nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2006‒04‒08
nine papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Birth Order and Sibship Sex Composition as Instruments in the Study of Education and Earnings By Gary-Bobo, Robert J.; Picard, Natalie; Prieto, Ana
  2. Peer Effects, Social Multipliers and Migrants at School: An International Comparison By Horst Entorf; Martina Lauk
  3. The Bologna Process: How Student Mobility Affects Multi-Cultural Skills and Educational Quality By Lydia Mechtenberg; Roland Strausz
  4. Education, Economic Growth and Measured Income Inequality By Günther Rehme
  5. Cheap Talk in the Classroom By Lydia Mechtenberg
  6. Measurement Error in Education and Growth Regressions By Miguel Portela; Rob Alessie; Coenraad N. Teulings
  7. Prison-Based Education and Re-Entry into the Mainstream Labor Market By John H. Tyler; Jeffrey R. Kling
  8. Public-Private Partnership and Schooling Outcomes across Countries By Ludger Woessmann
  9. Evaluación y análisis de eficiencia de la educación en Colombia By Ana María Iregui; Ligia Melo B.; Jorge Ramos

  1. By: Gary-Bobo, Robert J.; Picard, Natalie; Prieto, Ana
    Abstract: This paper presents an empirical study of birth-order and sibship sex-composition effects on educational achievement, and uses these variables as instruments to estimate returns to education, with the help of a rich set of individual data. Our sample includes more than 12,000 men and 10,000 women, who all left school in 1992, in France. The wages and educational achievements of individuals, as well as many aspects of family background, including birth order, number of sisters and brothers, are observed. An Ordered Probit model explains educational achievements. Sibship sex composition is shown to have an impact. Brothers and sisters have significant, non-negligible and different effects on educational achievement. A higher number of siblings has a negative effect in general, holding birth order constant, except when parents belong to the highest occupational groups; in other words, it is good to have many brothers and sisters if one's parents are well-to-do (the 'rich daddy effect'). On average, girls suffer significantly more from an additional brother than boys. Birth-order effects are both significant and substantial, even when many controls are included in the regressions. A high rank among siblings is detrimental for educational attainment (all other things equal), except in the case of fatherless children. Finally, a two stage method is used to estimate log-wage equations, taking care of education endogeneity, using birth order and the number of siblings as instruments. The OLS estimates of returns to education are biased downwards, when females are considered, but do not seem to be biased in the male sub-sample, given that many controls have been added in the wage equation.
    Keywords: birth order; earnings; education; family; siblings; sibship sex composition
    JEL: I2 J12 J16 J24
    Date: 2006–02
  2. By: Horst Entorf (Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre (Department of Economics), Technische Universität Darmstadt (Darmstadt University of Technology)); Martina Lauk (Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre (Department of Economics), Technische Universität Darmstadt (Darmstadt University of Technology))
    Abstract: This article analyses the school performance of migrants dependent on peer groups in different international schooling environments. Using data from the international OECD PISA test, we consider social interaction within and between groups of natives and migrants. Results based on social multipliers (Glaeser et al. 2000, 2003) suggest that both native-to-native and migrant-to-migrant peer effects are higher in ability-differencing school systems than in comprehensive schools. Thus, non-comprehensive school systems seem to magnify the prevailing educational inequality between students with a low parental socioeconomic migration background and children from more privileged families.
    Keywords: Peer effects, migration, education, social multipliers, school systems, parental socioeconomic background
    Date: 2006–03
  3. By: Lydia Mechtenberg; Roland Strausz
    Abstract: We analyze the two goals behind the European Bologna Process of increasing student mobility: enabling graduates to develop multi– cultural skills and increasing the quality of universities. We isolate three effects: 1) a competition effect that raises quality; 2) a free rider effect that lowers quality; 3) a composition effect that influences the relative strengths of the two previous effects. The effects lead to a trade–off between the two goals. Full mobility may be optimal, only when externalities are high. In this case, student mobility yields inef- ficiently high educational quality. For moderate externalities partial mobility is optimal and yields an inefficiently low quality of education.
    Keywords: Student mobility, Quality of higher education, Multi–cultural skills, Bologna Process
    JEL: D61 H77 I28
    Date: 2006–03
  4. By: Günther Rehme (Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper education simultaneously affects growth and income inequality. More education does not necessarily decrease inequality when the latter is assessed by the Lorenz dominance criterion. Increases in education first increase and then decrease growth as well as income inequality, when measured by the Gini coefficient. There is no clear functional relationship between growth and measured income inequality. The model identifies regimes of this relationship which depend crucially on the production and schooling technology. Conventional growth regressions with human capital and inequality as regressors may miss the richness of the underlying nonlinearities, but viewed as approximations may still provide important information on the nonlinear relationship between growth and education.
    Keywords: Education, Growth, Inequality, Policy
    JEL: O4 I2 D31 H2
    Date: 2006–03
  5. By: Lydia Mechtenberg
    Abstract: In this paper, I o¤er a theoretical explanation of the robust gender differences in educational achievement distributions of school children. I consider a one shot cheap talk game with two different types of senders (biased teachers and fair teachers), two types of receivers ("normal" and "special" pupils) and uncertainty about the sender type on the side of the receiver. I demonstrate that the group of pupils who, in expectation, get either too much or too little encouragement will have less top achievers and a lower average achievement than the group of pupils who get a more accurate feedback message, even if the prior talent distribution is the same for both groups of pupils.
    Keywords: Cheap talk, Education, Discrimination, Gender
    JEL: D82 I21 J16
    Date: 2006–03
  6. By: Miguel Portela; Rob Alessie; Coenraad N. Teulings
    Abstract: The perpetual inventory method used for the construction of education data per country leads to systematic measurement error. This paper analyses the effect of this measurement error on GDP regressions. There is a systematic difference in the education level between census data and observations constructed from enrolment data. We discuss a methodology for correcting the measurement error. The standard attenuation bias suggests that using these corrected data would lead to a higher coefficient. Our regressions reveal the opposite. We discuss why the measurement error yields an overestimation. Our analysis contributes to an explanation of the difference between regressions based on 5 and on 10 year first-differences.
    Keywords: growth, education, measurement error
    JEL: I20 O40
    Date: 2006
  7. By: John H. Tyler; Jeffrey R. Kling
    Abstract: We estimate the post-release economic effects of participation in prison-based General Educational Development (GED) programs using a panel of earnings records and a rich set of individual information from administrative data in the state of Florida. Fixed effects estimates of the impact of participating in the GED education program show post-release quarterly earnings gains of about 15 percent for program participants relative to observationally similar non-participants. We also show, however, that these earnings gains accrue only to racial/ethnic minority offenders and any GED-related earnings gains for this group seem to fade in the third year after release from prison. Estimates comparing offenders who obtained a GED to those who participated in GED-related prison education programs but left prison without a GED show no systematic evidence of an independent impact of the credential itself on post-release quarterly earnings.
    JEL: J31 J38
    Date: 2006–03
  8. By: Ludger Woessmann
    Abstract: The paper provides a comparative analysis of the association between student achievement and public-private partnerships (PPPs) in schooling across countries. Student-level data from the PISA international achievement test provides information on the public-private character of both operation and funding of each tested school. Across countries, public operation is associated with lower student outcomes, but public funding with better student outcomes. Thus, systems of PPPs that combine private operation with public funding do best among all possible operation-funding combinations, while PPPs that combine public operation with private funding do worst. The advantage of private operation is particularly strong in countries with large shares of public funding.
    JEL: H42 H52 I20 L33
    Date: 2006
  9. By: Ana María Iregui; Ligia Melo B.; Jorge Ramos
    Abstract: En este documento se presenta una visión amplia de los problemas y del funcionamiento del sector educativo en Colombia, con énfasis en la educación pública. Con este fin, en primer lugar, se realiza una evaluación detallada de las normas sobre descentralización educativa, así como de aquellas que rigen la carrera docente en el país; también se evalúa el comportamiento reciente de indicadores de gasto público, cobertura, eficiencia, calidad, se presentan algunas comparaciones internacionales y el esquema de remuneración e incentivos de los docentes. En segundo lugar, se mide el impacto sobre el rendimiento académico de factores asociados al colegio y al entorno socioeconómico de los estudiantes,y se estiman los niveles de eficiencia de una muestra de 4.542 colegios públicos y privados en el año 2002. Para este ejercicio se estima una función de producción del sistema educativo, utilizando técnicas de frontera estocástica. Los resultados indican que las variables asociadas a la infraestructura de los colegios y al entorno socioeconómico de los estudiantes, tienen un impacto positivo y significativo sobre el logro académico. En términos de eficiencia, los resultados muestran que los colegios privados se podrían estar beneficiando de condiciones de entorno más favorables, teniendo en cuenta que estos, en promedio, atienden alumnos de mayores ingresos. No obstante, cuando se asumen entornos equivalentes, no existen grandes diferencias en los niveles de eficiencia entre colegios públicos y privados.
    Keywords: Análisis de eficiencia, Frontera Estocástica, Colombia, Educación.
    JEL: D61 I21

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