nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2005‒11‒12
ten papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Race Discrimination or Inequality of Opportunities: The Brazilian Case By Philippe G. Leite
  2. Earnings Inequalities and Educational Mobility in Brazil over Two Decades By Denis Cogneau; Jérémie Gignoux
  4. La démocratisation de l'enseignement en France et ses répercussions en termes de taux de rendement sur le marché du travail. By Estelle Viger
  6. High school types, academic performance and early labour market outcomes By Lorenzo Cappellari
  7. Schooling and Public Capital in a Model of Endogenous Growth By P R Agénor
  8. Intergenerational Earnings Mobility Among the Children of Canadian Immigrants By Abdurrahman Aydemir; Wen-Hao Chen; Miles Corak
  9. The job satisfaction of English academics and their intentions to quit academe By Philip Stevens
  10. Skolan och informationstekniken – en fallstudierapport av två gymnasieskolor i Göteborg By Selander, Martin

  1. By: Philippe G. Leite
    Abstract: Following the topics discussed by Campante et al (2004), this paper contributes to the literature of the Brazilian racial discrimination by isolating the effect of intergeneration transmission of schooling and the school’s quality in the race discrimination effect. Instead of modelling just one mincer-type equation like others papers, it was decided to use the Two Stage Least Square Model where the first step of modelling control the endogeneity of individual schooling instrumenting it by family background and ability tests while attending school. The paper also provide a comparative profile of urban racial discrimination in the Northeast and the Southeast recognizing the important differences across regions in Brazil both in terms of economic development and racial composition of the population. As found by Campante et al (2004), results reveal that part of the component of wage differentials ordinarily attributed to labor market discrimination is actually explained by persistent educational inequalities between races. However because they didn’t control the potential bias due to the endogeneity of some variables, their discrimination effect is 15 to 19 percentage points higher than it should be. The mechanism of intergeneration transmission is correlated with financial constraints and higher education of parents because blacks have lower elasticities of education with respect to parent’s education due to selection and causation. Even controlling the model using instruments, Private sector remains as the sector where race discrimination is really an issue. Moreover, the regional profile suggests that the labor market is a more important locus of the racial issue in the Southeast than in the Northeast, although the significant presence in both regions. However, we are not controlling for selection bias and consequently the results must be viewed with caution because it is not sure how precise the estimations are.
    Keywords: Racial discrimination, Intergeneration Mobility, Labour Market, Public Policy, Regional differences, Education
    JEL: J15 J24 J31 J71 J78 I21
    Date: 2005–10–21
  2. By: Denis Cogneau (DIAL, Paris); Jérémie Gignoux (INED, Paris)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of changes in educational opportunities on various definitions of labour market inequalities in Brazil over two decades (1976-96). Using four editions of the nationally representative PNAD survey, we analyze the evolution of overall inequalities and inequalities of opportunity in 40-49 year old males’ earnings. We design and implement semiparametric decompositions of the respective effects of (i) schooling expansion, (ii) changes in the structure of earnings, and (iii) changes in intergenerational educational mobility. Earnings inequalities varied little over the period, with a peak in the late 1980s that can be imputed to hyperinflation. First of all, the decompositions show that changes in the distribution of education contributed to the increase in both overall earnings inequalities and inequalities of opportunity among the oldest generations, before sharply reducing them among the post-WWII cohorts. Secondly, the decrease in returns to education also contributed to equalizing labour market opportunities in the 1988-96 period. Thirdly and lastly, the changes in educational mobility were not large enough to significantly affect earnings inequalities, whereas it is shown that they should play a prominent role in equalizing opportunities in the future.
    Keywords: Equality of opportunities, Labour market, Inequality decomposition, Brazil
    JEL: D63 J62 O15
    Date: 2005–10–21
  3. By: Titas Bandopadhyay (Bagnan College)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to re-examine the impact of universal education policy on the incidence of child labour and on the adult unemployment in a job-search model. The paper assumes the double role played by the universal education programme. It raises the number of school going children on the one hand and it affects the potential supply of child labour on the other hand. It has been found that govt’s free education policy for the rural sector only, for the urban sector only and for the both of the two sectors lowers the incidence of child labour and accentuates the problem of adult urban unemployment. Our findings differ from that obtained in Chowdhuri and Mukhopadhaya (2003), where we find that free education policy intensifies the problem of child labour.
    JEL: C6 D5 D9
    Date: 2005–11–05
  4. By: Estelle Viger (EUREQua)
    Abstract: This study focus on the impact of the schooling massification on the rate of return to schooling in France during the period 1983 to 2002. Moreover, it allows us to make a statement on the advancement of econometric methods that have been developed during the past fifty years. In this way, we explain why it is essential for us to introduce implicit and explicit costs, taxes on wages or the probability of unemployment, which differs according to schoolling attainment. When we take into account these several elements, the rate of return of High School degree decreases until 1990. He is now negative around -3% contrary to the return to college who converge to 8%. The schooling democratization seems to lead to a depreciation of the High School degree. It gives birth to a new period compartmentalizing individuals who continue school in college or not in two distinct classes.
    Keywords: Education, schooling democratization, return to scholling, internal rate of return, human capital.
    JEL: I21 A21 A22 C42
    Date: 2005–09
  5. By: Sarbajit Chaudhuri (Dept. of Economics, Calcutta University)
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the implications of a subsidy policy on education and different liberalized trade and investment policies on the incidence of child labour in a developing economy in terms of a three-sector general equilibrium model with informal sector and child labour. The supply function of child labour is endogenously determined. The paper shows that different policies, if undertaken concurrently, may produce mutually contradictory effects, thereby producing little or no impact on the incidence of child labour. The paper provides a theoretical answer as to why the incidence of child labour has not significantly declined in the developing economies in spite of economic development and globalization.
    Keywords: Child labour, general equilibrium, informal sector, education subsidy, trade liberalization
    JEL: F10 J10 J13 I28
    Date: 2005–11–09
  6. By: Lorenzo Cappellari
    Abstract: Using microdata on the 1995 cohort of Italian high school graduates, this paper studies the relationship between the type of high school attended (general versus technical; private versus public) and indicators of subsequent performance. Simultaneity issues that potentially bias this type of exercise are tackled by instrumental variables. Results indicate that the type of high school attended greatly depends upon the family of origin and prior school performance. General high schools are found to increase the probability of transition to university and to improve performance once at university. On the other hand, private high schools appear to be associated with lower academic performance. Technical schools improve the quality of the school-to-work transition, both in terms of participation and employment probabilities.
    Keywords: high school types, academic and economic performance, endogeneity
    JEL: I21 J24 C35
    Date: 2004–03
  7. By: P R Agénor
    Abstract: This paper studies the allocation of public spending between education services and infrastructure investment in an endogenous growth model where public capital in infrastructure affects the process of human capital accumulation. The balanced growth path is derived and the dynamics associated with a budget-neutral reallocation of spending from education to infrastructure are studied through numerical simulations. The growth-maximizing tax rate is shown to depend only on the production technology (as in standard flow models of public expenditure), whereas the optimal share of infrastructure investment depends also on the "productiveness" of infrastructure (relative to education services) in the schooling technology.
    Date: 2005
  8. By: Abdurrahman Aydemir (Statistics Canada); Wen-Hao Chen (Statistics Canada); Miles Corak (Statistics Canada)
    Abstract: We analyze the intergenerational income mobility of Canadians born to immigrants using the 2001 Census. A detailed portrait of the Canadian population is offered as are estimates of the degree of generational mobility among the children of immigrants from 70 countries. The degree of persistence as estimated in regression to the mean models is about the same for immigrants as for the entire population, and there is more generational mobility among immigrants in Canada than in the United States. We also use quantile regressions to distinguish between the role of social capital from other constraints limiting mobility and find that these are present and associated with father’s education.
    Keywords: Immigrants, children, generational mobility
    JEL: I30 I32 I38
    Date: 2005–11–09
  9. By: Philip Stevens
    Abstract: This paper considers the job satisfaction of academics using a detailed dataset of over two thousand academics from ten English higher education institutions. The results of our analysis suggest that one would be wrong to consider one single measure of job-satisfaction. Academics appear to be considering three separate sets of elements of their jobs, namely the pecuniary factors (both the salary and the ability to earn money from additional work. We also consider the influence of these elements of job satisfaction on their intentions to leave the sector.
    Date: 2005–10
  10. By: Selander, Martin (Studier av organisation och samhälle)
    Abstract: This paper is the last of six case studies in a research project ”The school and information- and communication technology (ICT)”. The study is taking place in the municipality of Göteborg. The results of the study show that that the technical infrastructure for ICT has been improved in that a municipal and centralized ICT-structure has been implemented in the schools of Göteborg. There is a difference between the two upper secondary schools studied in that one of the schools was an early adapter and created its own structure while the other school studied had no prior organized system until the municipal ICT system was introduced. The first school hence showed a more critical stance towards the municipal control of the ICT while the opposite can be said about the second school. It also seems as if the knowledge and ability of the teachers regarding ICT has been improved, even though there are big differences between teachers and schools. It is however less obvious how ICT has been integrated in the core educational activities. The teachers claim that ICT should be a pedagogical tool, i.e. that pedagogy itself should condition the use of ICT and not the reverse. It is also possible to see a difference between different educations in the upper secondary schools where the more theoretical and traditional subjects have not come as far as the more practical and applied subjects (of which some are closely connected to the ICT-technique). Another contributing factor is that the ICTinvestments have been organised as projects. This means that many schools today have problems sustaining the ICT-level when some of the project leaders have left and there are no additional funds. Another conclusion is that ICT has become very much integrated in the administrative work of the teachers in the line with the further decentralisation of the school organisation. <p>
    Keywords: Information- and communication technology; school organization; educational practice; public management; gender; practice; profession
    Date: 2005–11–01

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