nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2023‒01‒02
six papers chosen by
Jacob A. Jordaan
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Beyond the Income Effect of International Trade on Ethnic Wars in Africa By Fabien Candau; T Gbandi; G Guepie
  2. Does project-level aid for water and sanitation improve child health outcomes?: Evidence from household panel data in Uganda By Lynda Pickbourn; Raymond Caraher; Léonce Ndikumana
  3. Sending peace home?! The effect of political favoritism on conflict By Andreas Kammerlander; Kerstin Unfried
  4. Crop Prices and Deforestation in the Tropics By Nicolas Berman; Mathieu Couttenier; Antoine Leblois; Raphaël Soubeyran
  5. Foreign aid and intergenerational mobility in Africa By Ali Compaoré; Roukiatou Nikièma; Rasmané Ouédraogo
  6. Liberation Technology? The Impact of Broadband Internet on Mass Mobilization in Sub-Saharan Africa By Guiffard, Jean-Baptiste

  1. By: Fabien Candau (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); T Gbandi (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); G Guepie (UNECA - United Nations Economic Commission for Africa - United Nations)
    Abstract: We use detailed information on the location of agricultural and mining production to approximate international trade for different ethnic groups in order to study its impact on ethnic conflicts in Africa between 1993 and 2010. The goal is to go beyond the income effects of trade to study the residual effects of globalization on conflicts. We find that once we control for income but also for a wide variety of different factors in conflicts (using political variables and fixed effects), the international trade by ethnic groups has a pacific impact on conflicts. While this peaceful impact of trade is mainly found in the trade in agricultural products, it does not have a significant impact in the international trade in mining products. Finally, we propose an original two-step analysis showing that exports significantly reduce conflicts by affecting time-varying national characteristics. We interpret this result as an indication that globalization in Africa has participated in the formation of new national identities with peaceful effects between ethnic groups.
    Keywords: Ethnic Wars,Regional Trade,Globalization,National Identity,Africa
    Date: 2021–10–12
  2. By: Lynda Pickbourn; Raymond Caraher; Léonce Ndikumana
    Abstract: Empirical studies on the effectiveness of aid to the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector (WASH aid) have focused primarily on access to these services as the benchmark for evaluating the effectiveness of aid in this sector. Given the importance of WASH services for public health outcomes, the effectiveness of WASH aid should also be evaluated in terms of its impact on health outcomes. This is especially important in low- and middle-income countries where achieving sustained improvements in child health outcomes remains a challenge.
    Keywords: Aid effectiveness, Public health, Water, Sanitation, Stunting, Difference-in-differences, Uganda
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Andreas Kammerlander (University of Freiburg); Kerstin Unfried (Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine)
    Abstract: Bringing the model by Choi (2014) to a spatial context, we investigate and assess the link between political favoritism and internal conflict. In particular, we compare the difference in the likelihood and intensity of conflict between regions in which citizens reside that belong to identity groups of political leaders and others over time in a global sample. Combining geo-coded conflict data with self-gathered information on the birthplaces and ethnic affiliation of 836 political national leaders and using a two-way fixed effects model with region and country-year fixed effects, we find that regions experience 10% fewer casualties while they constitute the birth region of the national leader in autocracies. We also find evidence for ethnic favoritism. Our analysis indicates that autocratic leaders use political favoritism (in armed forces) and other coup-proofing strategies to remain in power that reduce the intensity of conflict in their homelands.
    Keywords: political favoritism, identity politics, conflict, geo-data
    JEL: D72 R11
    Date: 2022–12
  4. By: Nicolas Berman (Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, AMSE, Marseille, France, and CEPR); Mathieu Couttenier (ENS de Lyon & CEPR); Antoine Leblois (CEE-M, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, INRAE, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France); Raphaël Soubeyran (CEE-M, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, INRAE, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France)
    Abstract: Global food demand is rising, driven by a growing world population and dietary changes in developing countries. This situation encourages farmers to increase crop production which, in turn, increases worldwide demand for agricultural land and the pressure on tropical forests. Given the probability that growth in world food demand will continue, this pressure is not likely to abate in coming decades. While the impact of food demand on deforestation has been in the headlines, rigorous evidence of the relationship between international crop prices and deforestation using large-N data remains scarce. We attempt to quantify this link during the twenty-first century using high-resolution annual forest loss data for tropical regions, combined with information on crop-specific agricultural suitability and annual global commodity prices. We find that price variation has a sizable impact on deforestation: crop price increases are estimated tobe responsible for a third of the total deforested area in the tropics (approx. 2 million km2) during the period 2001-2018. We also find that the degree of openness to international trade and level of economic development are first-order local characteristics affecting the magnitude of the impact of crop prices on deforestation.
    Keywords: Deforestation, Food demand,
    JEL: F18 Q23 Q56
    Date: 2022–11
  5. By: Ali Compaoré; Roukiatou Nikièma; Rasmané Ouédraogo
    Abstract: While there is extensive literature examining the growth and development effects of foreign aid, very little attention has been paid to its potential impact on social mobility. Thus, this paper provides the first empirical evidence on the effects of foreign aid on intergenerational educational mobility in Africa.
    Keywords: Foreign aid, Intergenerational Mobility, Africa, Education, Social mobility, Educational mobility
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Guiffard, Jean-Baptiste
    Abstract: I use the gradual arrival of submarine Internet cables on the coast and the route of the backbone cables network to demonstrate how high-speed Internet (fixed and mobile jointly considered) has an impact on political mobilization in Africa. I obtained robust difference-indifferences estimates using Afrobarometer data from ten countries, which reveal a positive effect on the likelihood of participating in a protest. Since having access to high-speed Internet allows access to social networks and other content, two mechanisms are explored to explain this positive impact: information and coordination channels. The main explanatory channel appears to be the enhanced coordination.
    Keywords: Governance,Development,Political Mobilization,Telecom,High-speed Internet,Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022

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