nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2005‒07‒18
four papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Brain Drain in Developing Regions (1990-2000) By Frédéric Docquier; Olivier Lohest; Abdeslam Marfouk
  2. Human Capital, Market Imperfections, Poverty, and Migration: Evidence from Albania By Etleva Germenji; Johan Swinnen
  3. What Do Parents Value in Education? And Empirical Investigation of Parents%u2019 Revealed Preferences for Teachers By Brian A. Jacob; Lars Lefgren
  4. Intelligence, Human Capital, and Economic Growth: A Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates (BACE) Approach By Garett Jones; W. Joel Schneider

  1. By: Frédéric Docquier (University of Lille 2, World Bank, IWEPS and IZA Bonn); Olivier Lohest (IWEPS (Regional Govt. of Wallonia, Belgium)); Abdeslam Marfouk (Free University of Brussels and IWEPS)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the distribution of the brain drain in the LAC region (Latin America and the Caribbean), Asia and Africa. We rely on an original data set on international migration by educational attainment for 1990 and 2000. Our analysis reveals that the brain drain is strong in Eastern, Middle and Western Africa, Central America and the Caribbean. However, the Kernel approach suggests that the dispersion and the intradistribution dynamics of skilled migration rates strongly differ across regions. We then tautologically disentangle the brain drain into two multiplicative components, the global migration rate and the selection bias. Among the most affected countries, LAC countries suffer from high migration rates whilst most African countries suffer from high selection biases. Finally, exploratory Moran’s tests reveal strong spatial, political and cultural autocorrelations in migration rates and selection biases. The latter result suggests that skilled workers react differently than unskilled workers to a large set of variables.
    JEL: F22 O15 J11 J24
    Date: 2005–07
  2. By: Etleva Germenji; Johan Swinnen
    Abstract: The most dramatic recent immigration in Europe is the influx of more than 700,000 Albanians, about a quarter of the total Albanian workforce, in the 1990s. The vast majority migrated illegally. This paper analyses the determinants of Albanian migration based on a unique representative survey of rural households. The study confirms that migrants are mostly young, male, and single. Regional variations in migration reflect a combination of cultural and economic factors, including migration costs. However, we find that migrants do not come from the poorest rural households. Moreover, education has a positive, albeit non-linear, effect on the likelihood of migration. Migration is negatively related with household access to alternative income sources and reduced financial constraints but positively related with the presence and household’s access to migration networks. Policy implications are that aid programs and government initiatives to invest in rural infrastructure and rural education may have mixed effects on migration. A key policy target to reduce migration should be the creation of non-farm rural employment and rural households’ access to finance.
    Keywords: Albania, migration, rural household
    JEL: F22 O52 P20
  3. By: Brian A. Jacob; Lars Lefgren
    Abstract: This paper examines revealed parent preferences for their children's education using a unique data set that includes the number of parent requests for individual elementary school teachers along with information on teacher attributes including principal reports of teacher characteristics that are typically unobservable. We find that, on average, parents strongly prefer teachers that principals describe as good at promoting student satisfaction and place relatively less value on a teacher's ability to raise standardized math or reading achievement. These aggregate effects, however, mask striking differences across family demographics. Families in higher poverty schools strongly value student achievement and are essentially indifferent to the principal's report of a teacher's ability to promote student satisfaction. The results are reversed for families in higher-income schools.
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2005–07
  4. By: Garett Jones (Southern Illinois University Edwardsville); W. Joel Schneider (Illinois State University)
    Abstract: Human capital plays an important role in the theory of economic growth, but it has been difficult to measure this abstract concept. We survey the psychological literature on cross-cultural IQ tests, and conclude that modern intelligence tests are well-suited for measuring an important form of a nation’s human capital. Using a new database compiled by Lynn and Vanhanen (2002) along with a Bayesian methodology derived from Sala-i-Martin, Doppelhofer, and Miller (AER, 2004), we show that national average IQ has a robust positive relationship with economic growth. In growth regressions that include only robust control variables, IQ is statistically significant in 99.8% of these 1330 regressions, and the IQ coefficient is always positive. A strong relationship persists even when OECD countries are excluded from the sample. A 1 point increase in a nation’s average IQ is associated with a persistent 0.11% annual increase in GDP per capita.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Human Capital, Intelligence, IQ, Education
    JEL: O41 J24 I20
    Date: 2005–07–11

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