nep-dev New Economics Papers
on Development
Issue of 2022‒11‒07
twenty-one papers chosen by
Jacob A. Jordaan
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Protectionism and Gender Inequality in Developing Countries By Artuc,Erhan; Depetris Chauvin,Nicolas M.; Porto,Guido; Rijkers,Bob
  2. Firms and inequality when unemployment is high By Ihsaan Bassier
  3. Cash Transfers after Ebola in Guinea : Lessons Learned on Human Capital By De Walque,Damien B. C. M.; Mavridis,Dimitris
  4. Cash Transfers and Formal Labor Markets : Evidence from Brazil By Gerard,François,Naritomi,Joana,Silva,Joana C. G.
  5. Corruption in Customs By Chalendard,Cyril Romain; Fernandes,Ana Margarida; Raballand,Gael J. R. F.; Rijkers,Bob
  6. The Pass-Through of International Commodity Price Shocks to Producers’ Welfare : Evidence from EthiopianCoffee Farmers By Kebede,Hundanol Atnafu
  7. Recurrent Climatic Shocks and Humanitarian Aid : Impacts on Livelihood Outcomes in Malawi By Mccarthy,Nancy; Kilic,Talip; Brubaker,Joshua Milton; De La Fuente,Alejandro; Murray,Siobhan
  8. Mobile Broadband Internet, Poverty and Labor Outcomes in Tanzania By Bahia,Kalvin; Castells,Pau; Masaki,Takaaki; Cruz,Genaro; Rodriguez Castelan,Carlos; Sanfelice,Viviane
  9. Climate Anomalies and International Migration : A Disaggregated Analysis for West Africa By Flores,Fernanda Martínez; Milusheva,Svetoslava Petkova; Reichert,Arndt Rudiger
  10. Climate Shocks, Vulnerability, Resilience and Livelihoods in Rural Zambia By Ngoma,Hambulo,Finn,Arden Jeremy,Kabisa,Mulako
  11. Barriers to Growth-Enhancing Structural Transformation : The Role of Subnational Differences in Intersectoral Productivity Gaps By Paul,Saumik; Raju,Dhushyanth
  12. Roads, Electricity, and Jobs: Evidence of Infrastructure Complementarity in Sub-Saharan Africa By Abbasi ,Mansoureh; Lebrand,Mathilde Sylvie Maria; Mongoue,Arcady Bluette; Pongou,Roland; Zhang,Fan
  13. Conflict and Girl Child Marriage: Global Evidence By Caroline Krafft; Diana Jimena Arango; Amalia Hadas Rubin; Jocelyn Kelly
  14. Measuring Disaster Crop Production Losses Using Survey Microdata : Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Markhof,Yannick Valentin; Ponzini,Giulia; Wollburg,Philip Randolph
  15. The Impact of Ethiopia’s Road Investment Program on Economic Development and Land Use :Evidence from Satellite Data By Alder,Simon; Croke,Kevin; Duhaut,Alice; Marty,Robert Andrew; Vaisey,Ariana Brynn
  16. Survey Measurement Errors and the Assessment of the Relationship between Yields and Inputs inSmallholder Farming Systems : Evidence from Mali By Yacoubou Djima,Ismael; Kilic,Talip
  17. The Role of Social Identity and Perceived Discrimination in Human Capital Formation: Evidence from India By Isha Gupta
  18. Poverty in India Has Declined over the Last Decade But Not As Much As Previously Thought By Sinha Roy,Sutirtha; Van Der Weide,Roy
  19. Intra-Household Negotiation in Ivory Coast: Experimental Evidence from Rural Areas By Dimova, Ralitza; Abou, Edouard Pokou; Basu, Arnab K.; Viennet, Romane
  20. Saving Lives through Technology : Mobile Phones and Infant Mortality By Mensah,Justice Tei; Hirfrfot,Kibrom Tafere; Abay,Kibrom A.
  21. A Multi-Country Analysis of Multidimensional Poverty in Contexts of Forced Displacement By Admasu,Yeshwas; Alkire,Sabina; Ekhator-Mobayode,Uche Eseosa; Kovesdi,Fanni; Santamaria,Julieth; Scharlin-Pettee[,Sophie

  1. By: Artuc,Erhan; Depetris Chauvin,Nicolas M.; Porto,Guido; Rijkers,Bob
    Abstract: How do tariffs impact gender inequality? Using harmonized household survey and tariff data from 54 low- and middle-income countries, this paper shows that protectionism has an anti-female bias. On average, tariffs repress the real incomes of female headed households by 0.6 percentage points relative to that of male headed ones. Female headed households bear the brunt of tariffs because they derive a smaller share of their income from and spend a larger share of their budget on agricultural products, which are usually subject to high tariffs in developing countries. Consistent with this explanation, the anti-female bias is stronger in countries where female-headed households are underrepresented in agricultural production, are more reliant on remittances, and spend a larger share of their budgets on food than male-headed ones.
    Keywords: Gender and Economic Policy,Gender and Poverty,Gender and Economics,Economics and Gender,International Trade and Trade Rules,Gender and Development,Trade and Multilateral Issues,Rules of Origin,Trade Policy
    Date: 2021–08–17
  2. By: Ihsaan Bassier
    Abstract: How important are firms for wage inequality in developing countries where structural unemployment is high? Research focused on contexts close to full employment has suggested a substantial role of firms in labor market inequality. Using matched employer-employee data from South Africa, I find that firms explain a larger share of wage variation than in richer countries. I consider drivers of this, documenting first a higher productivity dispersion as found for other developing countries. Secondly, I estimate the separations elasticity by instrumenting wages of matched workers with firm wages, and I find a low separations elasticity. This generates a high degree of monopsony, and the correspondingly high estimated rent-sharing elasticity helps explain the important role of firm wage policies in inequality. Monopsony may be driven by higher unemployment, and regional heterogeneity provides suggestive evidence for this. Such firm-level competitive dynamics may exacerbate inequality in developing countries more generally.
    Keywords: inequality, firm wage premia, unemployment, monopsony
    Date: 2022–10–07
  3. By: De Walque,Damien B. C. M.; Mavridis,Dimitris
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effects of a program that transferred different amounts of cash to poorhouseholds in rural Guinea. The program’s aim was to improve children’s schooling and health outcomes in the immediateaftermath of the Ebola pandemic. In treated villages, households received cash conditional only on attendingtrainings promoting good health practices and schooling. The program randomizedat two levels. The first level was between treated and control villages. The second level waswithin treated villages. Households were randomly distributed in three treatment arms: (i) no cash transfer,(ii) a cash transfer of 8 USD/quarter/child over two years, and (iii) a cash transfer twice as large as in group (ii).School enrollment increased nationwide and rapidly in the aftermath of Ebola. The authors find that it increasedsignificantly more in treated villages. From a low baseline of around 40 percent of primary-school-age enrollment,treated villages increased their school enrollment by more than 11 percentage points compared to control villages. Theeffect is higher for larger cash transfers compared to those with no cash transfers in treated villages. Schoolenrollment also increased among untreated households in treated villages, probably due to a combined effect—whichcannot be differentiated—from spillovers and from the information campaigns. Despite the massive increase inschool enrollment, there is no evidence of effects on learning measures. Health inputs such as vaccinationdeteriorated overall in Guinea in the aftermath of Ebola, and the program did not mitigate this fall.
    Date: 2022–03–29
  4. By: Gerard,François,Naritomi,Joana,Silva,Joana C. G.
    Abstract: Cash transfer programs have expanded widely in developing countries and have been credited for sizable reductions in poverty. However, their potential disincentive effects on beneficiaries' labor supply have spurred a heated policy debate. This paper studies the impact of a large-scale program Bolsa Familia in Brazil on local labor markets in a context where such concerns could be particularly strong: eligibility is means-tested and the paper focuses on the formal labor market, where earnings are more easily verifiable. Yet, the analysis finds that an expansion of Bolsa Familia increased local formal employment, using variation in the size of the reform across municipalities. The evidence is consistent with multiplier effects of cash transfers in the local economy, which dominate potential negative effects on formal labor supply among beneficiaries.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Rural Labor Markets,Inequality,Economic Assistance,Disability,Services&Transfers to Poor,Access of Poor to Social Services,Employment and Unemployment
    Date: 2021–09–22
  5. By: Chalendard,Cyril Romain; Fernandes,Ana Margarida; Raballand,Gael J. R. F.; Rijkers,Bob
    Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology to detect corruption in customs and applies it toMadagascar’s main port. Manipulation of assignment of import declarations to inspectors is identified by measuringdeviations from random assignment prescribed by official rules. Deviant declarations are more at risk of tax evasion,yet less likely to be deemed fraudulent by inspectors, who also clear them faster. An intervention in which inspectorassignment was delegated to a third party validates the approach, but also triggered a novel manifestation of manipulation that rejuvenated systemic corruption. Taxrevenue losses associated with the corruption scheme are approximately 3 percent of total taxes collected and highlyconcentrated among a select few inspectors and brokers.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Tax Law,Trade and Services,Labor Markets,Youth and Governance,Judicial System Reform,Public Sector Economics,Government Policies,Legal Products,Legal Reform,Legislation,Public Finance Decentralization and Poverty Reduction,Regulatory Regimes,Social Policy,National Governance
    Date: 2021–10–12
  6. By: Kebede,Hundanol Atnafu
    Abstract: International commodity price shocks may have large impacts on producers in developing countries.In this paper, a unique household panel data from Ethiopia is utilize to show that a decrease in international coffeeprice has strong pass-through to the consumption of households that rely on coffee production as a main sourceof livelihood. It also results in decreases in on-farm labor supply (particularly male labor supply) and inducesreallocation of labor towards non-coffee fields, but has negligible effect on off-farm labor supply. The decline inconsumption has significant consequences on child malnutrition: children born in coffee-producing householdsduring low coffee price periods have lower weight-to-age and weight-to-height z-scores than their peers born innon-coffee households.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Health Care Services Industry,Nutrition,International Trade and Trade Rules
    Date: 2021–11–05
  7. By: Mccarthy,Nancy; Kilic,Talip; Brubaker,Joshua Milton; De La Fuente,Alejandro; Murray,Siobhan
    Abstract: Between 2014 and 2016 unprecedented and consecutive climatic shocks ravaged Malawi, one of the poorest countries in the world. The largest ever emergency relief operation in the country’s history ensued. The pathways and extent to which the humanitarian response protected livelihoods remain under researched. This paper uses a unique data set that combines longitudinal household survey data with GIS-based measures of weather shocks and climate conditions and longitudinal administrative data on the World Food Programme’s aid distribution. The paper aims to understand the drivers of humanitarian aid and evaluate the impact of aid and weather shocks on outcomes related to household production and consumption in Malawi. The analysis shows that droughts and floods had consistent negative impacts on a range of welfare outcomes, particularly for households that were subject to sequential shocks. Aid receipt is demonstrated to attenuate such impacts, again particularly for households that experienced the shocks consecutively. Households living in areas subject to a weather shock and with higher World Food Programme aid distribution were more likely to receive food aid, partially explaining the success of aid in mitigating the impacts of shocks. However, there is significant scope for improving the criteria for targeting humanitarian aid beneficiaries.
    Keywords: Natural Disasters,Inequality,Foreign Aid,Development Economics&Aid Effectiveness,Economics and Gender,Gender and Economic Policy,Gender and Poverty,Gender and Economics
    Date: 2021–05–19
  8. By: Bahia,Kalvin; Castells,Pau; Masaki,Takaaki; Cruz,Genaro; Rodriguez Castelan,Carlos; Sanfelice,Viviane
    Abstract: What are the impacts of expanding mobile broadband coverage on poverty, household consumption and labor market outcomes in developing countries? Who benefits from improved coverage of mobile internet? To respond to these questions, this paper applies a difference-in-differences estimation using panel household survey data combined with geospatial information on the rollout of mobile broadband coverage in Tanzania. The results reveal that being covered by 3G networks has a large positive effect on total household consumption and poverty reduction, driven by positive impacts on labor market outcomes. Working age individuals living in areas covered by mobile internet witnessed an increase in labor force participation, wage employment, and non-farm self-employment, and a decline in farm employment. These effects vary by age, gender and skill level. Younger and more skilled men benefit the most through higher labor force participation and wage employment, while high-skilled women benefit from transitions from self-employed farm work into non-farm employment.
    Keywords: Information Technology,Telecommunications Infrastructure,Inequality,Employment and Unemployment,Wages, Compensation&Benefits
    Date: 2021–08–17
  9. By: Flores,Fernanda Martínez; Milusheva,Svetoslava Petkova; Reichert,Arndt Rudiger
    Abstract: Migration is one of the channels West African populations can use to adjust to the negative impacts of climate change. Using novel geo-referenced and high- frequency data, this study investigates the extent to which soil moisture anomalies drive international migration decisions within the region and toward Europe. The findings show that drier soil conditions decrease (rather than increase) the probability to migrate. A standard deviation decrease in soil moisture leads to a 2 percentage point drop in the probability to migrate, equivalent to a 25 percent decrease in the number of migrants. This effect is concentrated during the crop-growing season and likely driven by financial constraints. The effect is only seen for areas that are in the middle of the income distribution, with no impact on the poorest or richest areas of a country, suggesting that the former were constrained to start and the latter can address those financial constraints.
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems,Climate Change and Agriculture,Natural Disasters,Inequality,Climate Change and Environment,Climate Change and Health,Science of Climate Change,Food Security
    Date: 2021–05–17
  10. By: Ngoma,Hambulo,Finn,Arden Jeremy,Kabisa,Mulako
    Abstract: To what extent do the behavioral choices of Zambian smallholder farmers influence the negative effects of climate shocks, and what impact do these choices have on vulnerability and resilience? This paper uses nationally representative, three-wave household-level panel data to investigate these questions. The empirical estimation employs an instrumental variable probit regression model, which also controls for the endogeneity of key choice variables. There are four main empirical findings. First, droughts are the most prevalent climate shock rural smallholder farmers in Zambia face, but the extent of exposure differs spatially, with the Southern and Western Provinces being the hardest hit. Nationally, about three-quarters of all smallholder farmers are vulnerable and only about one-quarter are resilient. Second, increased climate shocks correlate with both increased vulnerability and reduced resilience, with short- and long-term deviations in seasonal rainfall worsening vulnerability and resilience. Third, higher asset endowments and education level of the household head reduce vulnerability and increase resilience among smallholder farmers. Female-headed households are more vulnerable and less resilient, on average. Fourth, the use of climate-smart agricultural practices—namely, minimum tillage and use of inorganic fertilizers or hybrid maize seed—significantly improves household resilience in the short term. The paper draws two main policy implications from the findings. First, the results point to an urgent need to invest in research and development for climate shock–tolerant crop varieties and in broader climate-smart agricultural technologies to scale out and scale up context-specific practices through innovative digital platforms. Second, more investment is needed in risk mitigation strategies such as weather indexed insurance, targeted social cash transfers and how to make these work effectively for smallholder farmers. Other important complementary elements include investment in innovative digital platforms that can facilitate timely delivery of climate information services and facilitating asset accumulation and education that can enable farmers to improve climate shock resilience over time.
    Keywords: Inequality,Natural Disasters,Food Security,Poverty Assessment,Poverty Impact Evaluation,Poverty Lines,Poverty Monitoring&Analysis,Small Area Estimation Poverty Mapping,Poverty Diagnostics
    Date: 2021–08–24
  11. By: Paul,Saumik; Raju,Dhushyanth
    Abstract: The movement of workers from the farm sector to a more productive nonfarm sector has failed to generate significant gains in labor productivity in recent decades in many developing countries. This paper offers a new perspective on the barriers to growth-enhancing structural transformation, combining structural modeling with enterprise census data from Ghana. The paper argues that subnational differences in the intersectoral productivity gap between the nonfarm informal and formal sectors constrain the productivity gain from structural transformation. In Ghana, intersectoral productivity gaps among the richer regions are on average three times larger than among the poorer regions. The disparity in regional intersectoral productivity gaps is modeled as reflecting the disparity in the regional misallocation of labor between the informal and formal sectors. Misallocation is identified as the output wedge between the informal and formal sectors. Simulations suggest that a more productive nonfarm informal sector reduces the disparity in regional intersectoral productivity gaps and, in turn, increases national productivity and the contribution of structural transformation to national productivity. For example, a 90-percent reduction in the disparity in regional intersectoral productivity gaps raises Ghana’s national aggregate productivity by 11.9 percent and the contribution of structural transformation to productivity by 19.7 percent.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Food Security,Employment and Unemployment,International Trade and Trade Rules
    Date: 2021–06–01
  12. By: Abbasi ,Mansoureh; Lebrand,Mathilde Sylvie Maria; Mongoue,Arcady Bluette; Pongou,Roland; Zhang,Fan
    Abstract: Evidence for road expansion and electrification as drivers of job creation is limited andmixed, with most studies having considered either one or the other, and only in isolation. This paper estimates theaverage and heterogeneous impacts of road and electricity investments and the interaction of the two on job creationover the past two decades in 27 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Exploiting the exogenous location of ancestralethnic homelands, a new instrumental variable is created for road accessibility, inspired by post-independenceleaders' agenda of building roads to extend authority over the entire expanse of their country, and to promotenation building. Topography and lightning strikes—a key source of damage to electric lines and disruption ofservice—are used to instrument electricity supply. The paper finds positive and significant effects on employment fromenhancing proximity to roads and to electric grids. Moreover, the interaction of the two enhances the effects,making them complementary investments. The impacts of both individual and bundled investments are positive, but withdifferences between men and women, workers of various ages, and countries at different stages of development. In urbanareas, better access to roads and electricity promotes all types of employment. In rural areas, greater access inducesa transition from low- to high-skilled occupations. These differential effects suggest that the structuraltransformation brought about by road and electricity expansion is primarily a rural phenomenon.
    Date: 2022–03–21
  13. By: Caroline Krafft (St. Catherine University); Diana Jimena Arango (World Bank Group); Amalia Hadas Rubin (International Republican Institute); Jocelyn Kelly (Harvard Humanitarian Initiative)
    Abstract: Child marriage has lasting negative health, human capital, and welfare consequences. Conflict settings are characterized by a number of complex changes that can potentially increase the risk of child marriage, but there has been limited population-based research directly estimating the relationship between conflict and child marriage. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 19 conflict-affected countries, this paper estimates the relationship between conflict and child marriage. It identifies the relationship based on variation over space and time in conflict intensity. The findings are mixed; in some countries conflict is associated with an increase in child marriage, in others it is associated with a decrease in child marriage, and in some cases there is not a statistically significant relationship. This overall pattern is robust to a variety of approaches to measuring conflict. These findings underscore how efforts to reduce child marriage need to consider conflict as a potential risk factor, but also one that is likely to interact with local economic, social, and demographic environments.
    Keywords: Conflict; Child marriage; Humanitarian settings; Gender-based violence
    JEL: D74 J12 J13 J16
    Date: 2022–08
  14. By: Markhof,Yannick Valentin; Ponzini,Giulia; Wollburg,Philip Randolph
    Abstract: Every year, disasters account for billions of dollars in crop production losses in low- andmiddle-income countries and particularly threaten the lives and livelihoods of those depending on agriculture. Withclimate change accelerating, this burden will likely increase in the future and accurate, micro-level measurementof crop losses will be important to understand disasters’ implications for livelihoods, prevent humanitarian crises,and build future resilience. Survey data present a large, rich, highly disaggregated information source that istrialed and tested to the specifications of smallholder agriculture common in low- and middle-income countries.However, to tap into this potential, a thorough understanding of and robust methodology for measuringdisaster crop production losses in survey microdata is essential. This paper exploits plot-level panel data foralmost 20,000 plots on 8,000 farms in three Sub-Saharan African countries with information on harvest, input use,and different proxies of losses; household and community-level data; as well data from other sources suchas crop cutting and survey experiments, to provide new insights into the reliability of survey-based crop lossestimates and their attribution to disasters. The paper concludes with concrete recommendations for methodology andsurvey design and identifies key avenues for further research.
    Date: 2022–03–14
  15. By: Alder,Simon; Croke,Kevin; Duhaut,Alice; Marty,Robert Andrew; Vaisey,Ariana Brynn
    Abstract: This paper studies the impacts of the large-scale Road Sector Development Program in Ethiopiabetween 1997 and 2016 on local economic activity and land cover (urbanization and cropland). It exploits spatial andtemporal variation in road upgrades across Ethiopia, together with high-resolution panel data derived fromsatellite imagery. The findings show that road upgrades contributed to increases in local economic activity, asproxied by nighttime lights and urban land area. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the results acrossbaseline levels of economic activity. Specifically, gains from road upgrades are concentrated in areas withmoderate-to-high initial levels of economic activity. By contrast, there was little, or even negative, growth inareas with low levels of initial economic activity. Finally, the findings show that road upgrades contributed to areduction in cropland in areas with medium-to-high baseline nighttime lights. The results suggest that Ethiopia'sambitious road infrastructure development program overall increased local economic activity and urbanization, but thatit also had important distributional implications that need to be taken into account when planning such infrastructure programs.
    Date: 2022–04–06
  16. By: Yacoubou Djima,Ismael; Kilic,Talip
    Abstract: An accurate understanding of how input use affects agricultural productivity in smallholderfarming systems is key to designing policies that can improve productivity, food security, and living standards inrural areas. Studies examining the relationships between agricultural productivity and inputs typically rely on landproductivity measures, such as crop yields, that are informed by self-reported survey data on crop production.This paper leverages unique survey data from Mali to demonstrate that self-reported crop yields, vis-à-vis(objective) crop cut yields, are subject to non-classical measurement error that in turn biases the estimatesof returns to inputs, including land, labor, fertilizer, andseeds. The analysis validates an alternative approach to estimate the relationship between crop yields andagricultural inputs using large-scale surveys, namely a within-survey imputation exercise that derives predicted,otherwise unobserved, objective crop yields that stem from a machine learning model that is estimated with a randomsubsample of plots for which crop cutting and self-reported yields are both available. Using data from a methodologicalsurvey experiment and a nationally representative survey conducted in Mali, the analysis demonstrates that it ispossible to obtain predicted objective sorghum yields with attenuated non-classical measurement error, resulting in aless biased assessment of the relationship between yields and agricultural inputs. The discussion expands on theimplications of the findings for (i) future research on agricultural intensification, and (ii) the design of futuresurveys in which objective data collection could be limited to a subsample to save costs, with the intention to applythe suggested machine learning approach.
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems,Climate Change and Agriculture,Food Security,Gender and Development,Labor & Employment Law,Agricultural Economics
    Date: 2021–11–05
  17. By: Isha Gupta (University of Padova)
    Abstract: This study examines the role of historically defined social identity in human capital development over time by focusing on a region from India where social identities are defined along the lines of castes and religious groups. It investigates the evolution of gaps across social groups in children’s cognitive outcomes and parental investment in children’s education from ages 5 to 15. Significant gaps in test scores and parental investment are found between children from lower and upper Hindu castes. These gaps, which originate early in childhood and persist throughout the 10 years of the study period, cannot be completely explained by the differences in socioeconomic status across social groups. Moreover, the perception of social discrimination is also found to be a significant contributor to the gaps in cognitive outcomes and parental investment across social groups. While parents’ perceived social discrimination is associated with lower parental investment throughout childhood, it is negatively associated with children’s cognitive outcomes only at later ages.
    Keywords: child development, parental investment, human capital formation, social identity, caste, perceived social discrimination, India.
    JEL: I24 J15 J24
    Date: 2022–10
  18. By: Sinha Roy,Sutirtha; Van Der Weide,Roy
    Abstract: The last expenditure survey released by India’s National Sample Survey organization dates back to2011, which is when India last released official estimates of poverty and inequality. This paper sheds light on howpoverty and inequality have evolved since 2011 using a new household panel survey, the Consumer Pyramids HouseholdSurvey conducted by a private data company. The results show that: (1) extreme poverty is 12.3 percentage points lower in2019 than in 2011, with greater poverty reductions in rural areas; (2) urban poverty rose by 2 percentage points in 2016(coinciding with the demonetization event) and rural poverty reduction stalled by 2019 (coinciding with a slowdown in theeconomy); (3) poverty is estimated to be considerably higher than earlier projections based on consumption growthobserved in national accounts; and (4) consumption inequality in India has moderated since 2011.
    Date: 2022–04–05
  19. By: Dimova, Ralitza (University of Manchester); Abou, Edouard Pokou (Jean Lorougnon Guede University); Basu, Arnab K. (Cornell University); Viennet, Romane (OECD)
    Abstract: Is the impact of women's bargaining power on the welfare of the household always positive? We address this question by developing a novel experimental measure of bargaining power over family expenditures in Ivory Coast and studying its determinants. We find that men prioritise food expenditures, women prioritise the transfers to parents and the two of them show similar revealed preferences with respect to educational expenditures. The bargaining power of the woman over the three categories of expenditures of interest is correlated with the education of the wife, the income of the husband and the bride price. The results contribute to the debate on the superior concern of the woman about child welfare and could have interesting policy implications.
    Keywords: bargaining power, public goods games, revealed preferences, Côte d'Ivoire
    JEL: C93 J43 O55
    Date: 2022–09
  20. By: Mensah,Justice Tei; Hirfrfot,Kibrom Tafere; Abay,Kibrom A.
    Abstract: Digital technologies can expand access to health services to underserved populations. Thispaper leverages mobile network expansion and survey data spanning two decades to study the impact of access to mobilephones on infant mortality in Africa. Using plausibly exogenous variations in lightning intensity and(sub)regional convergence in mobile penetration as instrumental variables for mobile network expansion, theanalysis finds that mobile phones significantly reduce infant mortality. A 10 percentage point increase in mobilecoverage is associated with a 0.45 percentage point reduction in infant mortality. Improvements in healthknowledge and behavior and health care utilization appear to be plausible channels.
    Date: 2022–03–21
  21. By: Admasu,Yeshwas; Alkire,Sabina; Ekhator-Mobayode,Uche Eseosa; Kovesdi,Fanni; Santamaria,Julieth; Scharlin-Pettee[,Sophie
    Abstract: Despite the many simultaneous deprivations faced by forcibly displaced communities, suchas food insecurity, inadequate housing, or lack of access to education, there is little research on the level andcomposition of multidimensional poverty among them, and how it might differ from that of host communities. Relying onhousehold survey data from selected areas of Ethiopia, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan, this paperproposes a Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) that captures the overlapping deprivations experienced by poorindividuals in contexts of displacement. Using the MPI, the paper presents multi-country descriptive analysis to explorethe relationships between multidimensional poverty, displacement status, and gender of the household head. Theresults reveal significant differences across displaced and host communities in all countries except Nigeria. InEthiopia, South Sudan, and Sudan, female-headed households have higher MPIs, while in Somalia, those living inmale-headed households are more likely to be identified as multidimensionally poor. Lastly, the paper examinesmismatches and overlaps in the identification of the poor by the MPI and the $1.90/day poverty line, confirming the needfor complementary measures when assessing deprivations among people in contexts of displacement.
    Keywords: Inequality,Poverty Assessment,Small Area Estimation Poverty Mapping,Poverty Diagnostics,Poverty Impact Evaluation,Poverty Lines,Poverty Monitoring & Analysis,Gender and Economic Policy,Gender and Economics,Gender and Poverty,Economics and Gender,Gender and Development
    Date: 2021–10–28

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