nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2006‒08‒19
five papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Changes in Returns to Education in Latin America: the Role of Demand and Supply of Skills By M Manacorda; Carolina Sanchez-Paramo; Norbert Schady
  2. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities? By Michael Svarer; Helena Skyt Nielsen
  3. University-local industry linkages : the case of Tohoku University in the Sendai area of Japan By Jiang, Juan; Harayama, Yuko; Abe, Shiro
  4. Apprenticeship in Europe: Fading or Flourishing? By Hilary Steedman
  5. The Impact of Royalty Sharing Incentives on Technology Licensing in Universities By Saul Lach; Mark Schankerman

  1. By: M Manacorda; Carolina Sanchez-Paramo; Norbert Schady
    Abstract: Changes in the relative wages of workers with different amounts of education have profound implications fordeveloping countries, where initial levels of inequality are often very high. In this paper we use micro data forfive Latin American countries over the 1980s and 1990s to document trends in men's returns to education, andto estimate whether the changes in skill premia we observe can be explained by supply or demand factors. Wepropose a model of demand for skills with three production inputs, and we allow the elasticity of substitutionbetween the different educational inputs to be different using a nested CES function. Using this model, weshow that the dramatic expansion in secondary school in many countries in Latin America depressed the wagesof workers with secondary school. We also show that there have been sharp increases in the demand for moreskilled workers in the region.
    Keywords: returns to education, demand and supply of skills
    JEL: J23 J24 O15
    Date: 2005–12
  2. By: Michael Svarer; Helena Skyt Nielsen (School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus, Denmark)
    Abstract: Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether the systematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni- ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in household production or portfolio optimization). We find that half of the systematic sorting on education is due to low search frictions in marriage markets of the educational institutions. The other half is attributed to complementarities in household pro- duction, since income properties of the joint income process show no influence on partner selection.
    Keywords: positive assortative matching on education, search frictions, hedging, complementarities in household production
    JEL: J12 J24
    Date: 2006–08–16
  3. By: Jiang, Juan; Harayama, Yuko; Abe, Shiro
    Abstract: This paper focuses on Tohoku University in Sendai in the nonmetropolitan area of Japan. Both a long historical and comparative perspective and a spacial perspective are essential to discuss the relevance of university-local industry linkages to local regional economic development. The conjunction of these linkages and economic development has been affected by two evolutionary processes: institutional configurations and territorial dynamics in the national innovation system. In addition, university-local industry linkages have been complicated by top-down regionalization and bottom-up regionalism.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,ICT Policy and Strategies,Agricultural Knowledge & Information Systems,Technology Industry,Rural Development Knowledge & Information Systems
    Date: 2006–08–01
  4. By: Hilary Steedman
    Abstract: This paper sets out the extent and defining characteristics of apprenticeship in Europe. Apprenticeship is thensituated within the wider context of European provision for education and training of 16-19 year olds and asimple typology is proposed and explained. The German-speaking dual system countries are characterised ashigh employer commitment countries with minimal integration of apprenticeship into full-time 16-19 provisionand weak links with tertiary education. The UK, the Netherlands and France are characterised as havingrelatively low levels of employer commitment but greater integration of apprenticeship into full-time provisionand stronger links between apprenticeship and tertiary level provision. Recent evidence on the extent to whichboth apprenticeship models improve employment probabilities is reviewed and pressures on the twoapprenticeship models resulting from increasingly competitive global markets and consequent changing skillneeds are examined. A final section discusses whether apprenticeship in Europe can adapt to and survive thesepressures.
    Keywords: apprenticeship, dual system, school to work transition
    JEL: I J24
    Date: 2005–12
  5. By: Saul Lach; Mark Schankerman
    Abstract: Using data on U.S. universities, we show that universities that give higher royalty shares to facultyscientists generate greater license income, controlling for other factors including university size,quality, research funding, and local demand conditions. We use pre-sample data on universitypatenting to control for the endogeneity of royalty shares. The incentive effects are larger in privateuniversities than in public ones, and we provide survey evidence on performance-based pay,government constraints and objectives of Technology License Offices that helps explain this finding.Royalty incentives work through two channels — raising faculty effort and sorting scientists acrossuniversities. The effect of incentives is mainly to increase the quality rather than the quantity ofinventions.
    Keywords: royalty incentives, invention, technology licensing
    JEL: O31 O34 L2 L3
    Date: 2006–06

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