nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2005‒06‒19
five papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Measuring Change in Employment Characteristics: the effects of dependent interviewing By Peter Lynn; Emanuela Sala
  2. Differences in Delaying Motherhood across European Countries: empirical evidence from the ECHP By Cheti Nicoletti
  3. Are Scottish Degrees Better? By Mark P. Taylor; Robert E. Wright
  4. Measuring Education Levels of Farmers: Evidence from Innovation Adoption in Bangladesh By Masakazu Hojo
  5. Who Benefits from a Better Education Environment? By Akiomi Kitagawa; Ryo Horii; Koichi Futagami

  1. By: Peter Lynn (Institute for Social and Economic Research); Emanuela Sala (Institute for Social and Economic Research)
    Abstract: Surveys that take repeat measurements on the same individuals (panel or follow-up surveys) are often used to measure change in employment characteristics. This article is concerned with measurement error in such estimates of change and, specifically, how the error might be reduced by the use of dependent interviewing (DI) techniques. We use data from a large-scale experiment that involved two interviews at an interval of around 17 months and compare estimates of change that are obtained using three different interviewing techniques: traditional independent interviewing (INDI), proactive dependent interviewing (PDI) and reactive dependent interviewing (RDI). We examine three characteristics of the respondent’s employment (occupation, employed status, and whether or not the respondent has managerial or supervisory responsibilities) and three characteristics of the employing organisation (industry, type of organisation, number of employees). We focus on the estimation of change in each of these six characteristics. We find that PDI results in lower levels of observed change for occupation, industry and number of employees. This reduction in observed change appears to represent a reduction in measurement error as the effect of PDI is particularly pronounced amongst respondents who have not reported a change in job between survey waves. Levels of change in employment characteristics amongst INDI respondents who have not reported a change in job remain implausibly high. The reduction in measurement error brought about by PDI is particularly associated with certain employment characteristics. A reduction in the observed level of change in occupation is associated with SOC major groups 1-4 and respondents working at workplaces with large number of employees. A reduction in the observed level of change in industry is associated with certain industries and with respondents who are managers or professionals (SOC major groups 1 or 2) or have foreman or supervisor status. A reduction with PDI in the observed level of change in number of employees at the workplace is associated with large workplaces, having foreman/supervisor status, being employed in the public administration or education sectors, and being in a craft or related occupation or a plant or machine operative. We also found that measurement error was particularly reduced by PDI amongst respondents aged 36 or over and amongst the most highly qualified respondents.
    Keywords: Measurement error, employment, interviewers, survey errors, survey methodology
    Date: 2004–12
  2. By: Cheti Nicoletti (Institute for Social and Economic Research)
    Abstract: The age at motherhood has increased in most European Countries in the past decades. The main aim of this paper is to assess the impact of women's education and work experience on the timing of first birth across the European Union (EU). According to the literature - based on income maximisation framework (Gustafsson 2001, Hotz et al. 1997) - women with a higher degree of education and a shorter work experience are more likely to delay motherhood or to remain childless. However, recent micro-level studies have shown contradictory empirical evidence. For instance, higher educated women or career women seem to enter motherhood earlier in the Northern European Countries (Kravdal 1994, Hoem 2000, Andersson 2001). Conceivably, these ambiguous findings might reflect substantial cross-country differences that we would like to point out. Therefore, we conduct an analysis to explain how the probability to enter into motherhood differs across 10 European Union countries by using the European Community Household Panel survey (ECHP). On one side, the gap between countries may reflect differences in the observed characteristics of the national women populations, such as differences in the female labour participation and in the human capital investment. On the other side, the gap may be instead due to different fertility behaviours across countries. In the empirical application we try to disentangle between these two reasons.
    Keywords: cross-national research methods, europe, fertility
    Date: 2005–03
  3. By: Mark P. Taylor (Institute for Social and Economic Research); Robert E. Wright (University of Stirling)
    Abstract: In wave 12 of the BHPS, information was collected about the institution attended by respondents with higher education, making it possible to identify those who studied and Scottish and English institutions. In this paper, wage equation are estimated with panel data methods in an attempt to measure differences in the rates of return to Scottish and English degrees. The analysis suggests that the earnings returns to higher education are larger in Scotland than in England. However the return to English degrees appears to be higher than for Scottish degrees in both the English and Scottish labour markets.
    Keywords: bhps, earnings, education
    Date: 2005–05
  4. By: Masakazu Hojo (Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University)
    Abstract: Education levels of farmers have been measured in a variety of ways in preceding studies. In order to examine whether or not different measures of education have different effects on the behavior of farmers, I first summarize the measures of education and then perform an empirical analysis. Although education measures examined in this paper have been used in many studies, their effects are shown to differ significantly in my empirical analysis: some variables have positive impacts on farmerfs behavior while others do not. This result suggests we have to pay more attention to selecting measures of education in empirical investigations.
    Keywords: Education; Agriculture; Technology adoption; Bangladesh
    JEL: I20 Q12 Q16
    Date: 2004–03
  5. By: Akiomi Kitagawa (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Ryo Horii (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Koichi Futagami (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: Using an overlapping generations model, this note shows that an improvement in the efficiency of human capital production decreases the net income of the young household while increasing that of the old. Without compensating redistribution, it deteriorates lifetime utilities of all generations except for the initial old households.
    Keywords: human capital; intergenerational income distribution; overlapping generations.
    JEL: J24 O15 I22
    Date: 2004–07

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