nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2006‒12‒01
fourteen papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Design Quality Indicator for Schools in the United Kingdom By OECD
  2. Educational Effects of Alternative Secondary School Tracking Regimes in Germany By Weber, Andrea M.
  3. Free Education: For Whom, Where and When? By Leonid Azarnert
  4. Public investment and higher education inequality By CESI BERARDINO
  5. Education Facilities for Young Children By Anne Meade; Fiona Ross
  6. Accessibility Programme and School Restoration in Lisbon By Pedro Homem de Gouveia; Nuno Morais; António Miranda
  7. Educational Wage Premia and the Distribution of Earnings: An International Perspective By PERACCHI FRANCO
  8. Unequal Opportunities and Human Capital Formation By Daniel Mejía; Marc St-Pierre
  9. Human Capital Dispersion and Incentives to Innovate By Maurizio Iacopetta
  10. Schooling inequality and the rise of research By Bas Straathof
  11. L'éducation dans la révolution By Philippe Bayart; Rémy Herrera; Eric Mulot
  12. Human Capital, Trade, FDI and Economic Growth in Thailand: What causes What? By Sailesh Tanna; Kitja Topaiboul
  13. El papel de las instituciones educativas públicas en la eliminación de la pobreza By Blanca Zuluaga; Diego Bonilla
  14. Os Efeitos da Pré-Escola sobre Salários, Escolaridade e Proficiência By Curi, Andréa Zaitune; Menezes Filho, N. A.

  1. By: OECD
    Abstract: In December 2005, the United Kingdom launched a process for evaluating the design quality of primary and secondary school buildings. The Design Quality Indicator (DQI) for Schools is a tool that can assist stakeholders – teachers, parents, school governors, students, community members, local authority clients and building professionals – to achieve design excellence in new or refurbished school buildings and grounds. The DQI framework was developed by the Department for Education and Skills and the Construction Industry Council.
    Date: 2006–11
  2. By: Weber, Andrea M.
    Abstract: This paper examines educational outcomes of pupils selected to secondary school types by different tracking regimes in a German state: The traditional regime of streaming pupils after fourth grade of elementary school is compared to a regime in which pupils are selected into different secondary school tracks after sixth grade. Descriptive evidence demonstrates that the proportion of pupils reaching the highest level of secondary education is relatively small for those who attended later tracking schools. Additionally, the incidence of track modification is relatively frequent for schools with a high proportion of incoming pupils from the later tracking regime. However, less favorable educational outcomes of the later tracking schools are due to self-selection of relative low performers into these schools: The downward bias in estimating tracking regime effects is reduced considerably by controlling for a broad variety of socio-economic background characteristics. Corresponding regression results mainly indicate that there are no negative effects of later tracking on observed educational outcomes measured in the middle of secondary school. Regression analyses for different sub-groups suggest that the reading performance of immigrant pupils is better under the later tracking regime compared to the early tracking system.
    Keywords: education, segregation, streaming, tracking, identification, immigration
    JEL: I21 I28
    Date: 2006–11
  3. By: Leonid Azarnert
    Abstract: This article analyzes the effect of free public education on fertility, private educational investments and human capital accumulation at different stages of economic development. The model shows that when fertility is endogenous parental human capital levels are crucial for implications of free education. At early stages of development, if parental human capital is low, free access to basic education may provide the only chance to leave poverty. In contrast, at advanced stages of development, if parental human capital is high, the availability of free education crowds out private educational investments, increases fertility and may be detrimental for growth.
    Keywords: free public education, private education, fertility, human capital, economic growth
    JEL: I2 J1 O1
    Date: 2006–06
    Abstract: Empirical results show that children from high income households achieve higher levels of education and are more likely to be enrolled in post compulsory school.Theoretical findings fail to answer clearly whether greater public investment in the higher education system effectively decreases the inequality between the educational attainment of rich and poor children. We show that if the child receives a monetary transfer from his parents and allocates it between private consumption and investment in private additional education, then a further public investment decreases the educational gap. This result holds under the assumptions of both substitutability and complementarity between private and public education.
    Date: 2006–03
  5. By: Anne Meade; Fiona Ross
    Abstract: Educational buildings and grounds can provide a supportive and stimulating environment for the learning process as well as contribute to greater community needs. These issues were addressed at an international conference entitled “Making Space: Architecture and Design for Young Children”. Described here are the importance of outdoor space to learning in New Zealand, presented at the event, and a campus for pupils in Scotland (United Kingdom) visited by conference participants.<p> Access to outdoor space is seen as essential to New Zealand children’s development. An early childhood education consultant explains how the early childhood curriculum is linked to both indoor and outdoor spaces in line with socio-cultural learning theory.<p> A new campus in Scotland built to regroup several educational institutions for young children has been successful in uniting different faiths and integrating pupils with special needs. Further information about the conference is available in PEB Exchange no. 57, February 2006.</p>
    Keywords: United Kingdom, New Zealand, educational buildings
    Date: 2006–11
  6. By: Pedro Homem de Gouveia; Nuno Morais; António Miranda
    Abstract: The City of Lisbon, Portugal, is working to better integrate children with disabilities at primary school level. It recently has undertaken an accessible school programme and has restored an historic building as part of this effort.
    Keywords: Portugal
    Date: 2006–11
    Abstract: This chapter analyzes the international evidence on the relationship between educational wage premia and the distribution of personal labor earnings. The aim is to review what is known about the contribution of differences in relative wages across schooling levels to the degree of variability, between countries and over time, in the pecuniary returns to work. Definition and measurement problems are of paramount importance in analyses of this kind, and so a large part of the chapter is devoted to some of these issues.
    Date: 2005–04
  8. By: Daniel Mejía; Marc St-Pierre
    Abstract: This paper develops a tractable, heterogeneous agents general equilibrium model where individuals have different endowments of the factors that complement the schooling process. The paper explores the relationship between inequality of opportunities, inequality of outcomes, and aggregate efficiency in human capital formation. Using numerical solutions we study how the endogenous variables of the model respond to two different interventions in the distribution of opportunities: a meanpreserving spread and a change in the support. The results suggest that a higher degree of inequality of opportunities is associated with lower average level of human capital, a lower fraction of individuals investing in human capital, higher inequality in the distribution of human capital, and higher wage inequality. In particular, the model does not predict a trade-off between aggregate efficiency in human capital formation (as measured by the average level of human capital in the economy) and equality of opportunity.
    Date: 2006–10–01
  9. By: Maurizio Iacopetta
    Abstract: Do policies that alter the allocation of human capital across individuals affect the innovation capacity of an economy? To answer this question I extend Romer’s growth model to allow for individual heterogeneity. I find that the value of an invention rises with equality. If skills and talents are evenly distributed, inventions are more widely adopted in production and users are willing to bid a higher price. Therefore more inequality is associated with a larger share of the population employed in the business of invention. But, somehow surprisingly, the analysis suggests that although an equal society values inventions more than an unequal one, it may produce fewer of them, or, equivalently, generates inventions of a lower quality. A calibration of the model suggests a weak, but positive, relationship between the rate of innovation and inequality. Finally, in a two-country world, in which ideas, individuals, and capital circulate without restrictions, I find that the unequal economy tends to specialize into the business of innovation. The main implication of the analysis is that an observed difference in the innovation rate between two countries with similar levels of education can hardly be attributed to variations in domestic human capital policies.
    Keywords: human capital, inequality, innovation
    JEL: O15 O31
    Date: 2006–06
  10. By: Bas Straathof
    Abstract: During the last twenty years the share of researchers in the workforce has been rising in OECD countries. The consistency of this pattern suggests that it is not a transitional phenomenon. This paper demonstrates that the rise of research can occur in the steady state when schooling inequality is declining. Comparative static analysis of a semi-endogenous growth model with a continuous distribution of skills shows that a reduction in skill inequality can have a variety of effects, which includes a rising share of researchers. Additionally, the height of the growth rate of mean educational attainment is shown to have a positive effect on the proportion of researchers in the workforce, without causing it to grow.
    Keywords: Schooling inequality; Economic growth
    JEL: O40 I20 J24
    Date: 2005–06
  11. By: Philippe Bayart (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - [CNRS : UMR8174] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I]); Rémy Herrera (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - [CNRS : UMR8174] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I]); Eric Mulot (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - [CNRS : UMR8174] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I])
    Abstract: L'éducation constitue l'un des axes fondamentaux du projet de développement socialiste cubain et l'un des moyens d'atteindre l'objectif d'égalité. Le système éducatif y a pour finalité de remettre en cause la division capitaliste du travail, et la division sociale qui en découle. Les principes qui orientent les politiques éducatives à Cuba sont l'universalisme, la gratuité et le caractère public de l'éducation. Leur application a permis d'édifier à Cuba l'un des meilleurs systèmes éducatifs du monde, en termes d'accès et de qualité. Dans quelle mesure la grave crise qui a suivi la dissolution de l'URSS a mis à mal le secteur de l'éducation à Cuba ? En Amérique latine, les services éducatifs ont été sévèrement affectés par les récentes crises capitalistes. Mais Cuba a su préserver les piliers de son système éducatif. Les transformations intervenues dans l'économie cubaine dans les années 1990 ont pourtant entraîné maintes modifications des politiques éducatives, qu'il s'agira pour nous d'expliquer.
    Keywords: Education, développement, dépenses sociales, formation, emploi, égalité.
    Date: 2006–11–13
  12. By: Sailesh Tanna; Kitja Topaiboul
    Abstract: We investigate the causal links between human capital, openness through trade and FDI, and economic growth using quarterly data for Thailand over the period 1973:2-2000:4. A number of hypotheses are investigated including, in particular, FDI-led growth and export-led growth, as well as the reverse linkages from growth to FDI and exports. The importance of human capital is highlighted as complementary to trade and FDI inflows, underlying the importance of technology adoption. We find that, after controlling for domestic investment, government expenditure and imports, support for FDI-led growth is not as strong as export-led growth, although allowing for the joint interaction of FDI and human capital reveals a positive FDI effect above a minimum threshold of human capital, estimated to be around 4.5 years of average secondary schooling attainment. Extending our study using multivariate causality tests conducted within a vector error correction framework, we also find significant effects of domestic investment and trade openness, providing support for import-led growth, but direct support for FDI-led growth as well as growth-led FDI is again relatively weak, reinforcing the conclusion that trade openness has played a more significant role than FDI in influencing Thai economic growth. But the results reveal a subtle role for technology transfer through the complementary effect of trade on FDI, and FDI on government expenditure, which thereby influences human capital development with spillovers onto domestic investment and growth. This leads us to argue that there is a potential role for FDI interacting with human capital in influencing the future development of the Thai economy, given its recently active policy of FDI promotion.
    Keywords: Trade Openness, FDI, Growth, VECM, Technology Adoption
    Date: 2005–06
  13. By: Blanca Zuluaga; Diego Bonilla
    Abstract: Este trabajo presenta un conjunto de propuestas que contribuirían a fortalecer el papel de las instituciones educativas en la eliminación de la pobreza. Se trata de un conjunto de acciones por parte del Gobierno y las instituciones educativas que podría hacer más eficiente el gasto público en educación. El documento es el resul tado del trabajo de campo realizado en las instituciones educativas del Distrito de Aguablanca en Cali, de la revisión de la literatura nacional e internacional y del análisis de información complementaria efectuados por el equipo de investigación de la Universidad Icesi sobre el problema de la pobreza.
    Date: 2005–06–07
  14. By: Curi, Andréa Zaitune; Menezes Filho, N. A.
    Date: 2006–10

This nep-edu issue is ©2006 by Joao Carlos Correia Leitao. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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