nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2005‒06‒27
five papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Inequality in the Access to Secondary Education and Rural Poverty in Bangladesh: An Analysis of Household and School Level Data By Ahmad, Alia; Hossain, Mahabub; Bose , Manik Lal
  2. Do Parents Favor their Biological Offspring over Adopted Orphans? Theory and Evidence from Tanzania By Papa Seck
  3. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Methods of Microeconomic Program and Policy Evaluation By Jeff Borland; Yi-Ping Tseng; Roger Wilkins
  4. Cross-country Efficiency of Secondary Education Provision: a Semi-parametric Analysis with Nondiscretionary Inputs By António Afonso; Miguel St. Aubyn
  5. Should Research Universities be Led by Top Researchers? Part 1: Are they? By Amanda H Goodall

  1. By: Ahmad, Alia (Department of Economics, Lund University); Hossain, Mahabub (Social Sciences Division, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)); Bose , Manik Lal (Social Sciences Division, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI))
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between different levels of education and poverty through an analysis of household-level data from 60 villages in Bangladesh. First of all, it depicts the overall trend in school enrollment at primary and secondary level between 1988-2000, and confirms the inequality that exists in the access to education at post-primary level. This is followed by a presentation of income and occupation data that show a strong positive correlation with the level of education. In the second part, an income function analysis has been done to assess the impact of education along with other determinants. Marginal returns to upper secondary and primary level of education have been found to be higher than lower secondary education. The third part analyzes the effects of education on child/woman ratio, and on the secondary school participation rate of male and female children. Both poverty and low education have positive but weak effect on child/woman ratio. On the other hand, school participation rates are strongly affected by the income status of the household and education of father and mother. Mother´s education has stronger effect on girls´ enrollment in seconadry schools. Lastly, the analysis of school-level data confirms the findings from household survey such as the absence of gender gap at primary level and higher proportion of girls in some secondary schools. The unexpectedly high promotion rates in secondary schools suggest that the schools are more concerned about government financial support than the quality of education. High degree of private tuition among secondary school teachers also points toward inequality in the access to quality education that impairs the ability of the poor to complete the secondary level.
    Keywords: poverty; returns to secondary education; inequality
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2005–06–15
  2. By: Papa Seck (Hunter College, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper looks at the consequences children face when they lose a parent(s). After modeling the representative household’s bargaining process between their biological and orphaned children, the empirical section of this paper looks at the types of activities that children engage in, and the differences in educational outlays of host households between those children who have lost their parents and those who have not. The results indicate that orphanhood is of critical importance to human capital formation as the probability of engaging in child labor and being idle increases relative to school attendance, following the loss of both parents. This has the same distortionary effect as a tax on children as a result of orphanhood. Even though these children do not have markedly lower abilities to read, write or perform written calculation before the death of their parents, they are outperformed in all three categories once they join the new household following the loss of both parents. It concludes that for policymakers, in-kind subsidies provided at the school level will have a bigger impact than those provided at the household level.
    JEL: C23 C25 D13 D19 I20 I30 J12 O15
    Date: 2005
  3. By: Jeff Borland (Department of Economics, The University of Melbourne); Yi-Ping Tseng (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Roger Wilkins (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: In this paper we review new empirical methods for evaluating microeconomic policies. Experimental and quasi-experimental evaluation measure the causal impact of a policy by comparing outcomes in the presence of the policy 'treatment' with outcomes in the absence of this treatment. For example, evaluation of a government program involves comparing outcomes associated with participation and non-participation in the program. We describe the motivation for the use of experimental and quasi-experimental methods, the types of policy effects that they can identify, and how they are implemented. Application of experimental and quasi-experimental methods is illustrated through a brief review of a variety of recent Australian studies that have evaluated microeconomic policies such as labour market programs, welfare payments policies, education policies, health policies and minimum wage laws.
    Date: 2005–06
  4. By: António Afonso; Miguel St. Aubyn
    Abstract: We address the efficiency of expenditure in education provision by comparing the output (PISA results) from the educational system of 25, mostly OECD, countries with resources employed (teachers per student, time spent at school). We estimate a semi-parametric model of the education production process using a two-stage procedure. By regressing data envelopment analysis output scores on nondiscretionary variables, both using Tobit and a single and double bootstrap procedure, we show that inefficiency is strongly related to GDP per head and adult educational attainment.
    Keywords: education; technical efficiency; DEA; bootstrap; semi-parametric
    JEL: C14 C61 H52 I21
  5. By: Amanda H Goodall (Warwick University Business School)
    Abstract: If the best universities in the world – who have the widest choice of candidates – systematically appoint top researchers as their vice chancellors and presidents, is this one form of evidence that, on average, better researchers make better leaders? This paper addresses the first part of the question: are they currently appointing distinguished researchers? The study documents a positive correlation between the lifetime citations of a university’s president and the position of that university in a world ranking. The lifetime citations are counted by hand of the leaders of the top 100 universities identified by the Institute of Higher Education at Shanghai Jiao Tong University in their ‘Academic Ranking of World Universities’ (2004). These numbers are then normalised by adjusting for the different citation conventions across academic disciplines. The results are not driven by outliers. This paper posits the theory that there are two central components involved in leading research universities: managerial expertise and inherent knowledge. It is suggested here that active and successful researchers may have greater inherent knowledge about the academy that in turn informs their role as leader.
    Keywords: leadership, research university presidents, citations, world university rankings.
    JEL: I
    Date: 2005–06–17

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