfer and sharing of proceeds of intellectual property rights between businesses and public universities and research institutions. Innovation policy is beginning to focus on the potential synergies among science and technology promotion, R&D support and trade competitiveness. To be successful in boosting business innovation, these policies will need to be complemented by measures aimed at tackling the shortage of skills in the labour force; this shortage is among the most important deterrents to innovation in Brazil, particularly against the backdrop of a widening gap in tertiary educational attainment with respect to the OECD area. <P>Stimuler l'innovation en Brésil <BR>En matière de politique d'innovation, le principal enjeu pour le Brésil est d?encourager le secteur des entreprises à s'engager dans des activités innovantes génératrices de gains de productivité. À 1% du PIB, les dépenses de R-D (publiques et privées) sont relativement faibles par comparaison avec les niveaux observés dans les pays de l?OCDE, et elles sont surtout imputables au secteur public. La plupart des chercheurs travaillent dans des universités et des établissements de recherche publics, et non dans le secteur des entreprises. Les indicateurs des résultats, tels que le nombre de brevets déposés à l'étranger, donnent à penser que la situation pourrait être sensiblement améliorée. Les universités déposent de plus en plus de brevets et il faudrait faciliter cette évolution en assouplissant les règles qui restreignent le transfert et le partage des recettes tirées des droits de propriété intellectuelle entre les entreprises et les universités et établissements de recherche publics. La politique d?innovation commence à mettre l'accent sur les synergies potentielles entre la promotion de la recherche scientifique et technologique, le soutien à la R-D et la compétitivité commerciale. Pour parvenir à stimuler l?innovation dans les entreprises, il faudra compléter ces politiques par des mesures destinées à remédier à la pénurie de qualifications dans la population active qui constitue l?un des principaux obstacles à l'innovation compte tenu notamment du retard de plus en plus sensible du Brésil vis-à-vis de la zone OCDE en matière d?enseignement supérieur.
    Keywords: human capital, productivity, productivité, capital humain, innovation, innovation
    JEL: H25 I23 O30
    Date: 2006–12–06
  8. By: Michel Beinea (University of Luxemburg and Université Libre de Bruxelles); Frédéric Docquier (FNRS and IRES, Université Catholique de Louvain); Hillel Rapoport (Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University, CADRE, Université de Lille 2, and CReAM, University College London)
    Abstract: Recent data on international skilled migration define skilled migrants according to education level independently of whether education has been acquired in the home or in the host country. In this paper we use immigrants’ age of entry as a proxy for where education has been acquired. Data on age of entry are available from a subset of receiving countries which together represent more than 3/4 of total skilled immigration to the OECD. Using these data and a simple gravity model, we estimate the age-of-entry structure of skilled immigration and propose alternative brain drain measures by excluding those arrived before age 12, 18 and 22. The results for 2000 show that on average, 68% of the global brain drain is accounted for by emigration of people aged 22 or more upon arrival (78% and 87% for the 18 and 12 year old thresholds, respectively). For some countries this indeed makes a substantial difference. However, cross-country differences are globally maintained, resulting in extremely high correlation levels between corrected and uncorrected rates. Similar results are obtained for 1990.
    Date: 2006–10

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