nep-edu New Economics Papers
on Education
Issue of 2005‒02‒06
five papers chosen by
Joao Carlos Correia Leitao
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. The Private and Fiscal Returns to Schooling and the Effect of Public Policies on Private Incentives to Invest in Education: A General Framework and Some Results for the EU By Angel De la Fuente; Juan F. Jimeno
  2. Healthy, Educated and Wealthy: Is the Welfare State Really Harmful for Growth? By Beraldo, S.; Montolio, D.; Turati, G.
  3. Unequal Opportunities and Human Capital Formation By Daniel Mejía; Marc St-Pierre
  4. Skill Policies for Scotland By James J. Heckman; Dimitriy V. Masterov
  5. Gender Differences in Academic Performance in a Large Public University in Turkey By Meltem Dayioglu; Serap Türüt-Asik

  1. By: Angel De la Fuente; Juan F. Jimeno
    Abstract: This paper develops a comprehensive framework for the quantitative analysis of the private and fiscal returns to schooling and of the effect of public policies on private incentives to invest in education. This framework is applied to 14 member states of the European Union. For each of these countries, we construct estimates of the private return to an additional year of schooling for an individual of average attainment, taking into account the effects of education on wages and employment probabilities after allowing for academic failure rates, the direct and opportunity costs of schooling, and the impact of personal taxes, social security contributions and unemployment and pension benefits on net incomes. We also construct a set of effective tax and subsidy rates that measure the effects of different public policies on the private returns to education, and measures of the fiscal returns to schooling that capture the long-term effects of a marginal increase in attainment on public finances under conditions that approximate general equilibrium.
    JEL: I20 I22 I28
    Date: 2005
  2. By: Beraldo, S.; Montolio, D.; Turati, G. (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study how public and private expenditures in health and education affect economic growth by their influence on people’s health, abilities, skills and knowledge. We consider a growth accounting framework in order to test whether welfare expenditures more than offset the efficiency losses caused by distortionary taxation, and whether the effects of public expenditure on economic growth differ from those of private expenditure. Our empirical analysis is based on a panel of 19 OECD countries observed between 1971 and 1998. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the contribution of welfare expenditures more than compensates for the distortions caused by the tax system; and the estimated positive impact is stronger for health than for education. We also find some evidence that public expenditure influences GDP growth more than private expenditure.
    JEL: H51 H52 I38 O47
    Date: 2005
  3. By: Daniel Mejía; Marc St-Pierre
    Abstract: This paper develops a tractable, heterogeneous agents general equilibrium model where individuals have different endowments of the factors that complement the schooling process. The paper explores the relationship between inequality of opportunities, inequality of outcomes, and efficiency in human capital formation. Using numerical solutions we study how the endogenous variables of the model respond to two different interventions in the distribution of opportunities: a mean-preserving spread and a change in the support. The results suggest that a higher degree of inequality of opportunities is associated with lower average level of human capital, a lower fraction of individuals investing in human capital, higher inequality in the distribution of human capital, and higher wage inequality. In other words, the model does not predict a trade-off between efficiency and equality of opportunity in human capital formation.
    Keywords: human capital, inequality, equity-efficiency trade-off
    JEL: D33 J24 J31 O15
    Date: 2005
  4. By: James J. Heckman; Dimitriy V. Masterov
    Abstract: This paper argues that skill formation is a life-cycle process and develops the implications of this insight for Scottish social policy. Families are major producers of skills, and a successful policy needs to promote effective families and to supplement failing ones. Targeted early interventions have proven to be very effective in compensating for the effect of neglect. Improvements in traditional measures of school quality, tuition subsidies, company-sponsored and public job training are unlikely to be as effective. We review the evidence and present several policy recommendations.
    JEL: I21 I22 I28 J31
    Date: 2005
  5. By: Meltem Dayioglu (Department of Economics, METU); Serap Türüt-Asik (Department of Economics, METU)
    Abstract: The paper attempts to determine whether there are significant gender differences in academic performance among undergraduate students in a large public university in Turkey based on three indicators; university entrance scores, performance in the English preparatory school and in the program the student is majoring in. The paper finds that a smaller number of female students manage to enter the university and when they do so, they enter with lower scores. However, once they are admitted to the university, they excel in their studies and outperform their male counterparts. This result holds after controlling for the field of study and individual attributes.
    Keywords: Academic achievement, undergraduate students, gender disparity, Turkey
    JEL: I21 J16
    Date: 2004–12

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